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Posts Tagged ‘Rivers’

የመሀመድ ቀጥተኛ ዝርያ እንዳላቸው የሚነገርላቸው የዮርዳኖሱ ንጉሥ | “እኛ ሙስሊሞች ክርስቶስን፣ ቅድስት ድንግል እናቱን እና መጽሐፍ ቅዱስን እናከብራለን”

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on January 27, 2018

በማለት ተናግረዋል። ይህ ድንቅ ነው፣ ድንቅ ነው! — (በዕብራይስጥ ቋንቋ ማለቴ ነው)

ይህን መጀመሪያ ላይ ስሰማ፡ ““ታኪያ” ወይም እስልምና ሙስሊሞችን ቅጠፉ ዋሹ ብሎ ስለሚያስተምራቸው፡ እንደተለመደው ንጉሡ እየዋሹን ይሆናል። የእኛንም ንጉሥ አርሜህን ልክ እንዲህ በማለት ነበር የመሀመድ ተከታዮች ከ1400 ዓመታት በፊት ያታለሏቸው” የሚል ሃሳብ ውስጥ ነበርኩ።

ግን ሪክ ዋይልስ እንዳለው የእግዚአብሔር ሥራ እፁብ ድንቅ ነውና፡ ምናልባት በእኝህ ንጉሥ በኩል ብዛት ያላቸውን ሙስሊሞች ወደ ክርስቶስ ለማምጣት አቅዶ ይሆናል።

የእኔ መለኮታዊ ምኞት፦ እንደ ሽኽ አላሙዲን የመሳሰሉ ሰዎች – በተለይ አሁን በገዛ አረብ ሙስሊም ወንድሞቻቸው እስር ቤት እንዲሰቃዩ ከተደርጉ በኋላ – ተመሳሳይ የሆነ ድርጊት እንዲፈጽሙ ነው። ይታየን አላሙዲን ከእስር ቤት ወጥተው ቢጠመቁ፣ ክርስትናን ቢቀበሉና የእስልምናን ሰይጣናዊት ቢያጋልጡ? እርግጠኛ ነኝ በሚሊየን የሚቆጠሩ የኢትዮጵያችን ሙስሊሞች መዳን በቻሉ ነበር።

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Posted in Faith, Infos | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Egyptians’ Stance And Sentiments Toward The Nile River

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on December 6, 2017

Is nationalism best served by expressing passionate sentiments for one’s country in song or does a nation’s progress need more than love? Egyptians’ tendency to voice their emotional attachment to their country is not only a sign of hypocrisy; it also aims at highlighting their dependence on the state and, in turn, enhances the state’s prominence and citizens’ need for it.

Egypt is one of a few countries that produce numerous songs in praise of national glory. We sing in praise of the pyramids, the Sphinx, the Nile, ancient monuments and of course our civilization in general. The Egyptian government obviously supports this trend, rewarding such singers by enrolling them into its entourage. However, simultaneously while celebrating these songs, many of us abuse our national resources — by engaging in the illegal trafficking and mistreatment of our ancient relics, for example.

Our government is constantly repeating that the Nile is a matter of life or death for the Egyptian people. Yet we have been carelessly damaging this lifeline for decades by inefficiently consuming our share of the river’s water, polluting it with waste, and mismanaging our conflict with Ethiopia over Nile water allocation. Nonetheless, along with the abuse, we maintain our sentiments for the river, saying that visitors who drink from the Nile will always come back to our country.

Sadly, we have been carelessly damaging the Nile for decades by inefficiently consuming our share of its water, polluting it with waste disposal, and mismanaging our conflict with Ethiopia over water allocation.

The Egyptian singer who spent years singing a very emotional and popular song in praise of the Nile is currently being prosecuted because of a word that slipped out as she tried to make a joke at a live concert. Meanwhile, millions of citizens who have been abusing the Nile for decades continue to do so without being penalized.
Zooming out, many Egyptians often express their sentiments for the military and police apparatus that protect our national security, apparently convinced that spending their time singing for our soldiers who are facing terrorists and enemies on the front line is a serious pursuit that helps to keep our country in good shape. Not only is this hypocritical, it also reflects an unjust attitude toward citizens who put their lives on the line and to others whose utmost contribution is to express their love.

Many Egyptians are privileged by the state for humming “Long Live Egypt” in song. The phrase has become a password used by people to express loyalty to their country, in return for which they are granted state positions and immunity from being held to account for their ineffectiveness or for involvement in corruption. Meanwhile, Egyptians who want to play a constructive role in the development of their country are marginalized for not being in tune with the rhythm required by the state.

“Rest assured that we will solve the problem,” was President El-Sisi’s recent response to the grave concerns of Egyptians regarding their share of Nile River water upon learning that technical negotiations with the Ethiopian government on the Renaissance Dam had come to a deadlock. In my view, the Egyptian government should have negotiated this issue and struck a deal with Ethiopia when the dam was still a proposal. Now that it is close to realization, reaching a solution is infinitely more complicated.

Seeing the government lose a number of internal and external political battles makes us justifiably concerned. Candidness is not as essential a quality for a ruler as competence; a competent ruler would be able to solve our challenges — or at least to provide some sign that we are on the right track. Sadly, the Nile conflict might drag Egypt into an unpleasant internal scenario that could have been avoided had the issue been addressed well in advance.

Source: ArabNews

My Note: Such a rational thought is found very rarely among Arab folks, good observation! Egypt should better start begging Ethiopia for each drop of Nile water.Here another fake report on Qatar financing the Great Renaissance Dam. Just unbelievable – even more unbelievable how some commentators share their primitively disgusting racialist thoughts. This sort of thing is all over the net, lately. How sad!

Snapshots from the comments section:

 

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Posted in Ethiopia, Infos | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Volcanic Suppression Of Nile Summer Flooding Triggers Revolt And Constrains Interstate Conflict In Ancient Egypt

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 20, 2017

Abstract

Volcanic eruptions provide tests of human and natural system sensitivity to abrupt shocks because their repeated occurrence allows the identification of systematic relationships in the presence of random variability. Here we show a suppression of Nile summer flooding via the radiative and dynamical impacts of explosive volcanism on the African monsoon, using climate model output, ice-core-based volcanic forcing data, Nilometer measurements, and ancient Egyptian writings. We then examine the response of Ptolemaic Egypt (305–30 BCE), one of the best-documented ancient superpowers, to volcanically induced Nile suppression. Eruptions are associated with revolt onset against elite rule, and the cessation of Ptolemaic state warfare with their great rival, the Seleukid Empire. Eruptions are also followed by socioeconomic stress with increased hereditary land sales, and the issuance of priestly decrees to reinforce elite authority. Ptolemaic vulnerability to volcanic eruptions offers a caution for all monsoon-dependent agricultural regions, presently including 70% of world population.

Introduction

The need to adapt to and mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic climate change has revived interest in longstanding but unsettled questions concerning how past climatic changes have influenced human societies1. Egypt provides a unique historical laboratory in which to study social vulnerability and response to abrupt hydroclimatic shocks. As one of the Ancient World’s great “hydraulic civilizations”2, its prosperity was overwhelmingly tied to the annual cycle of Nile summer flooding, with diminished flooding (Nile failure) often associated with major human impacts through its many millennia of recorded history3. Of all Ancient Egyptian history, that of Ptolemaic Egypt (305–30 BCE; Fig. 1a) is most richly furnished with contemporary documentation. As the longest-lived successor to Alexander the Great’s empire, the Ptolemaic state was a major force in the transformative Hellenistic era, a period marked by large-scale conflict but also material and cultural achievement. Ptolemaic Egypt featured one of the largest cities of the Ancient Mediterranean (Alexandria), including the Great Library and Lighthouse, and was a hub for invention, boasting minds such as Euclid and Archimedes. Technological advances such as the saqiya4, a rotary-wheel water-lifting machine documented by the mid-third century BCE, maslin (mixed wheat-barley) cropping, as well as grain storage, acted to mitigate the impacts of the mercurial Nile flood. Families also distributed land in geographically dispersed individual shares to further hedge against the risk of Nile failure, and tailored agricultural decisions to annual flood conditions6. External territories (e.g., Anatolia, Syria) capable of rainfed agriculture also helped buffer the state against Nile failure. The existence of these mitigation and adaptation strategies highlights the importance of managing Nile variability in Ptolemaic Egypt, yet discussion of the impact of hydroclimatic shocks is effectively absent from modern histories of the period.

At ~6825 km, the Nile is among the Earth’s great rivers, fed by rainfall in Africa’s equatorial plateau (mainly via the White Nile) and the Ethiopian Highlands (mainly via the Blue Nile and Atbara rivers)8. Before twentieth century damming, the summer flood, driven primarily by monsoon rainfall in the Ethiopian highlands, began with rising waters observed at Aswan as early as June, peaking from August to September, and largely receding by the end of October, when crop sowing began2. Nile flood suppression from historical eruptions has been little studied, despite Nile failures with severe social impacts coinciding with eruptions su

Explosive eruptions can perturb climate by injecting sulfurous gases into the stratosphere; these gases react to form reflective sulfate aerosols that remain aloft in decreasing concentrations for approximately one to two years11. While most studies of the climatic effects of volcanism have focused on temperature changes, contemporary and historical societies were also vulnerable to hydrological changes12. Hydroclimate is harder to reconstruct and model, but studies are increasingly noting global and regional hydroclimatic impacts from explosive volcanism. Volcanic aerosols influence hydroclimate through multiple mechanisms. Aerosol scattering of solar radiation to space reduces tropospheric temperatures; if lower-tropospheric relative humidities remain unchanged, the mass of water converged by a given wind distribution decreases, and precipitation minus surface evaporation (P-E) is thus reduced21. This thermodynamic effect may represent the principal means by which equatorially symmetric aerosol distributions from tropical eruptions alter P–E15. In addition, extratropical eruptions increase sulfate aerosols on one side of the equator, cool that hemisphere, and may thus alter tropical P–E primarily by changing winds. In particular, a high-latitude energy sink in one hemisphere forces an anomalous Hadley circulation, shifting the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) away from that energy sink1. Aerosol cooling of northern high latitudes can thus force a southward shift of northern hemisphere (NH) summer monsoon precipitation, promoting drought in the northern parts of monsoon regions. These energy-budget arguments provide a more fundamental perspective on the controls on tropical rainfall than arguments based on land-ocean temperature contrast because large-scale tropical circulations are driven by horizontal gradients in the total (sensible plus latent) energy input to the atmosphere24. The hypothesis that a decrease in land-ocean temperature contrast will cause monsoon rainfall to weaken has been disproven by the observation that continental monsoon regions are cooler during years of enhanced monsoon precipitation25, and by the fact that monsoon winds weaken as land-ocean temperature contrast strengthens in projections of next-century warming.

Source

Egypt | The Pollution of the Nile River


Source of Pollution

1. Factories

There are about 700 facilities manufacturing a variety different products located along the Nile river. Some of these facilities dump chemicals into the Nile, while others’ runoff finds its way to the water.

Some of the chemicals that find their way into the river would be phosphors, nitrogen, and pesticide residue. Once dumped, these chemicals can have negative affects on the microorganisms living in the water, by increasing the population of unhealthy bacteria by 50%-180%

2. Food Industry

Studies show that more then 350 different factories discharge their waste in to the Nile. The majority of these factories are involved in the food industry.
The Nile is suffering from the amount of agricultural waste that’s being dumped into the river. The waste is full of toxic chemicals like detergents, heavy metals, and pesticides. Discharge of oil and grease can come from untreated domestic waste water. Fortunately, those chemicals can be treated and removed from the water, but some like mutagens, and neurotoxins remain unaffected by water treatment.

3. Phosphate

On April 22 2015, an Egyptian military owned barge spilled 500 tons of phosphate in to the Nile.

Phosphate is a mineral that comes from rocks when they are eroding. In small amounts, phosphate is good for water bodies. For example, it can help the growth of plankton and aquatic plants.

But in large amounts, like what was dumped into the Nile, it is very harmful. The mineral can cause a nutrient imbalance in the water, which can damage the aquatic plants and kill them, and can also speed up the aging process of the river.

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia, Infos | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Africa‘s Huge Hidden Ground Water Resources

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on April 21, 2012

 

Another reason for Ethiopia to tell Egypt to drill a well in the desert, or digg down into its pockets to pay for the precious Nile Water

 

Solutions to resolve the world’s water crisis may lay hidden underground. More than half the world’s population already depends on groundwater that is pumped from the pore spaces of rock formations, known as aquifers, which lie hidden below the Earth’s surface.

Scientists now say that Africa is sitting on a vast reservoir of groundwater.

Researchers from the British Geological Survey and University College London argue that the total volume of water in aquifers underground is 100 times the amount found on the surface.

The team have produced the most detailed map yet of the scale and potential of this hidden resource.

 

Continue reading…

 

Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

 

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

The Rivers of Ethiopia

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on May 6, 2009

And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia [Genesis 2:13]

riversofethiopia

Few people know that many of Africa’s fertile Mountains and water-rich Rivers are located in Ethiopia. The vast majority of these rivers go out of the Ethiopian Eden to water the gardens of Somalia, Kenya, Sudan, Egypt and, even Israel.

Today we will learn a little bit about some of the glorious rivers of Ethiopia.

Most of the Ethiopian uplands have a decided slope to the north-west, so that nearly all the large rivers flow in that direction to the Nile, and comprising around 85% of its water. Such rivers are the Tekezé River, the Abay, and the Sobat. The rest is carried off by the Awash, which runs out in the saline lacustrine (lake bed) district along the border with Djibouti; by the Shebelle River and the Jubba, which flow southeast through Somalia, though the Shebelle fails to reach the Indian Ocean; and by the Omo, the main feeder of the closed basin of Lake Turkana.

The Tekezé River has its headwaters in the central tableland. During the rains the Tekezé rises around 5 m above its normal level and at this time forms an impassable barrier between the northern and central regions. In its lower course, the river is called Setit. The Gash or Mareb, which forms part of the border with Eritrea, is the most northerly of the highland rivers which flow toward the Nile valley. Its headwaters rise on the landward side of the eastern escarpment within 80 km of Annesley Bay on the Red Sea. The Mareb is dry for a great part of the year, but like the Takazze, is subject to sudden freshets during the rainy season. Only the left bank of the upper course of the river is in Ethiopian territory.

The Abay has its source near Mount Denguiza in the Gojam highlands, and flows to the south side of Lake Tana. Tana, which stands 750 to 1,000 m below the normal level of the plateau, is more like a flooded crater. It has an area of about 2,800 km² and a depth of 75 m. At the southeast corner the rim of the crater is breached by a deep crevasse through which the Abay escapes, and here makes a great semicircular bend like that of the Tekezé, but in the reverse direction down to the plains of Sennar, where it takes the name of Bahr-el-Azrak or Blue Nile. The Abay has many tributaries. All these are perennial rivers.

In the mountains and plateaus of Gambela and Kaffa in southwestern Ethiopia rise the Baro, Gelo, Akobo and other chief affluents of the Sobat tributary of the Nile. The Akobo, joins the Pibor, which unites with the Baro, the river below the confluence taking the name of Sobat. These rivers descend from the mountains in great falls, and like the other Ethiopian streams are unnavigable in their upper courses.

The chief river of Ethiopia flowing east is the Awash River, which rises in the Shoan uplands and makes a semicircular bend first southeast and then northeast. It reaches the Afar Depression through a broad breach in the eastern escarpment of the plateau, beyond which it is joined on its left bank by its chief affluent, the Germama and then moves around in the direction of the Gulf of Tadjoura. Unfortunately, it fails to reach the coast.

A

Abay RiverAdabay RiverAkaki RiverAkobo RiverAlero RiverAngereb RiverAtaba RiverAtaye RiverAtbarah RiverAwash RiverAwetu RiverAyesha River

B

Balagas RiverBaro RiverBashilo RiverBeles RiverBilate RiverBirbir RiverBlue NileBorkana River

C

Cheleleka River

D

Dabus RiverDawa RiverDechatu RiverDembi RiverDenchya RiverDidessa RiverDinder RiverDoha RiverDukem RiverDurkham River

E

Erer River

F

Fafen River

G

Galetti RiverGanale Dorya RiverGebele RiverGermama RiverGestro RiverGibe RiverGilgel Gibe RiverGilo RiverGojeb RiverGololcha RiverGreater Angereb RiverGuder RiverGumara River

H

Hanger RiverHawadi River

J

Jamma RiverJerer RiverJikawo RiverJubba River

K

Kabenna RiverKatar RiverKeleta RiverKersa RiverKibish RiverKulfo River

L

Lagabora RiverLesser AbayLesser AngerebLogiya River

M

Mago RiverMagyecha RiverMareb RiverMeki RiverMena RiverMille RiverModjo RiverMofar RiverMuger RiverMui River

N

Neri River

O

Omo River

P

Pibor River

Q

Qechene River

R

Rahad RiverReb RiverRobe River

S

Sagan RiverShebelle RiverShinfa RiverSor River

T

Tekezé River

U

Usno River

W

Wabe RiverWalaqa RiverWajja RiverWanchet RiverWari RiverWeito RiverWeyib RiverWelmel River

Y

Yabus River

Posted in Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , , | 3 Comments »

 
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