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Posts Tagged ‘Pollution’

ሸህ አላሙዲን መወገዱ ጥሩ ነው፤ ፈዋሽ ፀበላችንን ለመበከል የሚሹት ወንጀለኛ ባለ ሃብቶችስ?

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on May 11, 2018

ሰይፍ የሚያነሡ ሁሉ በሰይፍ መጥፋታቸው የማይቀር ነውና፡ አላሙዲንን፡ “ና! ወደ ቅድመ አያቶችህ ቤተክርስቲያን ተመለስ!’ እንበለው።

የአላሙዲን ድርጅት “ሜድሮክ” በለገንደቢ ወርቅ እንዳያወጣ መከልከሉ ጥሩ ነው፡ ትክክለኛም ውሳኔ ነው። እነዚህ “ባለ ሃብቶች” በአንድ በኩል ወርቁን፣ ዕንቁውን፣ እህሉንና ከብቱን ይዘርፋሉ፣ ገነዘቡንም ወደ ውጭ ይዘው ይጠፋሉ፤ በሌላ በኩል ደግሞ ወንዙን፣ ውሃውን፣ መሬቱንና አየሩን እያድፈረሱ፣ እየበከሉና እያረከሱ ልጆቻችንን ለአስከፊ በሽታዎች ያጋልጧቸዋል፣ ብሎም የፈረንጁ “መድኃኒት” ባሪያ እንዲሆኑ ያደርጓቸዋል። ይህ እኮ ተወዳዳሪ የሌለው ግፍ ነው!

[መጽሐፈ ምሳሌ ምዕራፍ ፳፭፥፳፮]

በኀጥእ ፊት የሚወድቅ ጻድቅ እንደደፈረሰ ፈሳሽና እንደ ረከሰ ምንጭ ነው።”

የሚከትለውን አጭር መልዕክት ከሁለት ዓመታት በፊት ነበር ያቀረብኩት፤ በዚያ ወቅት “ጠበል አያድናችሁም፡ እንዲያውም ያሳምማችኋል!“ ሊለን ነው?“ በማለት እራሴን ጠይቄ ነበር።

ፀበላችን ለኛ ፈዋሻችን ለዳቢሎስ ደግማ እንደ እሣት የሚቃጠልበት ነውና በያዝነው ዓመት ላይ፡ ቅ/ ቂርቆስ ቤ/ክርስቲያን አካባቢ የመድኃኔ ዓለም ፍልውሃ ፀበል ሲወጣ፡ እነ ሸገር ኤፍ ኤም” “ውሃው ኬሚካል አለበት መርዝ ነው! ብለው የቅጥፈት ፕሮፓጋንዳ በመርጨት ፈውስፈላጊ ኢትዮጵያዊ አማኝን ሊያስፈራሩት ሞክረው ነበር።


ሰይጣን ከቤተክርስቲያን አይርቅም | ዲያብሎስ ብርቅ ውሃችንን እና ጠበሎቻችንን ሊበክልብን ይሻል


ይህ እጅግ በጣም አሳዛኝና ዲያብሎሳዊ የሆነ ሥራ ነው። ዲያብሎስ፡ ክርስቲያን ኢትዮጵያን ከሁሉም አቅጣጫ እየተፈታተናት ነው!

ይህች አነስተኛ ወንዝ ሳሪስ አካባቢ ትገኛለች። ወንዟ የምታልፈውም – እኔ ከደረስኩባቸው አካባቢዎች መካከል – በ ላፍቶ መድኃኒዓለምኪዳነምህረት እንዲሁም ሳሪስ አቦ አብያተክርስቲያናት እና ጠበላት አቅራቢያ ነው። ወንዙ ውስጥ ለሚታዩት ነጭ የአረፋ እና ቀይ፡ ደም መሰል ቀለማት መንስዔው ያው ፋብሪካ ነው። ለቡ /ላፍቶ አካባቢ የሚገኙ ፋብሪካዎች የኬሚካል ቆሻሻዎቻቸውን እንዳፈቀዳቸው ወደ ወንዙ እየደፉ ብርቅ የሆነውን ውሃችንን በመበከል፤ እጅግ አሳዛኝ የሆነ ተግባር፣ ከፍተኛ ወንጀል እና ኃጢአት ይሠራሉ። ለጊዜው ጠበላቱን እንደማይነካ ደርሼበታለሁ፡ ግን፡ እስከ መቼ?! “ጠበል አያድናችሁም፡ እንዲያውም ያሳምማችኋል” ሊለን ነው?

ቸሩ እግዚአብሔር ንብረቱን ይከላከላልና፡ ሕዝባችንንም በአግባቡ ይጠብቅልን!

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The 11 Cities Most Likely To Run Out Of Drinking Water – Like Cape Town

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on February 11, 2018

Cape Town is in the unenviable situation of being the first major city in the modern era to face the threat of running out of drinking water.

However, the plight of the drought-hit South African city is just one extreme example of a problem that experts have long been warning about – water scarcity.

Despite covering about 70% of the Earth’s surface, water, especially drinking water, is not as plentiful as one might think. Only 3% of it is fresh.

Over one billion people lack access to water and another 2.7 billion find it scarce for at least one month of the year. A 2014 survey of the world’s 500 largest cities estimates that one in four are in a situation of “water stress”

According to UN-endorsed projections, global demand for fresh water will exceed supply by 40% in 2030, thanks to a combination of climate change, human action and population growth.

It shouldn’t be a surprise, then, that Cape Town is just the tip of the iceberg. Here are the other 11 cities most likely to run out of water.

1. São Paulo

Brazil’s financial capital and one of the 10 most populated cities in the world went through a similar ordeal to Cape Town in 2015, when the main reservoir fell below 4% capacity.

At the height of the crisis, the city of over 21.7 million inhabitants had less than 20 days of water supply and police had to escort water trucks to stop looting.

It is thought a drought that affected south-eastern Brazil between 2014 and 2017 was to blame, but a UN mission to São Paulo was critical of the state authorities “lack of proper planning and investments”.

The water crisis was deemed “finished” in 2016, but in January 2017 the main reserves were 15% below expected for the period – putting the city’s future water supply once again in doubt.

2. Bangalore

Local officials in the southern Indian city have been bamboozled by the growth of new property developments following Bangalore’s rise as a technological hub and are struggling to manage the city’s water and sewage systems.

To make matters worse, the city’s antiquated plumbing needs an urgent upheaval; a report by the national government found that the city loses over half of its drinking water to waste.

Like China, India struggles with water pollution and Bangalore is no different: an in-depth inventory of the city’s lakes found that 85% had water that could only be used for irrigation and industrial cooling.

Not a single lake had suitable water for drinking or bathing.

3. Beijing

The World Bank classifies water scarcity as when people in a determined location receive less than 1,000 cubic metres of fresh water per person a year.

In 2014, each of the more than 20 million inhabitants of Beijing had only 145 cubic metres.

China is home to almost 20% of the world’s population but has only 7% of the world’s fresh water.

A Columbia University study estimates that the country’s reserves declined 13% between 2000 and 2009.

4. Cairo

Once crucial to the establishment of one of the world’s greatest civilisations, the River Nile is struggling in modern times.

It is the source of 97% of Egypt’s water but also the destination of increasing amounts of untreated agricultural, and residential waste.

World Health Organization figures show that Egypt ranks high among lower middle-income countries in terms of the number of deaths related to water pollution.

The UN estimates critical shortages in the country by 2025.

5. Jakarta

Like many coastal cities, the Indonesian capital faces the threat of rising sea levels.

But in Jakarta the problem has been made worse by direct human action. Because less than half of the city’s 10 million residents have access to piped water, illegal digging of wells is rife. This practice is draining the underground aquifers, almost literally deflating them.

As a consequence, about 40% of Jakarta now lies below sea level, according to World Bank estimates.

To make things worse, aquifers are not being replenished despite heavy rain because the prevalence of concrete and asphalt means that open fields cannot absorb rainfall.

6. Moscow

One-quarter of the world’s fresh water reserves are in Russia, but the country is plagued by pollution problems caused by the industrial legacy of the Soviet era.

That is specifically worrying for Moscow, where the water supply is 70% dependent on surface water.

Official regulatory bodies admit that 35% to 60% of total drinking water reserves in Russia do not meet sanitary standards

7. Istanbul

According to official Turkish government figures, the country is technically in a situation of a water stress, since the per capita supply fell below 1,700 cubic metres in 2016.

Local experts have warned that the situation could worsen to water scarcity by 2030.

In recent years, heavily populated areas like Istanbul (14 million inhabitants) have begun to experience shortages in the drier months.

The city’s reservoir levels declined to less than 30 percent of capacity at the beginning of 2014.

8. Mexico City

Water shortages are nothing new for many of the 21 million inhabitants of the Mexican capital.

One in five get just a few hours from their taps a week and another 20% have running water for just part of the day.

The city imports as much as 40% of its water from distant sources but has no large-scale operation for recycling wastewater. Water losses because of problems in the pipe network are also estimated at 40%.

9. London

Of all the cities in the world, London is not the first that springs to mind when one thinks of water shortages.

The reality is very different. With an average annual rainfall of about 600mm (less than the Paris average and only about half that of New York), London draws 80% of its water from rivers (the Thames and Lea).

According to the Greater London Authority, the city is pushing close to capacity and is likely to have supply problems by 2025 and “serious shortages” by 2040.

It looks likely that hosepipe bans could become more common in the future.

10. Tokyo

The Japanese capital enjoys precipitation levels similar to that of Seattle on the US west coast, which has a reputation for rain. Rainfall, however, is concentrated during just four months of the year.

That water needs to be collected, as a drier-than-expected rainy season could lead to a drought. At least 750 private and public buildings in Tokyo have rainwater collection and utilisation systems.

Home to more than 30 million people, Tokyo has a water system that depends 70% on surface water (rivers, lakes, and melted snow).

Recent investment in the pipeline infrastructure aims also to reduce waste by leakage to only 3% in the near future.

11. Miami

The US state of Florida is among the five US states most hit by rain every year. However, there is a crisis brewing in its most famous city, Miami.

An early 20th Century project to drain nearby swamps had an unforeseen result; water from the Atlantic Ocean contaminated the Biscayne Aquifer, the city’s main source of fresh water.

Although the problem was detected in the 1930s, seawater still leaks in, especially because the American city has experienced faster rates of sea level rise, with water breaching underground defence barriers installed in recent decades.

Neighbouring cities are already struggling. Hallandale Beach, which is just a few miles north of Miami, had to close six of its eight wells due to saltwater intrusion.

Source

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Volcanic Suppression Of Nile Summer Flooding Triggers Revolt And Constrains Interstate Conflict In Ancient Egypt

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 20, 2017

Abstract

Volcanic eruptions provide tests of human and natural system sensitivity to abrupt shocks because their repeated occurrence allows the identification of systematic relationships in the presence of random variability. Here we show a suppression of Nile summer flooding via the radiative and dynamical impacts of explosive volcanism on the African monsoon, using climate model output, ice-core-based volcanic forcing data, Nilometer measurements, and ancient Egyptian writings. We then examine the response of Ptolemaic Egypt (305–30 BCE), one of the best-documented ancient superpowers, to volcanically induced Nile suppression. Eruptions are associated with revolt onset against elite rule, and the cessation of Ptolemaic state warfare with their great rival, the Seleukid Empire. Eruptions are also followed by socioeconomic stress with increased hereditary land sales, and the issuance of priestly decrees to reinforce elite authority. Ptolemaic vulnerability to volcanic eruptions offers a caution for all monsoon-dependent agricultural regions, presently including 70% of world population.

Introduction

The need to adapt to and mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic climate change has revived interest in longstanding but unsettled questions concerning how past climatic changes have influenced human societies1. Egypt provides a unique historical laboratory in which to study social vulnerability and response to abrupt hydroclimatic shocks. As one of the Ancient World’s great “hydraulic civilizations”2, its prosperity was overwhelmingly tied to the annual cycle of Nile summer flooding, with diminished flooding (Nile failure) often associated with major human impacts through its many millennia of recorded history3. Of all Ancient Egyptian history, that of Ptolemaic Egypt (305–30 BCE; Fig. 1a) is most richly furnished with contemporary documentation. As the longest-lived successor to Alexander the Great’s empire, the Ptolemaic state was a major force in the transformative Hellenistic era, a period marked by large-scale conflict but also material and cultural achievement. Ptolemaic Egypt featured one of the largest cities of the Ancient Mediterranean (Alexandria), including the Great Library and Lighthouse, and was a hub for invention, boasting minds such as Euclid and Archimedes. Technological advances such as the saqiya4, a rotary-wheel water-lifting machine documented by the mid-third century BCE, maslin (mixed wheat-barley) cropping, as well as grain storage, acted to mitigate the impacts of the mercurial Nile flood. Families also distributed land in geographically dispersed individual shares to further hedge against the risk of Nile failure, and tailored agricultural decisions to annual flood conditions6. External territories (e.g., Anatolia, Syria) capable of rainfed agriculture also helped buffer the state against Nile failure. The existence of these mitigation and adaptation strategies highlights the importance of managing Nile variability in Ptolemaic Egypt, yet discussion of the impact of hydroclimatic shocks is effectively absent from modern histories of the period.

At ~6825 km, the Nile is among the Earth’s great rivers, fed by rainfall in Africa’s equatorial plateau (mainly via the White Nile) and the Ethiopian Highlands (mainly via the Blue Nile and Atbara rivers)8. Before twentieth century damming, the summer flood, driven primarily by monsoon rainfall in the Ethiopian highlands, began with rising waters observed at Aswan as early as June, peaking from August to September, and largely receding by the end of October, when crop sowing began2. Nile flood suppression from historical eruptions has been little studied, despite Nile failures with severe social impacts coinciding with eruptions su

Explosive eruptions can perturb climate by injecting sulfurous gases into the stratosphere; these gases react to form reflective sulfate aerosols that remain aloft in decreasing concentrations for approximately one to two years11. While most studies of the climatic effects of volcanism have focused on temperature changes, contemporary and historical societies were also vulnerable to hydrological changes12. Hydroclimate is harder to reconstruct and model, but studies are increasingly noting global and regional hydroclimatic impacts from explosive volcanism. Volcanic aerosols influence hydroclimate through multiple mechanisms. Aerosol scattering of solar radiation to space reduces tropospheric temperatures; if lower-tropospheric relative humidities remain unchanged, the mass of water converged by a given wind distribution decreases, and precipitation minus surface evaporation (P-E) is thus reduced21. This thermodynamic effect may represent the principal means by which equatorially symmetric aerosol distributions from tropical eruptions alter P–E15. In addition, extratropical eruptions increase sulfate aerosols on one side of the equator, cool that hemisphere, and may thus alter tropical P–E primarily by changing winds. In particular, a high-latitude energy sink in one hemisphere forces an anomalous Hadley circulation, shifting the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) away from that energy sink1. Aerosol cooling of northern high latitudes can thus force a southward shift of northern hemisphere (NH) summer monsoon precipitation, promoting drought in the northern parts of monsoon regions. These energy-budget arguments provide a more fundamental perspective on the controls on tropical rainfall than arguments based on land-ocean temperature contrast because large-scale tropical circulations are driven by horizontal gradients in the total (sensible plus latent) energy input to the atmosphere24. The hypothesis that a decrease in land-ocean temperature contrast will cause monsoon rainfall to weaken has been disproven by the observation that continental monsoon regions are cooler during years of enhanced monsoon precipitation25, and by the fact that monsoon winds weaken as land-ocean temperature contrast strengthens in projections of next-century warming.

Source

Egypt | The Pollution of the Nile River


Source of Pollution

1. Factories

There are about 700 facilities manufacturing a variety different products located along the Nile river. Some of these facilities dump chemicals into the Nile, while others’ runoff finds its way to the water.

Some of the chemicals that find their way into the river would be phosphors, nitrogen, and pesticide residue. Once dumped, these chemicals can have negative affects on the microorganisms living in the water, by increasing the population of unhealthy bacteria by 50%-180%

2. Food Industry

Studies show that more then 350 different factories discharge their waste in to the Nile. The majority of these factories are involved in the food industry.
The Nile is suffering from the amount of agricultural waste that’s being dumped into the river. The waste is full of toxic chemicals like detergents, heavy metals, and pesticides. Discharge of oil and grease can come from untreated domestic waste water. Fortunately, those chemicals can be treated and removed from the water, but some like mutagens, and neurotoxins remain unaffected by water treatment.

3. Phosphate

On April 22 2015, an Egyptian military owned barge spilled 500 tons of phosphate in to the Nile.

Phosphate is a mineral that comes from rocks when they are eroding. In small amounts, phosphate is good for water bodies. For example, it can help the growth of plankton and aquatic plants.

But in large amounts, like what was dumped into the Nile, it is very harmful. The mineral can cause a nutrient imbalance in the water, which can damage the aquatic plants and kill them, and can also speed up the aging process of the river.

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20 Dirtiest Cities in The World

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on July 30, 2016

AirQuality

Most large cities in the developing world are breaching global air pollution guidelines, according to new data from the World Health Organization.

Air pollution has risen by 8% globally in the past five years, with the WHO estimating that it causes 3 million premature deaths a year, making it one of the greatest environmental risks to human health.

The latest urban air quality data, collected between 2011 and 2015, reveals that 98% of cities with over 100,000 inhabitants in low- and middle-income countries do not meet WHO air quality guidelines.

So which cities have the worst air quality?

Of the 3,000 cities in the WHO’s air quality database, the most polluted at the time of measurement was Onitsha, a fast-growing city in Nigeria, which recorded roughly 30 times more than the WHO’s recommended levels of PM10 particles. Peshawar in Pakistan was in second place, followed by Zabol in Iran.

These cities are mostly located in rapidly growing economies in the Middle East and South East Asia. Four of the 20 urban areas with the worst air quality at the time of measurement were in Nigeria, three were in Saudi Arabia, three were in India, and two in Iran.

China, which has been working to tackle its air pollution problem, is the only country with just one city on the most polluted list.

The Eastern Mediterranean (covering the Middle East and parts of North Africa) and South East Asia were the regions that performed worst overall in the database – with urban air pollution rising 5% in more than two-thirds of cities. Annual mean levels of air pollution in cities in these regions often exceeded five to 10 times WHO limits.

Among mega-cities (urban areas with over 14 million inhabitants) Delhi and Cairo had the highest levels of urban air pollution.

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The report urges policy-makers at international, national and city level to promote cleaner transport, more efficient energy production and waste management.

Despite the bad news, the data also revealed that more than half of the monitored cities in high-income countries and more than one-third in low and middle-income countries reduced their air pollution levels by more than 5% in five years.

Commenting on the data, Dr Maria Neira, Director of the WHO’s Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health, said: “Urban air pollution continues to rise at an alarming rate, wreaking havoc on human health.

At the same time, awareness is rising and more cities are monitoring their air quality. When air quality improves, global respiratory and cardiovascular-related illnesses decrease.”

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Rich Nations Destroying Planet Earth

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on November 28, 2012

Happy is the man whose wish and care a few paternal acres bound, content to breathe his native air in his own ground while arising in the morning, thinking of what a precious privilege it is to be alive – to breathe, to think, to enjoy, to love.

My note: Rich nations are the cause of many things which are destroying our planet. The natural world, the earth itself; the air, the trees, the vast realms of animals, plants, oceans, deserts and mountains are increasingly losing meaning and value in the self-hypnotized, narcissistic lives of greedy nations. It’s sad indeed when we ignore the real thing around us which is our natural surrounding environment, including the spiritual nature of our being, and instead remain culled to a collective mechanical-vision of the artificial man-made life. Christianity teaches that, of all the creatures and life-forms upon this planet, only human beings have souls that can be saved, yet, those rich nations that abandoned the Christian faith are allying themselves with evil Arab states like Saudi Arabia and its tiny Wahhabi satellite nation of Qatar. These nation were willing to sell their souls in their quest “to inherit this earth”, and ultimately destroy it mercilessly.

And what do you benefit if you gain the whole world but lose your own soul? Is anything worth more than your soul?” Matthew 16:26

Doha, Qatar is hosting the latest round of United Nations talks on climate change. But can a major oil and gas hub with the highest carbon footprint per person in the world and inhospitable climate lead the way on a switch to a green economy?

According to the World Wildlife Fund’s latest report, Qatar still has the world’s largest carbon footprint

It’s been a couple of years since Qatar was awarded the ‘largest carbon footprint in the world‘ title (relative to the size of its population), but it appears little has changed since then. Despite various green initiative such as supporting local farms and ensuring that all new mosques were eco, they are still spewing record amounts of carbon for such a tiny nation. And once again, the nations next on the list were Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. It seems that old habits die hard and no more so than in the Gulf.

The fact that these countries are amongst the richest nations in the Middle East is clearly part of the problem – well, it’s part of the explanation anyhow. According to the WWF Living Planet report, high-income countries have an ecological footprint on average five times higher than that of low-income nations.

Carbon

Doha has the largest carbon footprint per person in the world. Qataris use five times the amount of carbon than the average Briton, at 44 metric tonnes per person per year in 2009. This is largely because of energy intensive air conditioning and desalination plants for water. Because water and electricity is free, there is little incentive to cut usage.

Gas

The UK spends more on gas from Qatar than any other country. In 2011 the UK spent £4.25bn on Qatari gas, 70 per cent more than our next largest import partner, Norway.

This is not because the UK imports more gas from Qatar than Norway but because it is much more expensive.

The tiny emirate has more than 15 per cent of the world’s proven gas reserves and has talked about using “unconventional sources” in future, opening the possibility of deepwater drilling or shale.

Human rights

Migrant workers, including workers on gas rigs, make up more than 80 per cent of Qatar’s population and come mostly from south and south-east Asia.

Continue reading: Modern Slavery: The Plight of Foreign Workers in Qatar

Climate reputation

As a developing country Qatar does not have fixed emission reduction targets, nor has it made any voluntary pledge to cut emissions.

There will be pressure on Qatar and other Middle Eastern countries to announce targets during the UN meeting.

Source: WWF; Telegraph

List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

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The Future of Electric Vehicles

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on July 17, 2012

1.) Ford thinks hybrids will beat electric cars. Electric cars are clean and high-tech and seem like they should be the future, many say. But while visionaries and gadget-geeks alike clamor for more automotive electrification, the big global auto manufacturers continue to hedge their bets, with Ford the latest to join the chorus of concern.

2.) As battery prices drop, will electric cars finally catch on? At the moment, Americans aren’t exactly dashing out to dealerships to buy electric cars. The plug-in Nissan Leaf, which runs 75 miles on a single charge, has seen sales plummet since June 2011.

3.) Group aims to develop electric cars for Singapore. A Singapore-based investment holding firm led by a Chinese entrepreneur announced an ambitious plan on Saturday to develop and market electric vehicles from the city state.

4.) 10 electric cars you can buy this year. [Gallery]

5.) The extra mile: Solar car charger panel tracks sun. The summer of 2012 has been scorching hot. The heat at times has been practically unbearable. There is one advantage to the rays emitting from the sun these days: free energy for electric vehicles.

Source: smartplanet.com

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Diesel Fumes Cause Lung Cancer

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 19, 2012

ይህ ዜና እንደ አዲስ አበባ ያሉ ከተሞችን ይመለከታል። አዲስ አበባ ገና ብዙ መኪኖች የሏትም፡ ነገር ግን ከፍተኛ ቦታ ላይ ስለምትገኝና ብዙ የዲዘል ጭስ የሚያወጡ መኪኖች ስለሚንቀሳቀሱ ነዋሪዎቿ ለብዙ ዓይነት በሽታዎች የመጋለጥ እድሉ ይኖራቸዋል። ይህ እጅግ በጣም አሳሳቢ ጉዳይ ነው። 

Diesel fumes cause lung cancer, the World Health Organization declared Tuesday, and experts said they were more carcinogenic than secondhand cigarette smoke.

The W.H.O. decision, the first to elevate diesel to the “known carcinogen” level, may eventually affect some American workers who are heavily exposed to exhaust. It is particularly relevant to poor countries, where trucks, generators, and farm and factory machinery routinely belch clouds of sooty smoke and fill the air with sulfurous particulates.

The United States and other wealthy nations have less of a problem because they require modern diesel engines to burn much cleaner than they did even a decade ago. Most industries, like mining, already have limits on the amount of diesel fumes to which workers may be exposed.

 

Continue reading…

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Parasite Gulf States Abuse Mother Nature Worst

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on May 22, 2012

The three tiny Gulf states – Qatar, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates – hold among the not so prestigious top places in a recent listing of the world’s nations’ Ecological Footprints.

According to the 2012 edition of WWF’s Living Planet Report, if everyone lived like an average resident of Qatar, more than six Earths would be required to regenerate humanity’s annual demand on nature.

We are living as if we have an extra planet at our disposal. We are using 50 per cent more resources that the Earth can sustainably produce and unless we change course, that number will grow fast – by 2030 even two planets will not be enough,” said Jim Leape, Director General of WWF International.

Unsurprisingly, the massive Ecological Footprints of Qatar, Kuwait and the UAE are the result of very large carbon footprints.

The report also notes that the residents of these countries are very dependent on the resources of other nations to meet their needs, which is highly likely to have strong geopolitical implications as resources become more strained in the future.

Using ever more nature, while having less is a dangerous strategy, yet most countries continue to pursue this path. Until countries begin tracking and managing their biocapacity deficits, they not only put the planet at risk, but more importantly, themselves,” said Mathis Wackernagel, President of Global Footprint Network.

NATURE-ABUSER states ranked higher:

Rank

Countries

Amount

1

United Arab Emirates

15.99

1

Qatar

15.99

2

United States

12.22

3

Kuwait

10.31

4

Denmark

9.88

5

New Zealand

9.54

6

Ireland

9.43

7

Australia

8.49

8

Finland

8.45

9

Canada

7.66

10

Sweden

7.53

11

France

7.27

12

Estonia

7.12

13

Switzerland

6.63

14

Germany

6.31

15

Czech Republic

6.3

16

United Kingdom

6.29

17

Saudi Arabia

6.15

18

Norway

6.13

19

Iceland

6.02

20

Japan

5.94

21

Belgium

5.88

22

Netherlands

5.75

23

Korea, South

5.6

24

Greece

5.58

25

Italy

5.51

26

Spain

5.5

27

Austria

5.45

28

Slovenia

5.4

28

Poland

5.4

28

Israel

5.4

31

Russia

5.36

32

Belarus

5.27

33

Hungary

5.01

34

Portugal

4.99

35

Uruguay

4.91

36

Lithuania

4.76

36

Ukraine

4.76

38

Kazakhstan

4.45

39

Libya

4.36

40

Mongolia

4.3

41

South Africa

4.04

42

Slovakia

3.94

43

Bulgaria

3.81

44

Argentina

3.79

45

Latvia

3.74

46

Malaysia

3.68

47

Turkmenistan

3.62

48

Romania

3.49

49

Oman

3.39

49

Chile

3.39

51

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

3.24

52

Lebanon

3.19

53

Venezuela

2.88

54

Paraguay

2.84

55

Costa Rica

2.77

56

Turkey

2.73

57

Thailand

2.7

58

Mexico

2.69

59

Jamaica

2.68

60

Uzbekistan

2.65

61

Brazil

2.6

62

Syria

2.56

63

Iran

2.47

63

Moldova

2.47

65

Trinidad and Tobago

2.43

66

Croatia

2.35

66

Panama

2.35

68

Tunisia

2.27

69

Ecuador

2.26

70

Azerbaijan

2.18

71

Cuba

2.1

72

Gabon

2.06

73

Korea, North

1.92

74

Colombia

1.9

75

Kyrgyzstan

1.87

76

Albania

1.86

77

China

1.84

78

Algeria

1.79

79

Iraq

1.73

80

Jordan

1.71

81

Egypt

1.7

82

Botswana

1.68

83

Morocco

1.56

84

El Salvador

1.55

85

Indonesia

1.48

86

Zimbabwe

1.45

87

Honduras

1.43

88

Philippines

1.42

89

Papua New Guinea

1.4

89

Guatemala

1.4

91

Dominica

1.37

92

Peru

1.33

93

Nigeria

1.31

94

Bosnia and Herzegovina

1.29

94

Bolivia

1.29

96

Nicaragua

1.26

97

Mauritania

1.22

98

Zambia

1.21

99

Liberia

1.16

99

Armenia

1.16

101

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

1.15

101

Kenya

1.15

103

Sudan

1.14

104

Ghana

1.12

104

Central African Republic

1.12

106

Pakistan

1.09

107

Burma

1.07

108

Senegal

1.06

108

India

1.06

110

Tanzania

1.02

111

Nepal

1.01

112

Gambia, The

0.99

113

Somalia

0.97

113

Niger

0.97

113

Benin

0.97

116

Cote d’Ivoire

0.95

116

Sri Lanka

0.95

116

Vietnam

0.95

119

Madagascar

0.93

120

Laos

0.91

121

Tajikistan

0.9

121

Rwanda

0.9

121

Burkina Faso

0.9

124

Cameroon

0.89

125

Uganda

0.88

126

Malawi

0.87

127

Mali

0.86

128

Ethiopia

0.85

128

Guinea

0.85

130

Cambodia

0.83

131

Angola

0.82

131

Togo

0.82

133

Guinea-Bissau

0.8

134

Bhutan

0.79

135

Haiti

0.78

136

Mozambique

0.76

137

Burundi

0.75

137

Chad

0.75

139

Sierra Leone

0.73

140

Namibia

0.66

SOURCE: World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

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Dangerous Vehicular Emission in Addis Abeba

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on July 17, 2009


AddisGoteraJunc2Coupled with the increasing activity in key social and economic sectors, vehicular emission becoming number one cause for pollution in Addis Abeba and contributing significantly to health hazard which has gradually grown into a major environmental concern for policy makers, environmental experts disclosed on Tuesday.

“Today, the single largest source of urban air pollution in Ethiopia is the emission from motor vehicles which needs to carry out evaluation of vehicles and assessment of health impacts of air pollution in the metropolis,” Tibebu Salehu , an environmental activist working for Forum for Environment (FfE) said in a high profile briefing organised by FfE at Hilton Hotel.

Continue reading…

Of course, this is a very worrisome development for the Addis City-Dwellers. Worrisome, because, the health hazards for Addis’ population in particular living at elevation ( 7000-8500 feet or 2200-2600 meters) with low oxygen content, and being exposed to a strong ultraviolet light, could be far more devastating than in places like Cairo, Tehran, Lagos or Beijing.

Living in a town with serious pollution is like living under a death sentence

It’s known that one of the most worrisome vehicle emissions is carbon dioxide. While carbon dioxide is not toxic to humans, it contributes to global warming. Carbon monoxide is another vehicle emission that actually is toxic to humans. Formed from incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide is especially dangerous for people with heart disease because it cuts down the blood’s ability to carry oxygen to the lungs and throughout the body.

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C40 Large Cities – Climate

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 14, 2009

C40 Climate Summit

C40_Cities

SEOUL Declaration 18-21 May 2009

Source: http://www.c40cities.org/

Having met at the third Summit of the C40 Climate Leadership Group (hereinafter “Group”) in Seoul,

Sharing the view that the earth and human beings are facing serious threats caused by climate change and that it is necessary to address these challenges by taking immediate and collective actions based on the principles of co-existence, mutual benefit, and common but differentiated responsibilities.

Recognising that at present over 50% of the world’s population lives in cities, which now account for 75% of global energy consumption and 80% of global greenhouse gas emissions and at this rate, by 2030, two thirds of the world’s population is predicted to live in urban areas,

Further recognising that densely populated cities and their citizens are facing fundamental lifestyle changes in the areas of housing, transportation, and other services, and, at the same time, are exposed to numerous threats, including extreme weather events, natural disasters and newly emerging diseases,

Reaffirming that cities must take responsibility for their contribution to climate change, and establish and implement immediate and practical measures for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the threats caused by climate change at the individual city level,

Further reaffirming that it is important for C40 cities to cooperate with all cities around the world and share best practice and technologies, and that cities in developed countries need to assist the efforts of cities in developing countries in taking actions as they are more vulnerable to climate change and have lower capacity to cope with environmental hazards,

Proclaim that:

C40 cities hereby set a common goal of transforming themselves into low-carbon cities, by cutting greenhouse gas emissions to the largest extent possible, by adapting themselves to the unavoidable climate change consequences, by making cities less vulnerable to climate change, and by enhancing cities’ capacity for remediation.

C40 cities identify their current level of carbon emissions from all city operations and stages of community development including urban planning, design and infrastructure building. Cities reduce emissions wherever possible through policies, programmes and projects and taking steps to negate the impact of remaining emissions.

C40 cities continue to catalogue and monitor their greenhouse gas emissions and implement Climate Change Action Plans. C40 cities include measures or targets for greenhouse gas reductions and specific policies, projects and programmes with a schedule for implementation wherever possible. The majority of C40 cities have already completed Climate Change Action Plans. C40 cities that are reviewing existing plans or developing new Climate Change Action Plans are asked to consider the measures presented in the attached Annex: Policies and Measures to Address Climate Change. The 2011 C40 Summit will include a review of progress on the implementation of Climate Change Action Plans.

C40 cities actively work together to accelerate delivery of low-carbon technologies, programmes and financing, including through active coordination in procurement of specific technologies through the C40 Secretariat.

C40 cities work collaboratively with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and other international bodies, national governments, non-governmental organisations, and eco-friendly businesses, including sharing goals and experiences and, in some instances, engaging in joint projects, and providing resources. We are committed to delivering common awareness and measures outlined in the UNFCCC to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and tackle climate change

In the run up to the COP15 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, the leading role of cities in the global effort against climate change must be recognised. C40 cities and all cities with shared goals, must be engaged, empowered and resourced, so that cities can work together to deliver on greenhouse gas reduction targets and stop climate change.

Cities will notify the C40 Secretariat of the names of staff in charge of climate change policies and programmes to enhance implementation of various action items set forth in this Declaration, as well as report on their established measures, targets and achievements at the 4th C40 Summit and subsequent summits

The C40 Climate Leadership Group calls upon cities and their citizens to exert their efforts to address the threats caused by climate change for the benefit of all the people and future generations.

Annex Policies and Measures to Address Climate Change in Cities

To tackle climate change, cities shall adopt and implement policies and measures most suitable to their circumstances. It is important that C40 cities cooperate with all cities around the world and share best practices and technologies. The Clinton Climate Initiative has developed a Measurement Tool that each C40 city can use to calculate a baseline inventory of current emissions. The tool will also allow cities to track progress on their climate change goals.

In establishing their own Climate Change Action Plans, cities will give preferential consideration to the following measures proven to be effective in many cities.

  1. To take a systematic and secure approach, take institutional measures such as enacting city ordinances based on technical studies, engaging in long-term planning, and establishing Climate Change Funds.

  2. To avoid, mitigate, or delay the impact of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions:

      • adopt eco-friendly architectural design guidelines for construction, lighting, and insulation, etc., introduce a new and renewable energy certification, prescribed ratio of new and renewable energy for new and renovated buildings, and promote eco-friendly buildings and rationalise energy consumption by providing incentives for energy-efficient designs;

      • establish a sustainable transport system through policies that favour public transit and encourage the use of bicycles, promote sustainable land-use and urban design, including preserving natural landscape, continuous expansion of green areas and other eco-spaces and conduct urban planning with focus on low-energy consumption;

      • expand citywide resource reclamation and reuse facilities and promote recycling programmes, and

      • raise the share of new and renewable energy in the total energy mix.

  1. To adapt cities to the unavoidable climate change consequences, providing citizens with a secure environment and higher quality of life by conducting forecasting analysis and thus minimising the damages caused by climate change:
      • prepare for disasters by building infrastructure and establishing management plans that will protect citizens against extreme weather events;

      • ensure networks such as disaster information systems and weather observation facilities are in place ;

      • prepare measures to protect population groups most vulnerable to intense heat waves and improve the monitoring and control systems for communicable and other diseases;

      • strengthen ability to anticipate changes in the urban eco-system, improve monitoring of air and other types of pollution, and enhance early warning systems;

      • improve energy demand management, such as ability to forecast and respond to fluctuations in seasonal energy demands;

      • reflect climate change impacts, such as heat island effects, in the urban planning process; and

        improve water resource management.

  1. To promote the engagement of city residents to address climate change effectively:
      • provide tools for measuring individual carbon footprints and the amount of emission generated by normal, daily activities of citizens;

      • develop and promote practical ways for a low-carbon lifestyle,

      • support activities of civic organisations to tackle climate change.

      • Promote environmental educational policies to prepare next generations for climate change and to think on what citizens can do to develop a sustainable lifestyle and mitigate greenhouse gas emission

  • ________________________________________________________

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – view on map

Leader: Mayor Kuma Demeksa
Population: 3,146,999
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.addisababacity.gov.et

Athens, Greece – view on map

Leader: Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis
Population: 3,072,992
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cityofathens.gr

Bangkok, Thailand – view on map

Leader: Governor Apirak Kosayodhin
Population: 8,160,552
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.bangkoktourist.com

Beijing, China – view on map

Leader: Mayor Guo Jinlong
Population: 15,380,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn

Berlin, Germany – view on map

Leader: Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit
Population: 3,387,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.berlin.de/english

Bogotá, Colombia – view on map

Leader: Alcalde Mayor de Bogotá Samuel Mareno
Population: 8,550,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.bogotaturismo.gov.co

Buenos Aires, Argentina – view on map

Leader: Mayor Mauricio Macri
Population: 3,034,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.buenosaires.gov.ar

Cairo, Egypt – view on map

Leader: Governor Abdel Azim Wazir
Population: 6,800,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cairo.gov.eg

Caracas, Venezuela – view on map

Leader: Mayor Antonio Ledezma
Population: 3,140,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.alcaldiamayor.gob.ve

Chicago, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Richard M. Daley
Population: 2,833,000
Chicago Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/home.do

Delhi NCT, India – view on map

Leader: Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit
Population: 17,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: delhigovt.nic.in

Dhaka, Bangladesh – view on map

Leader: Mayor Sadeque Hossain Khoka
Population: 6,700,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.dhakacity.org

Hanoi, Vietnam – view on map

Leader: Chairman of the Hanoi Municipal People’s Committee Nguyen The Thao
Population: 3,399,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.hanoi.gov.vn/hanoien

Houston, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Bill White
Population: 2,200,000
Houston Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.houstontx.gov

Hong Kong, China – view on map

Leader: Chief Executive Donald Tsang
Population: 6,985,000
Hong Kong Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.gov.hk

Istanbul, Turkey – view on map

Leader: Mayor Kadir Topbas
Population: 11,373,000
City status: Participating city
Website: english.istanbul.gov.tr

Jakarta, Indonesia – view on map

Leader: Governor Fauzi Bowo
Population: 8,389,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.jakarta.go.id/v21/home/default.asp?lg=2

Johannesburg, South Africa – view on map

Leader: Mayor Amos Masondo
Population: 3,888,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.joburg.org.za

Karachi, Pakistan – view on map

Leader: Nazim Syed Mustafa Kamal
Population: 16,500,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.karachicity.gov.pk

Lagos, Nigeria – view on map

Leader: Governor of Lagos State Babatunde Raji Fashola
Population: 7,938,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.lagosstate.gov.ng

Lima, Peru – view on map

Leader: Mayor of Metropolitan Lima Luís Castañeda Lossio

Population: 7,800,000

City status: Participating cityWebsite: http://www.munlima.gob.pe

London, United Kingdom – view on map

Leader: Mayor Boris Johnson
Population: 7,500,000
London Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.london.gov.uk

Los Angeles, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa
Population: 3,800,000
Los Angeles Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.ci.la.ca.us

Madrid, Spain – view on map

Leader: Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón
Population: 3,200,000
Madrid Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.munimadrid.es

Melbourne, Australia – view on map

Leader: Lord Mayor Robert Doyle
Population: 3,800,000
Melbourne Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au

Mexico City, Mexico – view on map

Leader: Mayor Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon
Population: 8,700,000
Mexico City Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.df.gob.mx/

Moscow, Russia – view on map

Leader: Mayor Yuri Mikhailovich Luzhkov
Population: 10,300,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.mos.ru/

Mumbai, India – view on map

Leader: Mayor Shubha Raul
Population: 13,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.mcgm.gov.in/

New York, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Population: 8,200,000
New York Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.nyc.gov

Paris, France – view on map

Leader: Mayor Bertrand Delanoë
Population: 2,200,000
Paris Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.paris.fr

Philadelphia, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Michael Nutter
Population: 5,800,000
Philadelphia Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.phila.gov

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – view on map

Leader: Prefeito Eduardo Paes
Population: 6,100,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.rio.rj.gov.br

Rome, Italy – view on map

Leader: Mayor Gianni Alemanno
Population: 4,000,000
Rome Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.comune.roma.it

Sao Paulo, Brazil – view on map

Leader: Mayor Gilberto Kassab
Population: 10,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.capital.sp.gov.br

Seoul, South Korea – view on map

Leader: Mayor Oh Se-hoon
Population: 10,300,000
City status: Participating city
Website: english.seoul.go.kr

Shanghai, China – view on map

Leader: Mayor Han Zheng
Population: 18,450,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.shanghai.gov.cn/shanghai/node8059/index.html

Sydney, Australia – view on map

Leader: Lord Mayor Clover More
Population: 4,280,000
Sydney Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au

Tokyo, Japan – view on map

Leader: Governor Shintaro Ishihara
Population: 12,800,000
Tokyo Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/

Toronto, Canada – view on map

Leader: Mayor David Miller
Population: 5,500,000
Toronto Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.toronto.ca

Warsaw, Poland – view on map

Leader: Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz Waltz
Population: 3,350,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.e-warsaw.pl

Posted in Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »

 
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