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C40 Large Cities – Climate

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 14, 2009

C40 Climate Summit

C40_Cities

SEOUL Declaration 18-21 May 2009

Source: http://www.c40cities.org/

Having met at the third Summit of the C40 Climate Leadership Group (hereinafter “Group”) in Seoul,

Sharing the view that the earth and human beings are facing serious threats caused by climate change and that it is necessary to address these challenges by taking immediate and collective actions based on the principles of co-existence, mutual benefit, and common but differentiated responsibilities.

Recognising that at present over 50% of the world’s population lives in cities, which now account for 75% of global energy consumption and 80% of global greenhouse gas emissions and at this rate, by 2030, two thirds of the world’s population is predicted to live in urban areas,

Further recognising that densely populated cities and their citizens are facing fundamental lifestyle changes in the areas of housing, transportation, and other services, and, at the same time, are exposed to numerous threats, including extreme weather events, natural disasters and newly emerging diseases,

Reaffirming that cities must take responsibility for their contribution to climate change, and establish and implement immediate and practical measures for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the threats caused by climate change at the individual city level,

Further reaffirming that it is important for C40 cities to cooperate with all cities around the world and share best practice and technologies, and that cities in developed countries need to assist the efforts of cities in developing countries in taking actions as they are more vulnerable to climate change and have lower capacity to cope with environmental hazards,

Proclaim that:

C40 cities hereby set a common goal of transforming themselves into low-carbon cities, by cutting greenhouse gas emissions to the largest extent possible, by adapting themselves to the unavoidable climate change consequences, by making cities less vulnerable to climate change, and by enhancing cities’ capacity for remediation.

C40 cities identify their current level of carbon emissions from all city operations and stages of community development including urban planning, design and infrastructure building. Cities reduce emissions wherever possible through policies, programmes and projects and taking steps to negate the impact of remaining emissions.

C40 cities continue to catalogue and monitor their greenhouse gas emissions and implement Climate Change Action Plans. C40 cities include measures or targets for greenhouse gas reductions and specific policies, projects and programmes with a schedule for implementation wherever possible. The majority of C40 cities have already completed Climate Change Action Plans. C40 cities that are reviewing existing plans or developing new Climate Change Action Plans are asked to consider the measures presented in the attached Annex: Policies and Measures to Address Climate Change. The 2011 C40 Summit will include a review of progress on the implementation of Climate Change Action Plans.

C40 cities actively work together to accelerate delivery of low-carbon technologies, programmes and financing, including through active coordination in procurement of specific technologies through the C40 Secretariat.

C40 cities work collaboratively with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and other international bodies, national governments, non-governmental organisations, and eco-friendly businesses, including sharing goals and experiences and, in some instances, engaging in joint projects, and providing resources. We are committed to delivering common awareness and measures outlined in the UNFCCC to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and tackle climate change

In the run up to the COP15 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, the leading role of cities in the global effort against climate change must be recognised. C40 cities and all cities with shared goals, must be engaged, empowered and resourced, so that cities can work together to deliver on greenhouse gas reduction targets and stop climate change.

Cities will notify the C40 Secretariat of the names of staff in charge of climate change policies and programmes to enhance implementation of various action items set forth in this Declaration, as well as report on their established measures, targets and achievements at the 4th C40 Summit and subsequent summits

The C40 Climate Leadership Group calls upon cities and their citizens to exert their efforts to address the threats caused by climate change for the benefit of all the people and future generations.

Annex Policies and Measures to Address Climate Change in Cities

To tackle climate change, cities shall adopt and implement policies and measures most suitable to their circumstances. It is important that C40 cities cooperate with all cities around the world and share best practices and technologies. The Clinton Climate Initiative has developed a Measurement Tool that each C40 city can use to calculate a baseline inventory of current emissions. The tool will also allow cities to track progress on their climate change goals.

In establishing their own Climate Change Action Plans, cities will give preferential consideration to the following measures proven to be effective in many cities.

  1. To take a systematic and secure approach, take institutional measures such as enacting city ordinances based on technical studies, engaging in long-term planning, and establishing Climate Change Funds.

  2. To avoid, mitigate, or delay the impact of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions:

      • adopt eco-friendly architectural design guidelines for construction, lighting, and insulation, etc., introduce a new and renewable energy certification, prescribed ratio of new and renewable energy for new and renovated buildings, and promote eco-friendly buildings and rationalise energy consumption by providing incentives for energy-efficient designs;

      • establish a sustainable transport system through policies that favour public transit and encourage the use of bicycles, promote sustainable land-use and urban design, including preserving natural landscape, continuous expansion of green areas and other eco-spaces and conduct urban planning with focus on low-energy consumption;

      • expand citywide resource reclamation and reuse facilities and promote recycling programmes, and

      • raise the share of new and renewable energy in the total energy mix.

  1. To adapt cities to the unavoidable climate change consequences, providing citizens with a secure environment and higher quality of life by conducting forecasting analysis and thus minimising the damages caused by climate change:
      • prepare for disasters by building infrastructure and establishing management plans that will protect citizens against extreme weather events;

      • ensure networks such as disaster information systems and weather observation facilities are in place ;

      • prepare measures to protect population groups most vulnerable to intense heat waves and improve the monitoring and control systems for communicable and other diseases;

      • strengthen ability to anticipate changes in the urban eco-system, improve monitoring of air and other types of pollution, and enhance early warning systems;

      • improve energy demand management, such as ability to forecast and respond to fluctuations in seasonal energy demands;

      • reflect climate change impacts, such as heat island effects, in the urban planning process; and

        improve water resource management.

  1. To promote the engagement of city residents to address climate change effectively:
      • provide tools for measuring individual carbon footprints and the amount of emission generated by normal, daily activities of citizens;

      • develop and promote practical ways for a low-carbon lifestyle,

      • support activities of civic organisations to tackle climate change.

      • Promote environmental educational policies to prepare next generations for climate change and to think on what citizens can do to develop a sustainable lifestyle and mitigate greenhouse gas emission

  • ________________________________________________________

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – view on map

Leader: Mayor Kuma Demeksa
Population: 3,146,999
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.addisababacity.gov.et

Athens, Greece – view on map

Leader: Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis
Population: 3,072,992
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cityofathens.gr

Bangkok, Thailand – view on map

Leader: Governor Apirak Kosayodhin
Population: 8,160,552
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.bangkoktourist.com

Beijing, China – view on map

Leader: Mayor Guo Jinlong
Population: 15,380,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn

Berlin, Germany – view on map

Leader: Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit
Population: 3,387,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.berlin.de/english

Bogotá, Colombia – view on map

Leader: Alcalde Mayor de Bogotá Samuel Mareno
Population: 8,550,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.bogotaturismo.gov.co

Buenos Aires, Argentina – view on map

Leader: Mayor Mauricio Macri
Population: 3,034,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.buenosaires.gov.ar

Cairo, Egypt – view on map

Leader: Governor Abdel Azim Wazir
Population: 6,800,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cairo.gov.eg

Caracas, Venezuela – view on map

Leader: Mayor Antonio Ledezma
Population: 3,140,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.alcaldiamayor.gob.ve

Chicago, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Richard M. Daley
Population: 2,833,000
Chicago Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/home.do

Delhi NCT, India – view on map

Leader: Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit
Population: 17,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: delhigovt.nic.in

Dhaka, Bangladesh – view on map

Leader: Mayor Sadeque Hossain Khoka
Population: 6,700,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.dhakacity.org

Hanoi, Vietnam – view on map

Leader: Chairman of the Hanoi Municipal People’s Committee Nguyen The Thao
Population: 3,399,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.hanoi.gov.vn/hanoien

Houston, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Bill White
Population: 2,200,000
Houston Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.houstontx.gov

Hong Kong, China – view on map

Leader: Chief Executive Donald Tsang
Population: 6,985,000
Hong Kong Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.gov.hk

Istanbul, Turkey – view on map

Leader: Mayor Kadir Topbas
Population: 11,373,000
City status: Participating city
Website: english.istanbul.gov.tr

Jakarta, Indonesia – view on map

Leader: Governor Fauzi Bowo
Population: 8,389,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.jakarta.go.id/v21/home/default.asp?lg=2

Johannesburg, South Africa – view on map

Leader: Mayor Amos Masondo
Population: 3,888,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.joburg.org.za

Karachi, Pakistan – view on map

Leader: Nazim Syed Mustafa Kamal
Population: 16,500,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.karachicity.gov.pk

Lagos, Nigeria – view on map

Leader: Governor of Lagos State Babatunde Raji Fashola
Population: 7,938,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.lagosstate.gov.ng

Lima, Peru – view on map

Leader: Mayor of Metropolitan Lima Luís Castañeda Lossio

Population: 7,800,000

City status: Participating cityWebsite: http://www.munlima.gob.pe

London, United Kingdom – view on map

Leader: Mayor Boris Johnson
Population: 7,500,000
London Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.london.gov.uk

Los Angeles, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa
Population: 3,800,000
Los Angeles Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.ci.la.ca.us

Madrid, Spain – view on map

Leader: Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón
Population: 3,200,000
Madrid Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.munimadrid.es

Melbourne, Australia – view on map

Leader: Lord Mayor Robert Doyle
Population: 3,800,000
Melbourne Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au

Mexico City, Mexico – view on map

Leader: Mayor Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon
Population: 8,700,000
Mexico City Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.df.gob.mx/

Moscow, Russia – view on map

Leader: Mayor Yuri Mikhailovich Luzhkov
Population: 10,300,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.mos.ru/

Mumbai, India – view on map

Leader: Mayor Shubha Raul
Population: 13,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.mcgm.gov.in/

New York, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Population: 8,200,000
New York Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.nyc.gov

Paris, France – view on map

Leader: Mayor Bertrand Delanoë
Population: 2,200,000
Paris Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.paris.fr

Philadelphia, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Michael Nutter
Population: 5,800,000
Philadelphia Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.phila.gov

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – view on map

Leader: Prefeito Eduardo Paes
Population: 6,100,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.rio.rj.gov.br

Rome, Italy – view on map

Leader: Mayor Gianni Alemanno
Population: 4,000,000
Rome Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.comune.roma.it

Sao Paulo, Brazil – view on map

Leader: Mayor Gilberto Kassab
Population: 10,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.capital.sp.gov.br

Seoul, South Korea – view on map

Leader: Mayor Oh Se-hoon
Population: 10,300,000
City status: Participating city
Website: english.seoul.go.kr

Shanghai, China – view on map

Leader: Mayor Han Zheng
Population: 18,450,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.shanghai.gov.cn/shanghai/node8059/index.html

Sydney, Australia – view on map

Leader: Lord Mayor Clover More
Population: 4,280,000
Sydney Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au

Tokyo, Japan – view on map

Leader: Governor Shintaro Ishihara
Population: 12,800,000
Tokyo Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/

Toronto, Canada – view on map

Leader: Mayor David Miller
Population: 5,500,000
Toronto Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.toronto.ca

Warsaw, Poland – view on map

Leader: Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz Waltz
Population: 3,350,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.e-warsaw.pl

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Top 11 Underground Transit Systems Of The World

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 3, 2008

 

When you’re traveling around the world, it’s good to know that there are public transit systems available to help you get where you want to go. Underground subway systems offer the convenience of getting where you want when you want without the hassle of having to flag down a taxi or rent a car. In just about all cases, it’s the most cost effective option.

There are some beautiful, modern, and vast rapid transit systems throughout the world. The most popular and diverse international underground transit systems are listed below, but are merely a sample of the quite eye-catching transit systems that exist throughout the world.

1. London, England

The London Underground is Europe’s largest metro subway system and is the world’s oldest underground system (it was inaugurated in 1863). It covers 253 miles of track and transports 976 million people yearly. The Underground is also connected to a variety of rail services to London’s surrounding areas (including the Eurostar to Paris). Among these services is the Docklands Light Railway (DLR), a popular driverless light rail extension, which offers many scenic views of the Thames river and surrounding areas.

Highlights:

Cushioned seats. LED time displays hanging from the ceiling in stations indicate the number of minutes you need to wait before the next train. Eclectic station artwork. Oyster cards allow you to touch against a subway turnstile and go — and you can pay as you ride.

2. Paris, France

The Paris subway system is the second oldest in the world (the initial system was completed in 1900) and aids roughly 1.365 billion people with their daily commutes. Running over 133.7 miles of track and stopping at 380 stations, it has a great amount of coverage throughout the city.

Highlights:

Excellent coverage: every building in the city is within 500 meters (1600 feet) of a subway station. Many stations were designed with the distinctive unique art noveau style. Modest fares.

3. Moscow, Russia

The Moscow subway system has the biggest ridership of all metro systems throughout the world, with 3.2 billion riders annually traveling on 12 subway lines to 172 stations. In total, the Moscow Metro covers approximately 178 miles. On an average weekday, the subway itself carries about 8.2 million passengers. While most of the Moscow trains run underground, some lines cross bridges and provide scenic views of the Moskva River and the Yauza River.

 Highlights:

Ornate architecture (at least 44 of these stations are rated as architectural sights). The system has many trains that stop frequently (trains stop at stations approximately every 90 seconds during peak hours). Fastest worldwide system (120km/h or 75mph).

4. Madrid, Spain

The Madrid Metro is the second largest underground system in Europe and the sixth largest system in the world. It has 141.7 miles of track and an additional 27.5 miles are expected to be completed by the end of this year. The Madrid Metro is the densest metro network in the world.

Highlights:

Very clean and is implementing an ecologic cleaning system. Fast rides. Affordable fares. Great progress in system expansion (47 miles of new subway lines were built between 1999 and 2003). Modern stations.

5. Tokyo, Japan

The Tokyo subway system carries approximately 2.8 billion people per year to 282 subway stations. In addition to underground subways, the Tokyo transit system consists of the Toden Arakawa light rail line and the Ueno Zoo Monorail.

Highlights:

Extremely clean. Trains are on time. The seats are heated. Trains always stop in the same place alongside markers. Subway stops are announced in both Japanese and English. Modern system. The system has underground malls and customer amenities.

6. Seoul, Korea

The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is one of the most heavily used subway systems in the world with more than 8 million daily trips. It is also one of the biggest subway stations worldwide, running 179.4 miles in length. The trains mostly run underground, but 30% of the system is above ground.

Highlights:

Beautiful architecture. Growth of the system has been incredible over the past few years. Utilizes T-money, a prepaid transportation card for transport throughout the city.

7. New York City, USA

The New York City rapid transit system is one of the most extensive public transit systems worldwide. It has grown from 28 stations when it was founded in October of 1904 to 462 stations presently. The subway carries 4.9 million people daily.

Highlights:

Offers express services that run on separate tracks from local trains. The MTA is currently testing out LED displays in subway stations to let commuters know when the next train is expected to arrive. 24 hour service. Unique and distinct artwork (mosaics) throughout the system.

8. Montreal, Canada

The Montreal Metro is a modern system that was inaugurated in 1966. It is a small (37.8 miles reaching 65 stations on four lines) yet unique and modern system that was inspired by the Paris Metro.

Highlights:

Diverse, beautiful architecture and unique station art (each station is designed by a different architect). Pleasant riding experience (smooth rides: the trains run on a rubber surface to reduce the screech of train cars).  Trains are frequent and fairly comfortable.

9.  Beijing, China

The Beijing Subway is a relatively new subway system that opened in 1969 and serves Beijing and the surrounding suburbs. It is currently being expanded upon in a 7.69 billion USD (63.8 billion yuan) project to prepare for the 2008 Olympic Games. The expansion project is expected to bring the current length of the subway station from approximately 71 miles to nearly 300 miles.

Highlights:

Fairly easy subway to navigate (especially if you’re a foreigner). Cheap fare (3 yen for most trips). Interesting architecture on the newer subway lines. A very ambitious expansion project is in the works.

10. Hong Kong

The Hong Kong subway, also known as the Mass Transit Railway (which translates to “underground railway” in English), was established in 1979. Despite its relatively small size compared (56 miles) to other transit systems, the MTR transports an average of 2.46 million rides per day. The Hong Kong system is based on a British design.

Highlights:

Efficient. Frequent service, High-capacity cars. Extremely affordable. Clean and modern system with air-conditioned cars. Uses the Octopus contactless smart card for subway currency, allowing travelers to swipe their card near the turnstile for easy access to train platforms.

11. Sao Paulo, Brazil

The Sao Paulo Metro is the first underground transit system in Brazil. It works alongside a larger company called the Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM) and together they cover 187 miles of track and transport approximately 3.7 million people daily.

Highlights:

Known as one of the cleanest and safest systems in the world. Affordable fare.

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