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Posts Tagged ‘Water’

Climate Change Might Turn Ethiopia Into A Food-Exporting Nation

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 14, 2016

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Climate change is expected to wreak all kinds of havoc on future weather systems, with experts predicting greater and more frequent storms, hurricanes, droughts and floods. But even the darkest clouds have some silver lining, and a new study closely examining its effects on Ethiopia’s Blue Nile Basin has uncovered exactly that in the form of projected increases in rainfall, which could spur greater crop yields and large-scale hydro-power projects in the region.

The idea that climate change could bring more water to the region is actually not a new one. Earlier studies that used temperature and precipitation from climate modeling have predicted that the phenomenon could boost Ethiopia’s water availability by 10 percent, but according to researchers at Virginia Tech, this was leaving out some vital information.

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In what it describes as a first-of-its-kind study, the team combined hydrologic models with bias-corrected and downscaled data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to form a more complete picture of water flow at two key headwater basins in the Blue Nile Basin, which feeds as much as 66 percent of the Nile River flowing through Sudan and into Egypt.

It then looked at the predicted impact of climate change on the region over two particular time periods, 2041-2065 and 2075-2099. It says the analysis indicates that the two basins will experience increases in mean annual water flow of 22 to 27 percent, and that monsoon season will be extended by four to six weeks, potentially making growing seasons longer and perhaps allowing for two cycles of crops to be grown per year.

“It’s interesting, because much of the Blue Nile Basin is well above 5,000 ft (1,524 m) in elevation, giving it pretty much an ideal climate for agriculture with low humidity, low disease and pest pressure, and potentially great water availability, which could spur development,” said Zach Easton, associate professor of biological systems engineering at Virginia Tech.

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But don’t go firing up your six-liter V8 for the sake of Ethiopia’s prosperity just yet. The study was also the first to look at the problem of sediment transport, which is a particular concern in the Blue Nile Basin where some of the world’s highest erosion rates have been measured. The increase in water flow sounds like a good thing, but would also bring with it more sediment that could reduce the capacity and efficiency of dams, reservoirs and hydro-power projects.

“Greater water availability is certainly a positive outcome, but this is countered by more sediment,” says Easton. “One way to combat that is through installing conservation practices on farms, for instance using cover crops and low- and no-till planting methods to make the soil healthier, more stable, and reduce erosion.”

The research was published in the journal Climatic Change.

Source

Where Our Food Comes From

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia, Infos | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »

Water = Live ፤ ውሃ = ህይወት

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on September 7, 2015

I found the following two interesting thoughts / stories in my mailbox…

WaterLifeBefore I get in to this, I am not saying this is what I believe! This is something I’ve been thinking about for awhile. Im just looking for your thoughts and opinions. That and to provoke some thought outside of all the DOOM on here. So here goes.

Water is the most abundant molecule in the universe and it is also the most abundant solid substance in space. Water molecules are everywhere. Water is the life-giver in our physical world. By definition God is the Life-giver. Water exists in three forms gas, liquid, and solid. God is described as the Father, The Son and The Holy Spirit. Water is the only substance on this earth that can exist in three forms simultaneously. So think of the Father as being equivalent to water vapor. It is everywhere but remains unseen. Both rain and ice are created from this invisible form of water. God the father, is also everywhere and remains unseen. God created the Son and Spirit? Jesus, the son would be compared to ice. Which would be the solid form of water. Jesus, whom spent time on earth and was seen by many. He was referred to as the Rock, something solid.

Now, The Holy Spirit would be equal to water. The Holy Spirit is said to live in all living creatures. The Holy Spirit is sent from the Heaven to do His work on earth. Water is sent from the clouds to rain down on the earth. To cleanse and to nourish. The Holy Spirit is used to baptize and wash our souls while water is used to wash our bodies. To cleanse or to make new.

Water is the only substance to expand when it gets colder which in turn makes it float, Rise up. If ice did not float life would not be possible, at least as life appears today. So the Bible says that Jesus rose from his tomb so we could have eternal life, spiritual life! Ice also preserves or saves things. In Jesus Christ, we are saved from our sin.

Water that is evaporated, also rises. Water on earth is full of dirt and debris. As it rises it is freed of the things that bog it down or that makes it un pure. As it is said we also would be freed from our earthly restraints, dirt. As we rise into the heavens to be with God.

In GE 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. Here it almost sounds like that there was only water to begin with. Here at least it doesn’t say God created water. at least during the 6 days. So is water God?

There many who believe that water has memory. Masaru Emoto was a Japanese author and entrepreneur, who claimed that human consciousness has an effect on the molecular structure of water. Emoto’s early work explored his theory that water could react to positive thoughts and words, and that polluted water could be cleaned through prayer and positive visualization. This can be looked up on youtube, “water has memory”. Very Interesting on its own.

That being said, think of the oceans and the sea as a big memory bank where all the information of the world is stored and processed. Where every thought, image, and the blue print to everything ever in existence is keep. Now if this is true and God knows everything, is this how our thoughts and prayers are transported, By water vapor up to the sky to the white clouds, to God.

As babies we are around 78 to 84 percent water. This is higher than in an adult body which has 57 to 60 percent water. God said we were made in his image. As we get order and more corrupt and beat down by the world, is this the reason why we lose such a large amount of water in our bodies. It is also said that God is in every living thing. Is this by water. Humans have always wondered where our souls are located. What if our souls are made of water. When we die our bodies dry up and turn to dust. The water evaporates and everything else stays on the earth.

Demonic Manifestations At Abortion Mills Increase

ExorcismEthiopiaAlthough we’ve heard much in the news recently of the evils of Planned Parenthood and the abortion industry in general, most people rarely give a thought to that one little word―evil―and how evil acts commited in one place “collect” and “build up” over time.  But this is exactly what has been happening increasingly, causing a rip in our material existence and forcing the supernatural to become visible.

The following incidents are, I believe, a warning to humanity.  As society breaks down, as more and more are calling evil good, and good evil, we will see more of these manifestations; proving that the veil between our world and eternity is thinning.  Beware.  The war waged for men’s souls since the beginning of time is going nuclear because “the devil is come down unto you, having great wrath, knowing that he hath but a short time.”  (Revelation 12:12)

Our first account is from Patrice Dietz (SpiritDaily.com), whose habit each Wednesday is to pray before the Red River Women’s Clinic in downtown Fargo, North Dakota with other faithful pro-lifers. Abortions there usually end the lives of twenty to twenty-five babies per day.

On that day, “the usual young woman escort was stationed there as well, in her low-cut dress and neon green vest, ready to snatch the scared and often uncertain young women that come in for abortions. She had her earbuds in place and was singing cheerfully to some tune or other in an effort to drown out the Hail Marys of our Rosaries.

After a few minutes we noticed the clinic manager and several of the clinic workers walked by us, dressed in medical scrubs with covered coffee cups, ready to carry out their grisly work in the upstairs offices of the mill. Then a local priest showed up and began sprinkling us and the sidewalk and the building with Holy Water. He led us in prayer of the Rosary and the Divine Mercy chaplet, over and over, calling on the Precious Blood of Jesus to end the scourge of abortion.”

Patrice states that directly across the street from them, a woman was pacing back and forth talking on her cell phone and staring at the abortion mill. She finally turned around and walked back to her car and Patrice felt the prayers were working. But after a few more minutes of intense prayer, strange events began to happen.

The abortion clinic manager came flying out the door and stopped directly in front of the priest, who by this time was kneeling on the sidewalk. She screamed, ‘What is going on out here?’ Evidently business wasn’t all that good today. Then she aimed her cell phone at the priest, taking a close-up picture that was meant to intimidate him. He hardly looked up. This was just too much for her to take and she turned around and stormed back into the building.

In Patrice’s own words, “After a few more minutes and some frantic texting by the mill escort, a young woman on her bike showed up. She handed the escort a Starbucks coffee and proceeded to get something round and shiny out of her pocket. She held it up in front of the priest’s face and chanted something strange, stood there for a while, laughed, and got back on her bike and left. We stood there not knowing what to think and father told us that she had just tried to cast a spell on him. We resumed our prayer. Out of the corner of my eye I saw a new arrival. He got off his bike just far enough to let his feet down and begin honking a red rubber ball- horn on his bike. I remember his face well. It looked very clown-like and he had huge grin on his face and delight in his eyes. I had to laugh, he looked so ridiculous. Father also laughed, although there was nothing at all funny about it. Father said he was just trying to distract us from our prayers.

Undisturbed by all this, father’s prayers became more and more intense as he continued to call down the Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Then suddenly the lady next to me and I heard a deep growl that seemed to come out of the abortion clinic near our feet. We both looked down and said nothing, knowing what we had heard. Neither of us were afraid as we knew Our Lord was there protecting us. That day I knew that Satan cannot stand the Precious Blood!

And that day a precious baby was most likely saved! The next week, before the abortion mill opened, four priests were on each corner of the block of the Red River Abortion Clinic saying prayers of exorcism. Praise be to God!”

Our next article comes to us from courageouspriest.com. According to tradition, typical demonic responses during exorcism include foul language, references to sexual perversion, deceit, and profuse blasphemy. Similarly, prayers for exorcism outside the Northern Illinois Women’s Center abortuary in Rockford have provoked just such a reaction from pro-abortion workers and activists within.

Their revulsion for anything as holy as a Catholic priest is evident in their bizarre window displays, a few of which reportedly include a nun in a coffin, a rubber chicken hanging from a noose, and a picture of Jesus flipping the bird that says, “Even Jesus Hates You.”

The Rockford mill hates and attacks the priests outside so viciously because they, and priests and pro-life workers like them all over the country, have saved countless lives and souls.

When they first began their vigils, it was reported that the pro-life sidewalk counselors in Rockford noticed an immediate, dramatic decline in the numbers of mothers who go there for abortions, a distinct rise in the numbers of mothers who choose life outside the mill, and the correlation of these changes with the beginning of the displays of blasphemy from inside.

The response at this abortuary has been particularly virulent, but priests are praying outside them all over the country through Priests for Life, in which priests and parishes are paired with specific abortuaries.

Our last case involves Bob Cranmer’s home in Pittsburgh that used to be an abortuary. His book is called The Demon Of Brownsville Road and highlights can be found in the video below.

Millions Upon Millions Of People Are Being Possessed By Demons. Its Getting So Bad That The Vatican Is Hiring More Exorcists

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Investing in Water: The Most Profitable Investment of the 21st Century

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on September 15, 2014

OrangeWaterInvestment U Advisory Panelist and IPO expert Louis Basenese constantly monitors the world’s fastest-growing industries. Below, Louis details the fundamental forces at work driving one of today’s hottest growth opportunities…

Right now, there’s one commodity that sells at gas stations for almost twice the price of gasoline – and U.S. consumers never complain about it.

In fact, this precious resource we often take for granted is in critical shortage in more than 80 countries worldwide. And it will forever be in high demand, as every living being’s survival depends on it.

Of course, the commodity I’m talking about is water. And the effects of its shortage are of major concern…

Nearly 40% of the world’s population does not have access to clean water. And this problem is not going away anytime soon. It’s actually getting worse…

Less than 2% of the world’s water store is fresh water – to quench the thirst of 6 billion people. And according to the International Food Policy Research Institute, by 2020, an additional 2 billion people will be competing for this shrinking resource.

But the problem isn’t 14 years from now; the problem is now. Below, we’ll review why investing in water is turning out to be the most profitable investment of the 21st century. But first, let’s look at the problem…

At this moment, clean, safe water is scarce across the globe. Fortunately, several players in the private sector are working hard to solve this problem. And for investors, this industry provides perhaps the most profitable opportunities of the 21st century.

Two Catalysts: Global Warming And Population Growth

Water is the single-largest health problem in the entire world. According to SIWI.org, 90% of the 5,000 daily child deaths are related to some sort of diarrhea-related disease.

And torrid population growth is not only stressing water use, it’s causing massive pollution and depleting the largest aquifers on the planet. Unstable politics of water-poor communities, states and countries is triggering heated tensions – and in some cases, all-out wars. And global warming is drying up lakes, eroding shorelines and depleting rivers.

Consider the following:

  • Within 50 years, more than half of the global population will be living with water shortages. They will affect 4 billion people by 2050.
  • The Dead Sea has dropped more than 66 feet in the past 100 years and is now losing about 3 feet each year.
  • Lake Chad in Africa is now 1/20 the size it was 35 years ago.
  • Water-borne diseases kill one child every 8 seconds.

According to the National Academy of Sciences, Mother Earth is now the hottest it’s been for at least 400 years.

More specifically, over the last 100 years the surface temperature of the Earth has risen 1 degree Fahrenheit. And while that doesn’t sound like too much, it’s enough to wreak havoc on eco-systems, erode shorelines, dry aquifers and cause massive water shortages all over the world.

According to the IPCC, if global warming is not stopped, the earth could heat up another 3 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of this century. Time magazine points out that, “Mount Kilimanjaro has lost 75% of its ice cap” Moreover, it could completely lose ALL of its ice by 2020.

The result is less inland snow, a reduced amount of fresh river water, drying aquifers, and intense strain on any ecosystem relying on irrigation. With entire regions becoming unsuitable for crop production, both food and water will need to be transported into the water-deprived nations, dramatically hindering their ability to contribute to world GDP.

And the world’s fast-growing population isn’t helping the situation

From the beginning of time through the middle of the 1900s, the global population grew at a steady – but not alarming – rate. Now, it’s multiplying exponentially.

There are just over 6.1 billion people on the planet right now, but by 2050, census officials predict there could be as many as 9 billion people on Earth. And more demand for water simply means that the already under-supplied resource will become scarcer in the years to come.

The World Bank points out that global demand for water is doubling every 21 years. And, at present, 1 billion people on the planet don’t have access to safe water. “In Latin America alone, about 15% of the population – roughly 76 million people – lack safe water, and 116 million don’t have access to sanitation services.”

So how do we solve this water crisis?

Opportunity in Water Investing Is “Dripping” From This Shortage

The answer lies in the private sector – companies working night and day to solve the world’s water woes. The global water industry has been heating up for several decades, and the story’s certainly not new.

Many savvy investors have already recognized that investing in water stocks is simply the investment of a lifetime. Some have already locked in huge profits over the past few years. Here are just a few examples of water investment successes:

Investors who put $10,000 dollars in Consolidated Water (Nasdaq: CWCO) in 2000 banked a cool $71,061.43 by February of 2006.

Water has to be moved, as well and the lucky few who invested $10,000 in the IPO of American Commercial Lines (Nasdaq: ACLI) in the early part of 2005 would have made more than 310% by May of 2006.

And these profits are just the beginning of what could be the greatest investment of the 21st century.

Think of it this way: Bottled water sells for roughly $1.50 a liter at the gas station right now, while gasoline sells for around $3 a gallon. With 3.78 liters in a gallon, bottled water would be selling for $5.67 a gallon – almost twice the price of gasoline. And water companies don’t have to build expensive oil wells and refining plants that are toxic and environmentally unfriendly. The overall cost to bring water to market is, in many cases, lower.

In the end, investing in water stocks is a smart play all around for those seeking constant, stable returns. Global Summit Management (SGM) reports that from 2000 to 2005, water utility stocks returned 134.57%, while the S&P 500 clocked in at a mere 2.74%.

And those who invested in water stocks for a 10-year period were even happier. The stocks banked 446.01% from 1995 to 2005, versus 9.06% in the S&P.

Conclusion on Water

The world needs safe, clean drinking water and acceptable sanitation levels. Demand is outstripping supply. And several smart companies are solving the problem, which bodes well for investing in water for long-term gains.

Good investing,

Source

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Three Waves of Resource-Driven imperialism: The Battle For Water

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on May 27, 2014

ነጠብጣቦቹን ለማገናኘት……ቱሎው ኦይል በመባል የሚታወቀው እንግሊዛዊው የነዳጅ ዘይትና ጋዝ አውጪ ኩባንያ ጥቁሩን ወርቅ / የሰይጣንን ደም ከአገራችን ቅዱስ ምድር ቆፍሮ ለማውጣት ሲሠማራ: “ይህች ምድር ውኃ እንጂ ዘይት የላትም አለ።”

ለመሆኑ ቆሻሻው ዘይት ወይስ ቅዱሱ ውኃ? የቱ ይሻለናል?

የጥንታዊቷ ግሪክ የታሪክ ሊቅ፡ ሄሮዶቶስ፡ ረጅም እድሜ የሚሰጥ ቅዱስ ውኃ በኢትዮጵያ ምድር ይገኛል ሲል ጽፎ ነበር። ምናልባት ይህ አስቀንቷቸው ይሆን እኛ ኢትዮጵያውያን እንድንራብና እንድንጠማ የእድሚያችን ዘመንም በጣም እንዲያጥር የተደረገው? ሰሞኑን በኢትዮጵያ በህይወት የመቆየት እድሜ ከ45 ወደ 64 ከፍ አለ ተብሏል፡ ታዲያ መንስኤው ያላችሁን ሁሉ መተው ነው፡ ዘመናዊውን አኗኗር ምረጡ፤ በጤፍ ፈንታ ድንች ብሉ፣ በጠላ ፈንታ ቢራ፥ በውኃ ፈንታ ፋንታ ጠጡ ሊሉን ይሆን? ለነገሩ በማለትም ላይ ናቸው! ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ከሃያ ዓይነት በላይ የታሸጉ ውኃዎች ቢኖሩም በጥራት የብቃት ማረጋገጫ የወሰዱት ስምንት ብቻ ናቸው።

በአሁኒቷ ዓለማችን ወኃ ከምንም ነገር ይበልጥ ውዱ ንብረት እንደሆነ እንገነዘባለን። ታዲያ ያልተነካና ያልተበከለ ንጹህ ውኃ ከቅዱሳን ተራሮቿ ሥር የተቀበሩባት አገራችንን ከዚህ ጋር በተያያዘ ሆን ብለው ብዙም አያነሷትም። እነዚህ ነዳጅ ያወጡ ዘንድ ወደ አገራችን የሚመጡት ተቋማት እውነት ዘይትን ብቻ የምፈልጉ ይመስለናልን? ለመሆኑ በአሁኑ ጊዜ በአገራችን የሚታየው የመጠጥ ውኃ እጥረት ከምንስ ጋር የተያያዘ ይሆን? ጥማተኞቹ ከብበውናል!!

 
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Water is to the twenty-first century what oil was to the twentieth century: the commodity that determines the wealth and stability of nations.

 
People who think that the West’s interventions in Iraq, Libya and Syria are only about oil are mistaken. Broadly speaking, Western interest in the Middle East is becoming increasingly about a commodity more precious than oil, namely water.
 
According to the U.S.-based Center for Public Integrity, Western nations stand to make up to a US$1 trillion from privatizing, purifying and distributing water in a region where water often sells for far more than oil.
 
Although over two thirds of our planet is water, we face an acute shortage. This scarcity flies in the face of our natural assumptions. The problem is that 97 percent is salt water. Great for fish, not so good for humans. Of the world’s fresh water, only one percent is available for drinking, with the remaining two percent trapped in glaciers and ice.
 
Put differently: if all the water on earth was represented by an 11-litre jug, the freshwater would fill a single cup, and we can only access the last drop.
 
Nature has decreed that the supply of water is fixed; all the while, demand is rising as the world’s population increases and enriches itself. By 2030, climate change, population growth, pollution and urbanization will compound, such that the demand for water globally is estimated to outstrip supply by forty percent.
 
Increasingly, for water to be useful, it needs to be mined, processed, packaged, and transported, just like gold, coal, gas or oil. Unlike oil, there are no substitutes, alternatives or stopgaps for water.
 
There have been three waves of resource-driven imperialism in the modern era.
  • A quest for gold

  • Thirst for oil

  • The Battle For Water

A quest for gold fueled the first wave. Old-fashioned colonialists, regal and unembarrassed, rode in on horseback, brutally took control of American territories, sent in ostrich-plumed governors, minted coins with the Queen’s head on them, and gazed proudly over natives toiling away in perilous mine-shafts. An unprecedented kidnapping of millions of Africans ensued, so as to replace the indigenous Americans that had initially been exterminated by their European conquerors. This coincided with white pioneers brutally conquering Southern Africa, also in search of gold.
 
The second wave of imperialism has been driven by an unquenchable, post-industrial thirst for oil.
 
Modern petro-imperialism, the key aspect of which is the U.S. military’s transformation into a global oil-protection armed force, puts up a democratic facade, emphasizes freedom of the seas (or pipeline routes), and seeks to secure, protect, drill, and ship oil, not to administer everyday affairs. Nevertheless, the means by which the U.S. is centering its foreign policy around oil is hardly new in spirit, albeit unprecedented in scope.
 
The third wave of imperialist wars is currently being fought over nature’s most valuable commodity: water.
 
Prior to the invasion of Iraq in 2003, CIA analysts reported on a prediction of a new theater of war: hydrological warfare, “in which rivers, lakes and aquifers become national security assets to be fought over, or controlled”. These predictions became realized in quick succession, beginning with the recent wars in Iraq, Libya and Syria. It is now clear that the age of hydro-imperialism is upon us.
 
On April 17, 2003, in Iraq, the American company Bechtel received a no-bid reconstruction contract from U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for US$100 billion; thus, making it the largest Iraq reconstruction contract. Therefore, the most lucrative Iraq reconstruction contract was not used to repair oil facilities, build schools and hospitals, or to repair bombarded infrastructure: it was used to source, process, and distribute water.
 
The secretive, opaque and no-bid nature of the water contract award process is made even worse by one incredible fact. Bechtel has botched many of its previous projects.
 
In California, Bechtel installed one of the nuclear power plant reactors backwards. In Boston, what promised to be a US$2.5 billion job for an infamous “Big Dig” project became the most expensive in U.S. history costing US$14.6 billion. The tunnel project was plagued by charges of poor execution, corruption, criminal arrests, and even four deaths.
 
In Bolivia, Bechtel`s record is one of privatizing water by inflating prices by 35 percent. The inflation caused public riots, in which several people died. Bechtel was ousted from the country and tried to sue the Bolivian government for canceling their contract.
 
Since the turn of the century, Iraq was the first casualty of hydro-imperialism, and Colonel Gaddafi’s assassination marked the second. Libya sits atop a natural resource more valuable than oil: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer, which is a vast underground reserve of fresh water, estimated to be the largest in the world. Mr. Gaddafi had invested $25 billion into the aquifer, which had the potential to turn a country that is 95 percent desert into an arable oasis. As it now stands, France’s global mega-water companies: Suez, Ondeo, and Saur, control almost half of the world’s $400 billion water market. They are poised to rake in billions of dollars from Libya’s eighth wonder of the world.
 
Mr. Gaddafi had intended the scheme to be designed by Libyans, constructed by Libyans, for the benefit of the Libyan population. Now it is being redesigned by Frenchmen and women at inflated costs, constructed by French contractors, largely for the benefit of French shareholders. Libyan taxpayers will undoubtably be stuck with the bill and higher water bills.
 
The most recent case of hydro-imperialism is the war in Syria. Israel has been leading a Western campaign to support Syrian rebels; in part, because its leaders assert that the Syrian President, Bashar Al-Assad, poses an existential threat to Israel on the issue of water. Assad has vowed to reclaim the Golan Heights – a strip of land that Israel captured from Syria in the Six Day War of 1967. The Golan Heights provides a staggering 40 percent of Israel’s fresh water.
 
Syrian control of half of our water poses more of a threat than Iran with one bomb”, once remarked ex-Israeli intelligence head, Meir Dagan.
 
Assad has also been reticent to privatize the water industry and expose the population to predatory pricing, thereby preventing the West from tapping into a multi-billion dollar revenue stream.
 
Mr. Assad`s refusal to play ball on water privatization and his choice to play hardball over the Golan Heights meant that the Syrian President, like Mr. Hussein and Colonel Gaddafi before him, is an obstacle to the West`s hydro-imperialist agenda.
 
Control of nature`s most precious and increasingly valuable commodity will, for any nation, spell the difference between greatness and decline. Mr. Hussein, Colonel Gaddafi and a defiant Mr. Assad know that all too well.
 
Source
 

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Africa‘s Huge Hidden Ground Water Resources

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on April 21, 2012

 

Another reason for Ethiopia to tell Egypt to drill a well in the desert, or digg down into its pockets to pay for the precious Nile Water

 

Solutions to resolve the world’s water crisis may lay hidden underground. More than half the world’s population already depends on groundwater that is pumped from the pore spaces of rock formations, known as aquifers, which lie hidden below the Earth’s surface.

Scientists now say that Africa is sitting on a vast reservoir of groundwater.

Researchers from the British Geological Survey and University College London argue that the total volume of water in aquifers underground is 100 times the amount found on the surface.

The team have produced the most detailed map yet of the scale and potential of this hidden resource.

 

Continue reading…

 

Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

 

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The Water Footprint of Humanity

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on February 15, 2012



A fascinating study from the University of Twente (Netherlands) , UNESCO-IHE 

by Arjen Hoekstra and Mesfin Mekonnen

Background

Since the Dublin Conference in 1992, there is consensus that the river basin is the appropriate unit for analyzing freshwater availability and use. An underlying hypothesis of the research programme at the University of Twente is that it is becoming increasingly important to put freshwater issues in a global context. Although other authors have already argued thus, we add a new dimension to the argument. Local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to the structure of the global economy. With increasing trade between nations and continents, water is more frequently used to produce exported goods. International trade in commodities implies long-distance transfers of water in virtual form, where virtual water is understood as the volume of water that has been used to produce a commodity and that is thus virtually embedded in it. Knowledge about the virtual-water flows entering and leaving a country can cast a completely new light on the actual water scarcity of a country. For example, Jordan imports about 5 to 7 billion m3 of virtual water per year, which is in sharp contrast with the 1 billion m3 of water withdrawn annually from domestic water sources. This means that people in Jordan apparently survive owing to the import of water-intensive commodities from elsewhere, for example the USA.

A second hypothesis of the research programme is that it becomes increasingly relevant to consider the linkages between consumption of people and impacts on freshwater systems. This can improve our understanding of the processes that drive changes imposed on freshwater systems and help to develop policies of wise water governance. In 2002 Hoekstra introduced the water-footprint concept as an indicator that maps the impact of human consumption on global freshwater resources. The water footprint of an individual or community is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community. A water footprint can be calculated for any well-defined group of consumers, including a family, business, village, city, province, state or nation. The water footprint of a nation for example shows water use related to consumption within a nation. Traditionally, national water use has been measured as the total freshwater withdrawal for the various sectors of the economy. By contrast, the water footprint shows not only freshwater use within the country considered, but also freshwater use outside the country’s borders. It refers to all forms of freshwater use that contribute to the production of goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of a certain country. The water footprint of the Dutch community, for example, also refers to the use of water for rice production in Thailand (insofar as the rice is exported to the Netherlands for consumption there). Conversely, the water footprint of a nation excludes water that is used within the national territory for producing commodities for export, which are consumed elsewhere.

Objective of the programme

The objective of the research programme is to examine the critical links between water management and international trade and between consumption and freshwater impacts. Questions posed are: Can trade enhance global water use efficiency, or does it simply shift the environmental burden to a distant location? Does import of water in virtual form offer a solution to water-scarce nations or does this result is undesired ‘water dependency’? How can quantitative analysis of expected or desirable trends in international or inter-regional virtual water flows contribute to water policy development at different levels of spatial scale? How can water footprint accounting become part of the regular practice of governments and businesses and how can it feed into better water policy making? How can water security of communities can be guaranteed by a combination of policies to bring along changes at local, basin and global level? How will the growing demand for bio-energy increase the global water footprint of humanity? Questions like these and others are being addressed in various sub-projects, involving MSc and PhD students from various parts of the world.

Continue reading…

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Do You Know How Dogs Drink?

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 24, 2010

It happens so quickly that even people who have had dogs for years would not notice. Most people assume that dogs lap at the water bowl in the same manner that a human would. However, slow motion recordings show that it is an unexpected method.

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Water Is Life

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 30, 2008

 

ድሃ ውሃ ከየት አገኘ?

ከነዚያ ደናግላን ሁሉ አንዲት ገረድ ብቻ ይዛ በተዘጋጀላት አልጋ ስትተኛ ሰሎሞን ለአሽከሩ ውሃውን ቀድቶ ከኩሽኩሽት እንደገባ እንዲያደርግ አዞት አስቀመጠ፡፡

በመካከል ንግሥቲቱ ውሃ በመጠማቷ ገረድዋን ከተኛችበት ቀስቅሳ ከንጉሡ አጠገብ ካለው ኩስኩስት (ውሃ ማስቀመጫ) ውሃ እንድታመጣላት ታዛታለች፡፡ ንጉሥ ሰሎሞን እንቅልፍ ሲይዘው ዓይኑ የሚያይ ይመስል አይጨፈንም፡፡ ከእንቅልፉ ሲነቃም ያንቀላፋ ይመስላልና ዓይኑን ይከድን ነበር ይባላል፡፡ በመሆኑም ንግሥቲቱ የመጣለትን ውሃ ስትጠጣ ሰሎሞን እጅዋን ለቀም ያደርግና ምነው መሓላውን አፈረስሽቢላት ብልህ ስትሆን ሳለ ምነው እንዲህ ያለውን ተራ ነገር መናገር፣ ውሃ ሊጠጡ መሃላ ይፈርሳልን? ስትለው ከውሃ የሚበልጥ ምን ገንዘብ አለ፣ ምድር በውሃ ላይ ፀንታለች፡፡ ሰማይም በውሃ ላይ ቆሟል፡፡ ሰው፣ እንስሳ፣ አራዊት፣ ሣር እንጨቱ፣ በውሃ ይኖራል፣ ይለመልማል ያብባል፣ ይፈራል ቢላት በዚህ ንግግሩ ተረታና ድንግልናዋን አስገስሳ ዕብነ ሐኪምን (ቀዳማዊ ምኒልክን) እንደፀነሰችና እንደወለደች ይነገራል፡፡

ውሃን በተመለከተ ስለ ንግሥተ ሳባና ንጉሥ ሰለሞን በትውፊት ሲነገር ቆይቷል፡፡ በልብ ወለድም፣ በታሪክም ተጽፏል፡፡ የውሃ ጥም ጥናቱ፣ አስከፊነቱ ሲታሰብ ንግሥተ ሳባን ልብ ይሏል፡፡ 500 የሴት ደናግል አስከትላ ጥበብን ለመማር ከሠራዊቷ ጋር ወደ ኢየሩሳሌም ከደረሰች በኋላ በአንድ ሌሊት በቤተ መንግሥቱ አዳራሽ ሲጨዋወቱ አምሽተው፣ አብረን እንሁን ቢላት ካንተ ማደር እፈራለሁ ድንግል ነኝ፣ በድንግልና ካልኖርሁ መንግሥቴ ይሻራል አለችው፡፡ አምርሮ ቢይዛት ተላልፌ አልደፍርሽም ብለህ ማልልኝ አለችው፡፡ እርሱም መልሶ አንቺም ተላልፌ ገንዘብን አልነካም ስትይ ማይልኝ ብሏት ተማማሉ፡፡

 

 

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