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The 11 Cities Most Likely To Run Out Of Drinking Water – Like Cape Town

Posted by addisethiopia on February 11, 2018

Cape Town is in the unenviable situation of being the first major city in the modern era to face the threat of running out of drinking water.

However, the plight of the drought-hit South African city is just one extreme example of a problem that experts have long been warning about – water scarcity.

Despite covering about 70% of the Earth’s surface, water, especially drinking water, is not as plentiful as one might think. Only 3% of it is fresh.

Over one billion people lack access to water and another 2.7 billion find it scarce for at least one month of the year. A 2014 survey of the world’s 500 largest cities estimates that one in four are in a situation of “water stress”

According to UN-endorsed projections, global demand for fresh water will exceed supply by 40% in 2030, thanks to a combination of climate change, human action and population growth.

It shouldn’t be a surprise, then, that Cape Town is just the tip of the iceberg. Here are the other 11 cities most likely to run out of water.

1. São Paulo

Brazil’s financial capital and one of the 10 most populated cities in the world went through a similar ordeal to Cape Town in 2015, when the main reservoir fell below 4% capacity.

At the height of the crisis, the city of over 21.7 million inhabitants had less than 20 days of water supply and police had to escort water trucks to stop looting.

It is thought a drought that affected south-eastern Brazil between 2014 and 2017 was to blame, but a UN mission to São Paulo was critical of the state authorities “lack of proper planning and investments”.

The water crisis was deemed “finished” in 2016, but in January 2017 the main reserves were 15% below expected for the period – putting the city’s future water supply once again in doubt.

2. Bangalore

Local officials in the southern Indian city have been bamboozled by the growth of new property developments following Bangalore’s rise as a technological hub and are struggling to manage the city’s water and sewage systems.

To make matters worse, the city’s antiquated plumbing needs an urgent upheaval; a report by the national government found that the city loses over half of its drinking water to waste.

Like China, India struggles with water pollution and Bangalore is no different: an in-depth inventory of the city’s lakes found that 85% had water that could only be used for irrigation and industrial cooling.

Not a single lake had suitable water for drinking or bathing.

3. Beijing

The World Bank classifies water scarcity as when people in a determined location receive less than 1,000 cubic metres of fresh water per person a year.

In 2014, each of the more than 20 million inhabitants of Beijing had only 145 cubic metres.

China is home to almost 20% of the world’s population but has only 7% of the world’s fresh water.

A Columbia University study estimates that the country’s reserves declined 13% between 2000 and 2009.

4. Cairo

Once crucial to the establishment of one of the world’s greatest civilisations, the River Nile is struggling in modern times.

It is the source of 97% of Egypt’s water but also the destination of increasing amounts of untreated agricultural, and residential waste.

World Health Organization figures show that Egypt ranks high among lower middle-income countries in terms of the number of deaths related to water pollution.

The UN estimates critical shortages in the country by 2025.

5. Jakarta

Like many coastal cities, the Indonesian capital faces the threat of rising sea levels.

But in Jakarta the problem has been made worse by direct human action. Because less than half of the city’s 10 million residents have access to piped water, illegal digging of wells is rife. This practice is draining the underground aquifers, almost literally deflating them.

As a consequence, about 40% of Jakarta now lies below sea level, according to World Bank estimates.

To make things worse, aquifers are not being replenished despite heavy rain because the prevalence of concrete and asphalt means that open fields cannot absorb rainfall.

6. Moscow

One-quarter of the world’s fresh water reserves are in Russia, but the country is plagued by pollution problems caused by the industrial legacy of the Soviet era.

That is specifically worrying for Moscow, where the water supply is 70% dependent on surface water.

Official regulatory bodies admit that 35% to 60% of total drinking water reserves in Russia do not meet sanitary standards

7. Istanbul

According to official Turkish government figures, the country is technically in a situation of a water stress, since the per capita supply fell below 1,700 cubic metres in 2016.

Local experts have warned that the situation could worsen to water scarcity by 2030.

In recent years, heavily populated areas like Istanbul (14 million inhabitants) have begun to experience shortages in the drier months.

The city’s reservoir levels declined to less than 30 percent of capacity at the beginning of 2014.

8. Mexico City

Water shortages are nothing new for many of the 21 million inhabitants of the Mexican capital.

One in five get just a few hours from their taps a week and another 20% have running water for just part of the day.

The city imports as much as 40% of its water from distant sources but has no large-scale operation for recycling wastewater. Water losses because of problems in the pipe network are also estimated at 40%.

9. London

Of all the cities in the world, London is not the first that springs to mind when one thinks of water shortages.

The reality is very different. With an average annual rainfall of about 600mm (less than the Paris average and only about half that of New York), London draws 80% of its water from rivers (the Thames and Lea).

According to the Greater London Authority, the city is pushing close to capacity and is likely to have supply problems by 2025 and “serious shortages” by 2040.

It looks likely that hosepipe bans could become more common in the future.

10. Tokyo

The Japanese capital enjoys precipitation levels similar to that of Seattle on the US west coast, which has a reputation for rain. Rainfall, however, is concentrated during just four months of the year.

That water needs to be collected, as a drier-than-expected rainy season could lead to a drought. At least 750 private and public buildings in Tokyo have rainwater collection and utilisation systems.

Home to more than 30 million people, Tokyo has a water system that depends 70% on surface water (rivers, lakes, and melted snow).

Recent investment in the pipeline infrastructure aims also to reduce waste by leakage to only 3% in the near future.

11. Miami

The US state of Florida is among the five US states most hit by rain every year. However, there is a crisis brewing in its most famous city, Miami.

An early 20th Century project to drain nearby swamps had an unforeseen result; water from the Atlantic Ocean contaminated the Biscayne Aquifer, the city’s main source of fresh water.

Although the problem was detected in the 1930s, seawater still leaks in, especially because the American city has experienced faster rates of sea level rise, with water breaching underground defence barriers installed in recent decades.

Neighbouring cities are already struggling. Hallandale Beach, which is just a few miles north of Miami, had to close six of its eight wells due to saltwater intrusion.

Source

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አረብ ሊግ | እነ ሸህ ሰይጣነህ ኢትዮጵያን ኮነኑ

Posted by addisethiopia on November 27, 2017

የአረብ ሊግ ሥራ አስኪያጁ (ምን ይሆን ሥራው?)የታላቁ የኢትዮጵያ ህዳሴ ግድብ በሚሊዮኖች ለሚቆጠሩ አርቦች ደህንነት መጓደል ምክኒያት ስለሚሆን በጣም አሳስቦኛል፤ ኢትዮጵያ ከእኛ ጋር እየተባበረች አይደለም፣ እንዲያውም የአባይን ውሃ በመስኖ ውስጥ ጥቅም ላይ ለማዋል ማሰቧ አሻሚ ነው” ሲሉ በኢትዮጵያ ላይ ውንጀላቸውን አሰምተዋል።

ይህን መሰሉን የአረቦች አብራካዳብራ ውንጀላና ዛቻ፡ ባለፉት ጥቂት ሳምንታት፣ አላሙዲን በታሠሩበት ማግስት፡ በተደጋጋሚ ሲሰነዘር እየሰማን ነው። አንዴ አላሙዲን ነው፣ ሌላ ጊዜ ደግሞ ኳታር ናት ለግድቡ የሚሆነውን ገንዘብ የስጧቸው እያሉ መርዛቸውን በመርጨት ላይ ናቸው። ሁሉም ነገር አስቀድሞ በደንብ የተቀነባበረ ነው። ባለፈው ሳምንት የግብጹ ፕሬዚደንት አልሲሲ ነበሩ ሲዝቱና ሲፎክሩ የነበሩት። በኢትዮጵያ ላይ ዛቻ ውድቀታቸውን እንደሚያስከተል ከቀደሙት መሪዎቻቸው አልተማሩም ማለት ነው። ዛቻውን በሠነዘሩ በሳምንቱ ነበር ሲናይ በርሃ የሱፊዎች መስጊድ ላይ ጥቃት ደርሶ 300 ግብጻውያን ለመገደል የበቁት።

ይህ የመስጊድ ጥቃት፡ እኔ እንደታየኝ፡ በጸረ-ክርስቶሷ ቱርክ ነበር የተቀነባበረው፦

[የማርቆስ ወንጌል ምዕራፍ ፫፥፳፯]

ነገር ግን አስቀድሞ ኃይለኛውን ሳያስር ወደ ኃይለኛው ቤት ገብቶ ዕቃውን ሊበዘብዝ የሚችል የለም፥ ከዚያም ወዲያ ቤቱን ይበዘብዛል።

የኦቶማንን/ኡስማን ካሊፋትን እንደገና ለማነሳሳት በመታገል ላይ ያለቸው ቱርክ የሱፊ እስልምና አገር ነች፤ ኢትዮጵያም ያሉ ሙስሊሞች ሱፊዎች ናቸው፤ “ነጃሺ” እያሉ የሚጠሩትን መስጊድ በፈቃዴ አድሳለሁ ማለቷ የረጅም ጊዜ ዕቅድ ስላላት ነው፣ ስኳሩንና ምድጃውን እንዲሁም አገሯ የከለከለቻቸውን ድራማዎች ይዛ ወደ ኢትዮጵያ መግባቷም ያለምክኒያት አይደለም፤ ቱርክ ግብጽን የመቆጣጠር እቅድ ስላላት ግብጽን በአባይ በኩል ከምትቆጣጠራት ከኢትዮጵያ ጋር ለጊዜው እንደ እባብ መለሳለሱን ስለመረጠች ነው። “ሱፊዎች የአይሲስ ሽብር ሰለባ መሆን የለባቸውም” በሚል ሃሳብ ቱርክ በ አልሲሲ መስተዳደር ላይ ጫና ታደርጋለች። ለግብጽ በጣም ከባድ የሆነ ጊዜ ነው እየመጣባት ያለው።

300 ሚልየን የሚሆኑ እነዚህ እርጉም አረቦች የራሻችን ብቻ የሚሏቸው 22 ሰፋፊና አገሮች አሏቸው፤ ለራሳቸው ብቻ። ሰይጣን አምላካቸውም ከምድሮቻቸው በታች ጥቁሩን ምራቁን(ነዳጅ ዘይት)አውጥተው እንዲሸጡና ዓለማችንንም እንዲበጠብጡ አድርጓቸዋል። ለኢትዮጵያውያን ያለችን አንዲት አገር ኢትዮጵያ ብቻ ናት። አረቦቹ በምዕራባውያኑ አበረታችነት ለዘመናት በኢትዮጵያ ጉዳይ ጣልቃ እየገቡ ሲያውኩን፣ ሲተናኮሉን እና እርስበርስ ሲያባሉን ቆይተዋል። አሁን የእብሪትና ትዕቢት ጊዚያቸው እያለቀ ስለሆነ፤ ኢትዮጵያ ተገቢውን ቅጣት ታሳያቸው ዘንድ የእግዚአብሔር ፈቃድ አላት። 1400 ዓመት የፈጀው የአስከፊው ውድቀታችን ዘመን አክትሟል፤ እኛ ኢትዮጵያውያን የምንጎሳቆልበትና የእነዚህ ደካሞች መቀለጂያና መሳለቂያ የምንሆንበትን ዘመን ጨርሰናል።

ስለዚህ ለእነዚህ አረቦች አርፋችሁ ተቀመጡ፡ አሊያ አንድ ኩባያ ውሃ እንኳን ከአባይ አታገኙም! ብለን አሁን ልንነግራቸው ይገባናል። ዝምታው ይብቃ!

Arab League “Extreme Concern” over Ethiopia’s Nile Dam

Worries over water security for millions of people prompted the Arab League yesterday to say it is following “with extreme concern” talks between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia over the latter’s Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), which it is building on the Blue Nile.

Ethiopia was not “cooperating and coordinating enough”, said Ahmed Abul-Gheit, secretary general of the league, a regional association of 22 countries in Africa and the Middle East.

We do not feel that Ethiopia was cooperating and coordinating enough. The Ethiopian plans to operate the dam and use its water in irrigation are ambiguous and concerning,” he said, reports Egyptian news site Ahramonline.

Has The Arab League Ever Actually Done Anything For The Arabs?

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Posted in Conspiracies, Ethiopia, Infos | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Investing in Water: The Most Profitable Investment of the 21st Century

Posted by addisethiopia on September 15, 2014

OrangeWaterInvestment U Advisory Panelist and IPO expert Louis Basenese constantly monitors the world’s fastest-growing industries. Below, Louis details the fundamental forces at work driving one of today’s hottest growth opportunities…

Right now, there’s one commodity that sells at gas stations for almost twice the price of gasoline – and U.S. consumers never complain about it.

In fact, this precious resource we often take for granted is in critical shortage in more than 80 countries worldwide. And it will forever be in high demand, as every living being’s survival depends on it.

Of course, the commodity I’m talking about is water. And the effects of its shortage are of major concern…

Nearly 40% of the world’s population does not have access to clean water. And this problem is not going away anytime soon. It’s actually getting worse…

Less than 2% of the world’s water store is fresh water – to quench the thirst of 6 billion people. And according to the International Food Policy Research Institute, by 2020, an additional 2 billion people will be competing for this shrinking resource.

But the problem isn’t 14 years from now; the problem is now. Below, we’ll review why investing in water is turning out to be the most profitable investment of the 21st century. But first, let’s look at the problem…

At this moment, clean, safe water is scarce across the globe. Fortunately, several players in the private sector are working hard to solve this problem. And for investors, this industry provides perhaps the most profitable opportunities of the 21st century.

Two Catalysts: Global Warming And Population Growth

Water is the single-largest health problem in the entire world. According to SIWI.org, 90% of the 5,000 daily child deaths are related to some sort of diarrhea-related disease.

And torrid population growth is not only stressing water use, it’s causing massive pollution and depleting the largest aquifers on the planet. Unstable politics of water-poor communities, states and countries is triggering heated tensions – and in some cases, all-out wars. And global warming is drying up lakes, eroding shorelines and depleting rivers.

Consider the following:

  • Within 50 years, more than half of the global population will be living with water shortages. They will affect 4 billion people by 2050.
  • The Dead Sea has dropped more than 66 feet in the past 100 years and is now losing about 3 feet each year.
  • Lake Chad in Africa is now 1/20 the size it was 35 years ago.
  • Water-borne diseases kill one child every 8 seconds.

According to the National Academy of Sciences, Mother Earth is now the hottest it’s been for at least 400 years.

More specifically, over the last 100 years the surface temperature of the Earth has risen 1 degree Fahrenheit. And while that doesn’t sound like too much, it’s enough to wreak havoc on eco-systems, erode shorelines, dry aquifers and cause massive water shortages all over the world.

According to the IPCC, if global warming is not stopped, the earth could heat up another 3 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of this century. Time magazine points out that, “Mount Kilimanjaro has lost 75% of its ice cap” Moreover, it could completely lose ALL of its ice by 2020.

The result is less inland snow, a reduced amount of fresh river water, drying aquifers, and intense strain on any ecosystem relying on irrigation. With entire regions becoming unsuitable for crop production, both food and water will need to be transported into the water-deprived nations, dramatically hindering their ability to contribute to world GDP.

And the world’s fast-growing population isn’t helping the situation

From the beginning of time through the middle of the 1900s, the global population grew at a steady – but not alarming – rate. Now, it’s multiplying exponentially.

There are just over 6.1 billion people on the planet right now, but by 2050, census officials predict there could be as many as 9 billion people on Earth. And more demand for water simply means that the already under-supplied resource will become scarcer in the years to come.

The World Bank points out that global demand for water is doubling every 21 years. And, at present, 1 billion people on the planet don’t have access to safe water. “In Latin America alone, about 15% of the population – roughly 76 million people – lack safe water, and 116 million don’t have access to sanitation services.”

So how do we solve this water crisis?

Opportunity in Water Investing Is “Dripping” From This Shortage

The answer lies in the private sector – companies working night and day to solve the world’s water woes. The global water industry has been heating up for several decades, and the story’s certainly not new.

Many savvy investors have already recognized that investing in water stocks is simply the investment of a lifetime. Some have already locked in huge profits over the past few years. Here are just a few examples of water investment successes:

Investors who put $10,000 dollars in Consolidated Water (Nasdaq: CWCO) in 2000 banked a cool $71,061.43 by February of 2006.

Water has to be moved, as well and the lucky few who invested $10,000 in the IPO of American Commercial Lines (Nasdaq: ACLI) in the early part of 2005 would have made more than 310% by May of 2006.

And these profits are just the beginning of what could be the greatest investment of the 21st century.

Think of it this way: Bottled water sells for roughly $1.50 a liter at the gas station right now, while gasoline sells for around $3 a gallon. With 3.78 liters in a gallon, bottled water would be selling for $5.67 a gallon – almost twice the price of gasoline. And water companies don’t have to build expensive oil wells and refining plants that are toxic and environmentally unfriendly. The overall cost to bring water to market is, in many cases, lower.

In the end, investing in water stocks is a smart play all around for those seeking constant, stable returns. Global Summit Management (SGM) reports that from 2000 to 2005, water utility stocks returned 134.57%, while the S&P 500 clocked in at a mere 2.74%.

And those who invested in water stocks for a 10-year period were even happier. The stocks banked 446.01% from 1995 to 2005, versus 9.06% in the S&P.

Conclusion on Water

The world needs safe, clean drinking water and acceptable sanitation levels. Demand is outstripping supply. And several smart companies are solving the problem, which bodes well for investing in water for long-term gains.

Good investing,

Source

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia, Infos, Life | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

No Denial on the Nile: Egypt Threatens Ethiopian Dams

Posted by addisethiopia on June 14, 2013

CryingRIn a humiliating example of self-inflicted electronic bugging, last week a live broadcast television microphone in Egyptian President Muhammed Morsi’s Cairo office caught the president and Egypt’s most senior political leaders plotting sneak attacks on the upstream Nile’s biggest dam builder, Ethiopia.

No denial on the Nile. When an audience of millions overhears pious Egyptian Islamists and well-heeled Egyptian liberals mull classic covert warfare options — such as having Ethiopian rebels sabotage Ethiopia’s new Blue Nile dams or deploying shady political agents to agitate in Addis Ababa — the usual diplomatic salve, plausible denial, isn’t an option.

In point of fact, the Egyptian government’s initial embarrassment has given way to hard-edged declaration. Egyptians will fight Ethiopia for every drop of Nile River water!

For politically fractured and factionalized Egypt, war talk is a unifying tonic and a distraction from Egypt’s endless miseries. Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood government has simply failed to address the enormous economic and social problems afflicting Egypt.

Solving embedded societal ills requires a national unity of purpose. Morsi has been a national divider. His sharia-based constitution delighted Muslim Brothers but dismayed Egypt’s liberals. His attempt to invoke emergency rule (reminiscent of Hosni Mubarak) splintered Egypt’s Arab Spring revolutionary front. Muslim moderates joined with secular liberals and demanded he resign.

But Nile water sustains all Egyptians. The trite adage, “Egypt is the Nile,” is true. From Aswan north to Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea, the green band bordering the great river is home to 90 percent of Egypt’s population.

Morsi needs a route to national reconciliation. The Nile Water War (temporarily) solves Egypt’s broken puzzle: Us Downstream Egyptians versus Them Upstream Ethiopians.

But Ethiopia’s dams did not suddenly appear. For two decades every nation in east Africa has known Ethiopia intended to build several large hydro-electric dams and become Africa’s biggest power exporter.

Ethiopia has been waging a steady diplomatic campaign asserting its rights to Nile water. Ethiopia’s case is as passionately essential as Egypt’s. One word defines the basic case: famine. Water in reservoirs is a hedge against famines induced by drought. Electrical power sums Ethiopia’s expanded case.

Ethiopia contends the traditional division of Nile water distribution rights are based on an antiquated colonial artifact that unfairly favors Egypt. The 1929 Nile Waters agreement (engineered by Great Britain) gave Anglo-Egyptian Egypt 90 percent of the Nile’s annual flow. Egypt could also veto upstream water projects. In 1957 Ethiopia announced it would utilize Nile water resources within its territory. The Blue Nile and its Ethiopian tributaries generate 75 to 85 percent of the Nile’s annual flow. The White Nile, from Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, generates the rest.

A war between east Africa’s two most powerful nations would be a disaster for both. That’s so obvious I’ll wager even Mohammed Morsi knows it. The war options Egyptian leaders vetted included buying new long-range strike aircraft. Egypt’s air force can handle border conflicts, but hitting the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) is a long-range operation. Sudan separates Egypt from Ethiopia. One parliamentarian thought credible strike aircraft might give Ethiopia political pause. Ethiopia’s already credible air and ground forces should give Egyptian sword rattlers pause.

In April 2011 StrategyPage.com reported that Ethiopian diplomats had proposed an interesting win-win solution. Ethiopia would sell Egypt a partnership interest in its dams. Egypt would have ownership input in the operations. Ownership guaranteed Egypt reliable hydro-electric power. Egypt would also split the profits from selling electricity throughout Africa. Hey, Cairo. For the dams to generate electricity, water must flown downstream.

Ethiopia’s proposal at least creates the possibility of a win-win political deal. In time cool heads in Cairo should accept it.

Source

[Isaiah 19:3-7]

The Egyptians will panic, and I will confuse their strategy. They will seek guidance from the idols and from the spirits of the dead, from the pits used to conjure up underworld spirits, and from the magicians.

I will hand Egypt over to a harsh master; a powerful king will rule over them,” says the sovereign master, the LORD who commands armies.

The water of the sea will be dried up, and the river will dry up and be empty.

The canals will stink; the streams of Egypt will trickle and then dry up; the bulrushes and reeds will decay, along with the plants by the mouth of the river. All the cultivated land near the river will turn to dust and be blown away.

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Egyptian Ignorance: The Root and Stem of All Evil

Posted by addisethiopia on June 6, 2013

IgnoranTalkThe world is our teacher, and we are all on this planet to learn life lessons and live accordingly. But, it seems some populations are not capable of learning as they stubbornly refuse to grow up by exhibiting willful ignorance and bullying behaviors.

The original Egyptians are not Arabs, but the dominant Egyptians of today, just like Libyans, Tunisians, Algerians and Moroccans, are a transplanted Arab population who occupied African lands. Arabs don’t belong in Africa! Historically speaking, Arabs brought more pain and suffering to the African continent than the Europeans. The Arabs have been enslaving Africans since prehistoric times, and the slave trade in Saudi Arabia wasn’t abolished until the 1960s. An underground traffic in slaves continues to this day, particularly in Sudan, Mauritania, Sudan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt. African men were often killed and boys were castrated. Many of them died as a result. The women were used and discarded. They disappeared and another generation, fresh from Africa, replaced them as though they had never been. The atrocities continue to this days.

Egypt – which exists at the mercy of Ethiopia because of the river Nile – repeatedly demonstrates its ungratefulness by insulting Ethiopia and treating Ethiopian refugees in a cruel and inhuman way. Please read this heartbreaking report. Even the Ottoman Turks who occupied Northern Africa, the Middle East and the Balkan didn’t force their culture and language on the native populations. After 500 years of Turkish presence, the native populations of those countries were spared to speak the Turkish language. On the other hand, the Arabs force on others their unculture, religion and language. Even Ghaddafi acknowledged Arab atrocities against Africans two years before he was brutally killed by the same Arabs I am talking about:

I regret the behavior of the Arabs… They brought African children to North Africa, they made them slaves, they sold them like animals, and they took them as slaves and traded them in a shameful way. I regret and I am ashamed when we remember these practices. I apologize for this.”

Three days ago, Egyptian Politicians meeting with Egypt’s president proposed hostile acts against Ethiopia, including backing rebels and carrying out sabotage, to stop it from building a massive dam on the Nile River upstream.

Yesterday, Dr. Amr Hamzawy, a political science professor said the following, in an interview with the Doha-based media channel Al-Arabiya.

Egypt should not even consider entering into negotiations with Ethiopia until the Ethiopians halt all construction on the dam,, “Egypt should not be forced to sacrifice even one drop of water. Ethiopia must respect Egypt’s interests.”

When I study the history of Egypt since the arrival of Arab Muslims in the country during the 7thcentury, when I think of how much Misery Egyptian leaders brought to the Ethiopian nation the past 1000 years, when I observe the current generation of Arab Egyptian leaders displaying so much hatred and ignorance towards the country and people of Ethiopia, I am forced to ask myself, what has changed with the mentality and behavior of Arab and arabized people since Samuel Johnson characterized them in his book, ‘Rasselas‘ back in the year 1759? Nothing!

I am personally quite convinced that if Egyptians and Ethiopians switched countries and Egypt had become the source of the river Nile, Egyptians would have exterminated Ethiopians long time ago by spewing their usual abracadabra venom on the waters of the Nile

Let’s ask the Egyptians what they would do if the source of the Nile came from Egypt

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Africa‘s Huge Hidden Ground Water Resources

Posted by addisethiopia on April 21, 2012

 

Another reason for Ethiopia to tell Egypt to drill a well in the desert, or digg down into its pockets to pay for the precious Nile Water

 

Solutions to resolve the world’s water crisis may lay hidden underground. More than half the world’s population already depends on groundwater that is pumped from the pore spaces of rock formations, known as aquifers, which lie hidden below the Earth’s surface.

Scientists now say that Africa is sitting on a vast reservoir of groundwater.

Researchers from the British Geological Survey and University College London argue that the total volume of water in aquifers underground is 100 times the amount found on the surface.

The team have produced the most detailed map yet of the scale and potential of this hidden resource.

 

Continue reading…

 

Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

 

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

The Water Footprint of Humanity

Posted by addisethiopia on February 15, 2012



A fascinating study from the University of Twente (Netherlands) , UNESCO-IHE 

by Arjen Hoekstra and Mesfin Mekonnen

Background

Since the Dublin Conference in 1992, there is consensus that the river basin is the appropriate unit for analyzing freshwater availability and use. An underlying hypothesis of the research programme at the University of Twente is that it is becoming increasingly important to put freshwater issues in a global context. Although other authors have already argued thus, we add a new dimension to the argument. Local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to the structure of the global economy. With increasing trade between nations and continents, water is more frequently used to produce exported goods. International trade in commodities implies long-distance transfers of water in virtual form, where virtual water is understood as the volume of water that has been used to produce a commodity and that is thus virtually embedded in it. Knowledge about the virtual-water flows entering and leaving a country can cast a completely new light on the actual water scarcity of a country. For example, Jordan imports about 5 to 7 billion m3 of virtual water per year, which is in sharp contrast with the 1 billion m3 of water withdrawn annually from domestic water sources. This means that people in Jordan apparently survive owing to the import of water-intensive commodities from elsewhere, for example the USA.

A second hypothesis of the research programme is that it becomes increasingly relevant to consider the linkages between consumption of people and impacts on freshwater systems. This can improve our understanding of the processes that drive changes imposed on freshwater systems and help to develop policies of wise water governance. In 2002 Hoekstra introduced the water-footprint concept as an indicator that maps the impact of human consumption on global freshwater resources. The water footprint of an individual or community is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community. A water footprint can be calculated for any well-defined group of consumers, including a family, business, village, city, province, state or nation. The water footprint of a nation for example shows water use related to consumption within a nation. Traditionally, national water use has been measured as the total freshwater withdrawal for the various sectors of the economy. By contrast, the water footprint shows not only freshwater use within the country considered, but also freshwater use outside the country’s borders. It refers to all forms of freshwater use that contribute to the production of goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of a certain country. The water footprint of the Dutch community, for example, also refers to the use of water for rice production in Thailand (insofar as the rice is exported to the Netherlands for consumption there). Conversely, the water footprint of a nation excludes water that is used within the national territory for producing commodities for export, which are consumed elsewhere.

Objective of the programme

The objective of the research programme is to examine the critical links between water management and international trade and between consumption and freshwater impacts. Questions posed are: Can trade enhance global water use efficiency, or does it simply shift the environmental burden to a distant location? Does import of water in virtual form offer a solution to water-scarce nations or does this result is undesired ‘water dependency’? How can quantitative analysis of expected or desirable trends in international or inter-regional virtual water flows contribute to water policy development at different levels of spatial scale? How can water footprint accounting become part of the regular practice of governments and businesses and how can it feed into better water policy making? How can water security of communities can be guaranteed by a combination of policies to bring along changes at local, basin and global level? How will the growing demand for bio-energy increase the global water footprint of humanity? Questions like these and others are being addressed in various sub-projects, involving MSc and PhD students from various parts of the world.

Continue reading…

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