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Posts Tagged ‘Mussolini’

After Ending Ethiopia’s Trade Status, US Weighs Sanctions, Genocide Designation Over Tigray War

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on November 3, 2021

The Biden administration is ending Ethiopia’s special trade status under U.S. law — the latest penalty imposed on the Ethiopian government amid its ongoing war with the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front, the regional force that once controlled the federal government.

The decision, announced Tuesday by the White House, comes amid an expansion in the conflict, which has its anniversary Wednesday. The U.S. special envoy for the Horn of Africa warned it could spill out into a wider civil war, threatening even more suffering for the Ethiopian people and more instability in the region.

To halt that expansion and push both sides to negotiate, the administration has prepared targeted U.S. sanctions against figures on all sides, according to two sources familiar with the plans.

The State Department has also prepared a declaration that the Ethiopian government’s atrocities against Tigrayans constitute a genocide, both sources said, although it’s unclear whether Secretary of State Antony Blinken will sign it and when.

While those first sanctions could come soon, it’s the suspension of Ethiopia’s trade status under the African Growth and Opportunity Act on Tuesday that marked a new step. In a message to Congress, President Joe Biden said Ethiopia’s “gross violations of internationally recognized human rights” made it ineligible for AGOA under the law.

The suspension is required under U.S. law, but it is also seen as another warning shot across Abiy’s bow — with a potentially strong economic impact on the country, which exports between $100 million and $200 million to the U.S. each year, according to various estimates.

But it won’t take effect until Jan. 1, 2022, so Ethiopia can still reverse the decision before its implementation, according to Ambassador Jeffrey Feltman, U.S. special envoy for the Horn of Africa.

“It’s not too late to retrace our steps toward the path not taken, but the change in direction must occur in days, not weeks,” he said Tuesday.

Events on the ground, however, show the war is heading in the opposite direction. Abiy’s government declared a national state of emergency Tuesday amid concern that the Tigrayan Defense Forces may move on the capital Addis Ababa after seizing towns just 160 miles to the northeast, according to the Associated Press.

Ethiopia’s Ministry of Trade and Regional Integration criticized the Biden administration’s decision, saying that it was “extremely disappointed” and that the move will “reverse significant economic gains in our country and unfairly impact and harm women and children.”

“We urge the United States to support our ongoing efforts to restore peace and the rule of law — not punish our people for confronting an insurgent force that is attempting to bring down our democratically elected government,” it added in a statement.

But Feltman made clear the U.S. sees Abiy’s government as part of the problem here, in particular because its “unconscionable” blockade on the Tigray region since June has led to shortages of food, medicine, fuel,\ and cash. Some 900,000 people are facing famine-like conditions in the region, according to U.S. estimates.

The United Nations has estimated that 2,000 trucks of aid are needed per month to deal with the humanitarian crisis, but just 1,100 trucks have entered in total since the beginning of July — 13% of what’s required — per Feltman.

“Without question, the most serious obstacles are intentional government delays and denials,” he added during remarks at the U.S. Institute of Peace. “This unfortunately suggests an intentional effort by the authorities to deprive Ethiopians who are suffering of life-saving assistance. … No government should be adopting policies or allowing practices that result in mass starvation of its citizens.”

Feltman was also quick, however, to condemn the TPLF, especially for its “unacceptable” offensives into neighboring Afar and Amhara regions that have worsened the humanitarian situation. He urged them not to march on Addis, too.

Continue reading…

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፲፱፻፳፰/ 1928 ዓ.ም | ኤርትራውያን + ኦሮሞዎች + አማራዎች ከፋሺስት ጣልያን ጎን ተሰለፈው ክርስቲያን ሰሜናውያንን ደበደቧቸው | የደሴ ጭፍጨፋ

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 30, 2021

👉 ገብርኤል 👉 ማርያም 👉 ኡራኤል 👉 ጊዮርጊስ 👉 ተክለ ሐይማኖት 👉 ዮሴፍ 👉 መድኃኔ ዓለም

👉 ከዘጠና ዓመታት በፊት፤

💭 Friday, 6 December 1935

ዓርብ, ኅዳር ፳፮/26 ፡ ፲፱፻፳፰/ 1928 .

በደሴ የቦምብ ጥቃት ሪፖርቶች የፋሺስት ጣልያን ሽብርተኝነት ተረጋግጧል

በሰው ልጅ ታሪክ ከተመዘገቡት እጅግ ኢሰብአዊ ድርጊቶች አንዱ

TERRORISM IN DESSIE BOMBING REPORTS CONFIRMED

“One of the Most Inhuman Acts on Record”

💭 Tuesday, 4 May1934 /ማክሰኞ፡ ሚያዝያ ፳፮ /26፡ ፲፱፻፳፱/1929 .

ልክ እንደዛሬው፤ ተጋሩ ለተዋሕዶ እና ለኢትዮጵያ ደማቸውን ሲያፈሱ፤ ያኔም፤ ከሃዲ ባንዳ ኤርትራውያን፣ ኦሮሞዎች እና አማራዎች ግን ከፋሺስት ጣልያን ጎን ተሰለፈው ክርስቲያን ሰሜናውያንን ለመጨፍጨፍ በጣልያኗ የኤርትራ ሞንቴ ሳክሮ ካምፕ አሽከሮቹ እንዲህ ይሰለጥኑ ነበር፤ ፋሺስቱ ሙሶሊኒ እንደ ግራኝ ባንዳዎቹን ሲጎበኛቸው፤ “አይፈራም፥ አይፈራም ጎበዝ” ፤ “አይፈራም፥ አይፈራም ሞሶሎኒ” ሲሉ ይሰማሉ። ልክ ዛሬ ፕሮቴስታንቱ፣ ሙስሊሙ እና የዋቄዮአላህ ጭፍሮች ሁሉ የኦሮሞ ፋሺስት አገዛዙን ሰአራዊት ወደ አክሱም ጽዮን ባርኮ እንደላከው የሮማ ካቶሊክ ቤተ ክርስቲያንም የፋሺስቱን ሰራዊት ባርካ ወደ ኢትዮጵያ ላከችው።

😈 በወቅቱ በወለጋ ጠቅላይ ግዛት የሚኖሩ ከ፳፭/25 በላይ የሚሆኑ ባላባቶች/እባብ ገንዳዎች፤ “እኛ የወለጋ ሕዝብ. . . የኢጣልያን መንግሥት ተቀብለን በሠላም እንገባለን” ብለው ለሙሶሎኒ የጻፉት ደብዳቤ ከጣሊያን ማሕደር የተገኘ ነው። ይህ አባብ ገንዳ ባንዶቹ ለፋሺስት ጣልያን ከጻፏቸው ብዙ ደብዳቤዎቻቸው መካከል አንዱ ነው።

💭 ታሪክ እራሷን እየደገመች ነው!

በናዝሬት፣ ደብረዘይት፣ ጅማ፣ አዲስ አበባ እና በሌሎች የኦሮሚያ ከተሞችና መንደሮች ተጋሩ በኦሮሞዎችና አማራዎች ተለቅመው እየታገቱና እየተገደሉ ነው!ንብረቶቻቸውንም ሁሉ እየተዘረፉ ነው። ግፍ መስራቱ ገና አልበቃቸውም፤ ያኔ ፋሺስት ጣልያን ያልሠራውን ግፍ ነው በዚህ ዘመን እየሠሩ ያሉት፤ የመጸጸት እንኳን ፍንጭ የለም! እንግዲህ ከመቶ ዓመታት በፊት ፳፯/27 ጥንታውያን የኢትዮጵያ ነገዶችን ከምድረገጽ ያጠፏቸው ኦሮሞዎች/ጋሎች እና ጭፍሮቻቸው ላለፉት 130 ዓመታት በጽዮናውያን ላይ የፈጸሙት በታሪክ የማይረሳ ግፍ በእግዚአብሔር ዘንድ በቪዲዮ ተቀርጿል፤ አቤት እይመጣባቸሁ ያለው መቅሰፍት!

🔥 Amhara & Oromos bombing Tigray – Using Rape, Hunger & Forced Resettlement (Mengistu did it back then, Abiy Ahmed is doing the same now) as a Weapon against People in Tigray for the past 130 years:-

👉 1. Menelik II. (1844 – 1913)

The Great Ethiopian Famine of 1888-1892

The great famine is estimated to have caused 3.5 million deaths. During Emperor Menelik’s Reign, Tigray was split into two regions, one of which he sold to the Italians who later named it Eritrea. Only two months after the death of Emperor Yohaness lV , Menelik signed the Wuchale treaty of 2 May 1889 conceding Eritrea to the Italians. It was not only Eritrea that Menelik gave away, he also had a hand in letting Djibouti be part of the French protectorate when he agreed the border demarcation with the French in 1887. Some huge parts of Tigray were put under Gonder. The Southern part, places like present day Alamata, Kobo etc were put under Wello Amhara administration.

👉 2. Haile Selassie (1892 – 1975)

In 1943, at the request of the Emperor Haile Selassie, the Royal British Airforce bombed two towns – Mekelle and Corbetta. Thousands of defenseless civilians lost their lives as a result of aerial bombardment. It is recorded that ‘on 14th October [1943] 54 bombs dropped in Mekelle, 6th October 14 bombs followed by another 16 bombs on 9thOctober in Hintalo, 7th/9th October 32 bombs in Corbetta’.

Between 2 and 5 million’ people died between 1958 and 1977 as a cumulative result. Haile Selassie, who was emperor at the time, refused to send any significant basic emergency food aid to the province of Tigray,

👉 3. Mengistu Hailemariam (1937 – )

1979 – 1985 + 1987

Due to organized government policies that deliberately multiplied the effects of the famine, around 1.2 million people died from this famine. Mengistu & his Children still alive & ‘well’ while Tigrayans starving again.

👉 4. Abiy Ahmed Ali (1976 – )

2018 – Until today: probably up to 500.000 already dead. 😠😠😠 😢😢😢 Unlike the past famine there is no natural or man-made drought, rather, Abiy simply uses war and hunger as a weapon. Abiy Ahmed sent his kids to America for safety, while bombing & starving Tigrayan kids!

💭 On 6 December 1935 Italians bombard Dessie village as Ethiopians fire anti aircraft guns in Ethiopia during the Ethiopian-Italian War.

🔥 TERRORISM IN DESSIE BOMBING REPORTS CONFIRMED

“One of the Most Inhuman Acts on Record”

TENTATIVE PEACE PLAN FOR LEAGUE

(Australian Associated Press.)

💥 LONDON. December 8.

Press correspondents confirm the earlier messages regarding the raid on Dessie and the bombing of the hospital, which is universally condemned as a violation of international law.

The “Daily Telegraph’s” correspondent at Dessie states that pitiful scenes were witnessed throughout Saturday night. The terrified inhabitants are fleeing to the mountains, carrying their belongings. Some are bearing on their backs crippled and wounded relatives, and mothers have their babies strapped to their bodies.

The American hospital is carrying on operations under the shattered roof. Doctors, working throughout the night, performed 32 amputations. The grounds of the Seventh Day Adventist hospital, where American journalists and photographers were quartered, presented a grim scene, being littered with wounded and dying. It is the opinion of foreign doctors that the bombing was

one of the most inhuman acts on record.

💥 LONDON, December 8.

The British United Press correspondent at Dessie states that an Italian aeroplane, numbered “97,” dropped a taunting message to the Emperor. “We

salute you, Negus. Did your umbrella do you any good today! How do you

like our biscuits?”

The Emperor has ordered the departure of all citizens and the town is now practically deserted. Only a few policemen and Red Cross officials are to be seen in the pot-holed streets. A communique here announces that the Italian troops have retired and are now fortifying the line from Aksum to Adowa and Adigrat with barbed wire and machine guns every hundred yards. Ras Gugsa, in a message to chiefs in Tigre, appeals to them to follow his example and join Italy, and thus save the country from ruin. Many chiefs have sent their copy of the leaflet to the Emperor.

💥 “HOSPITAL ATTACK DELIBERATE.

The Addis Ababa correspondent of “The Times” states: “Private impartial sources state that the attack on the Red Cross at Dessie appeared most deliberate and suggested that the Italian fliers may have thought the Emperor was there. He was, however, in the Italian Consulate buildings.

“The Government denies that Dessie is a troop centre and declares that the only armed units are police. There is not a single anti-aircraft gun there, and only one machine gun, which the Emperor himself manned during the bombardment.”

💥 MUSSOLINI’S TERMS.

💥 ROME, December 8.

The Government Spokesman has out-lined Signor Mussolini’s peace terms as

follows :

(1) The fulfillment of Italy’s right of colonial expansion.

(2) The fulfillment of Italy’s right to colonial security and defence.

(3) Consideration of the present military situation.

(4) Consideration of Italy’s economic requirements.

(5) Recognition of the difference be-tween Amharic and non-Amharic peoples

in Abyssinia in Italy’s favour, tantamount to reducing the present so-called

Empire to the central plateau south of the 14th parallel and the line of the eighth parallel and limited by the 24th and 40th meridians on the west and east.

It is explained that the frontier in the region of the 14th parallel takes into consideration the present military situation by allowing the establishment of Italian colonisation, civilisation, and exploitation of the ground already occu-

pied. The Italians declare that the voluntary withdrawal of their troops is out of the question.

It is thought unlikely that Haile Silassie would surrender such areas. Moreover, even if he consented, France probably would not abandon her already

reduced sphere of influence.

💥 TENTATIVE PEACE PLAN.

PARIS, December 8.

At the close of his conversations with Sir Samuel Hoare, which lasted the whole day, M. Laval issued the following statement this evening : “Animated by the same spirit of conciliation and friendship we have searched for a formula to serve as a basis for an amicable settlement of the Italo-Ethiopian conflict.

There is no question at pre-sent of making the result public. The British Government has not yet been informed, and once its adhesion is obtained it will be necessary to submit the formula to the governments interested and to the decision of the League. We have worked with one and the same desire, to assure as rapidly as possible a pacific, honourable settlement. We are both satisfied with the result reached.”

lt is clear that Sir Samuel Hoare and M. Laval have agreed to a tentative peace plan for submission to the League, Italy, and Abyssinia, but it must first receive the imprimatur of the British Cabinet, for which Mr Peterson is journeying to London tonight, carrying the momentous proposals. lt is reported that Sir Samuel and M. Laval agreed that if there is an unfavourable reception from Signor Mussolini, France and Britain will unquestionably recommended an oil embargo, to operate from January 1.In the meantime, at the request of the statesmen, there is no speculation on the terms of the plan, which are being kept strictly secret. All the Quaid’Orsay will admit is the total solidarity of British and French views.

💥 EXCHANGE OF TERRITORIES.

LONDON, December 8.

The “Daily Telegraph’s” diplomatic correspondent in Paris states: “The French Government has accepted the British view that a workable solution will most likely be found in an ex-change of Italian and Abyssinian terri-tories, providing Italy with fertile areas in southern Abyssinia and Abyssinia with access to the sea. It will probably be found that an entirely new propo-sal will be made respecting Tigre.

“It is emphasised that complete soli-darity has been established between the French and British Governments. “All reports from Rome indicate that the proposals, the purport of which is apparently known in official circles, will

go further than anything hitherto sug-gested.”

💥 PARIS, December 8.

Well-informed sources state that the Ogaden and Danakil districts and the whole of Tigre, except the sacred city of Aksum, would be given to Italy,

which would receive sufficient land to accommodate 1,500,000 colonists, being

double the territories which Britain agreed should be given to Italy. If Italy refuses to cede Assab to Abys-sinia, Britain is ready to give up Zeila.

A French Minister who participated in some of the discussions, said: “I be-lieve we have done good work. If I were an Italian I would accept.”

💥 ITALY IMPRESSED.

ROME, December 9.

The Franco-British formulae as re-ported are regarded as a notable improvement on the Italian viewpoint and therefore deserving of consideration.

💥 “RED CROSSES ON NEARLY EVERY HOUSE.”

(Published in “The Times.”)

LONDON, December 8

An Italian statement from the Asmara corespondent of ” The Times” says :

“The four aeroplanes which re-visited Dessie on Saturday saw no vestige of the enemy’s forces, thousands of whose tents were visible on Friday, but the observers noted that the roof of nearly every house in the town was miraculously adorned with a bright red cross.”

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Posted in Ethiopia, Faith, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

ኢትዮጵያን አትንኳት | Why Are So Many Fascist Monuments Still Standing in Italy?

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on February 15, 2018

ይህ ከዩናይትድ ስቴትስ ጦር የህዝብ ግንኙነት ቢሮ የተገኘ ድምጽዓልባ ታሪካዊ ፊልም ሙሶሎኒ እና ሌሎ የኢጣሊያ ፋሽስቶች እ..አ በ 1945 . ተይዘው ሲሰቀሉ ያሳየናል። የንጹሐኑን አባቶቻችንና እናቶቻችንን ደም ያፈሰሱት እነዚህ እርኩሶች ደማቸው ሲንጠባጠብ በቪዲዮው ይታያል።

የስዊዘርላንዱ የታሪክ ጸሐፊ፡ ፋሺስት ጣልያን በኢትዮጵያ ስለፈጸመቸው ጭካኔ፡ ከጥቂት ዓመታት በፊት ባወጡት መጽሐፉቸው ሁኔታውን እንደሚከተለው ገልጸውት ነበር፦

የጣልያን አገዛዝ፡ በአፍሪካ እና በእስያ ቅኝ ገዥዎች ታሪክ ውስጥ ምንም ዓይነት ተምሳሊት ያልነበረው የ የሽብር አገዛዝነበር።

ቤኒቶ ሙሶሊኒ ለኢትዮጵያውያን የነበረውን ንቀትና ጥላቻ በሚከተሉት ቃላት ልጿቸው ነበር

በአሁኖቹ፣ በቀድሞዎቹና በወደፊቶቹ ጥቁር ባሪያዎች እና የእነሱ ተከላካዮች ላይ እንተፋባቸዋለን። በቅርቡ አምስቱም አህጉራ በእኛ በፋሽስቶች ቁጥጥር ሥር ይውላሉ

ሙሶሊኒ አሁንም እንደ በጣም ክፉ ግለሰብ ይታወሳል። በተለይ ኢትዮጵያን በግፍ ወይም በጭካኔ ለመያዝ የጣረ ሞኝ ወይም እብድ ሰው ነበር። በዘመናችንም እንደ ሙሶሊኒ የመሳሰሉ ሰዎች፡ በተለይ በጣልያንና ጀርመን ብቅ ብቅ በማለት ላይ ይገኛሉ። እንንቃ! በተለይ በሶማሊያና ሱዳን በኩል፡ ልክ በጣልያን ጊዜ እንደነበረው፡ በጣም ተንኮለኛ የሆነ ሴራ አሁንም ተጠንስሷል።

የዲያብሎስ ልጁ ሙስሊማኒ ከአረቦችና ሶማሌዎች ጋር በመተባበር ነበር በ1929 .ም ቂሙን ለመወጣት ኢትዮጵያን የወረረው። ኢትዮጵያ ደግሞ ገና የሽግግር ወቅት ላይ የነበረች በመሆኑ የተደራጀ መንግሥት እና ጦር አልነበራትም። ፋሽስት ኢጣሊያ ደግሞ አሉ የተባሉ ዘመናዊ የጦር መሣሪያዎችን መርዝ ከሚተፉ አውሮፕላኖች ጋር ይዛ ኢትዮጵያን ወረረች።

ወረራው የተደራጀ ስለነበር በቀላሉ ሊቀለበስ አልቻለም። ስለዚህ ንጉሠ ነገስቱ እዚሁ ሆነው የከፉ ነገር ከሚመጣ ወደ ውጭ ወጥተው መታገልን የዘመኑ ሹማምንቶች እንደ አማራጭ መከሩ። እናም ግርማዊ ቀዳማዊ ኃይለሥላሴ ከመንበረ ስልጣናቸው ተነስተው ኢትዮጵያን ለቅቀው ወደ እንግሊዝ ተሰደዱ። ሀገር አልባ ሆኑ።

ኢጣሊያም የኢትዮጵያን መንግሥት ተቆጣጠረች። ሮም በደስታ ተቀጣጠለች። ኢትዮጵያዊያንን ደግሞ ለሁለት ተከፈሉ። አብዛኛው በአርበኝነት ተሰማራ። ቀሪው ደግሞ ለኢጣሊያ ፋሽስቶች ባንዳ ሆነ። አርበኞቹ ፋሽስቶችን ለመፋለም በዱር በገደሉ ተሰማሩ። ጦርነቱ በየፈፋው ይካሄድ ጀመር። ኢጣሊያ በመርዝ ጋዝ አባቶቻችንን፥ እናቶቻችችንና ልጆቻቸቸውን ሁሉ መፍጀት ጀመረች። በጣም ብዙ ሕጻናት፣ ሴቶችና እናቶች አረጋውያን አለቁ። በአንድ ዕለት፤ በየካቲት 12 ቀን 1929 .ም ብቻ ከ30 ሺህ በላይ የአዲስ አበባ ነዋሪ በፋሽስቶች ተጨፈጨፉ።

Why Are So Many Fascist Monuments Still Standing in Italy?


My Note: Swiss historian, Aram Mattioli has called Graziani’s genocidal reign in Ethiopia:

“Reign of terror”, “for which there were no role models in the colonial history of Africa and Asia”.

Mussolini’s disregard and outright contempt for the sovereignty of Ethiopia were expressed in the following hateful words:

We spit on all Negroes of the present, past and future and their possible defenders. It will not be long, and the five continents will have to bow their heads to the fascist will.

In the late nineteen-thirties, as Benito Mussolini was preparing to host the 1942 World’s Fair, in Rome, he oversaw the construction of a new neighborhood, Esposizione Universale Roma, in the southwest of the city, to showcase Italy’s renewed imperial grandeur. The centerpiece of the district was the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana, a sleek rectangular marvel with a façade of abstract arches and rows of neoclassical statues lining its base. In the end, the fair was cancelled because of the war, but the palazzo, known as the Square Colosseum, still stands in Rome today, its exterior engraved with a phrase from Mussolini’s speech, in 1935, announcing the invasion of Ethiopia, in which he described Italians as “a people of poets, artists, heroes, saints, thinkers, scientists, navigators, and transmigrants.” The invasion, and the bloody occupation that followed, would later lead to war-crimes charges against the Italian government. The building is, in other words, a relic of abhorrent Fascist aggression. Yet, far from being shunned, it is celebrated in Italy as a modernist icon. In 2004, the state recognized the palazzo as a site of “cultural interest.” In 2010, a partial restoration was completed, and five years later the fashion house Fendi moved its global headquarters there.

Italy, the first Fascist state, has had a long relationship with right-wing politics; with the election of Silvio Berlusconi, in 1994, the country also became the first to bring a neo-Fascist party to power, as part of Berlusconi’s center-right coalition.* But this alone is not enough to explain Italians’ comfort with living amid Fascist symbols. Italy was, after all, home to Western Europe’s biggest anti-Fascist resistance and its most robust postwar Communist Party. Until 2008, center-left coalitions maintained that legacy, often getting more than forty per cent of the vote in elections. So why is it that, as the United States has engaged in a contentious process of dismantling monuments to its Confederate past, and France has rid itself of all streets named after the Nazi collaborationist leader Marshall Pétain, Italy has allowed its Fascist monuments to survive unquestioned?

The sheer number of relics is one reason. When Mussolini came to power, in 1922, he was leading a new movement in a country with a formidable cultural patrimony, and he knew that he needed a multitude of markers to imprint the Fascist ideology on the landscape. Public projects, such as the Foro Mussolini sports complex, in Rome, were meant to rival those of the Medici and the Vatican, while the likeness of Il Duce, as Mussolini was known, watched over Italians in the form of statues, photographs in offices, posters at tram stops, and even prints on bathing suits. It was easy to feel, as Italo Calvino did, that Fascism had colonized Italy’s public realm. “I spent the first twenty years of my life with Mussolini’s face always in view,” the writer recalled.

In Germany, a law enacted in 1949 against Nazi apologism, which banned Hitler salutes and other public rituals, facilitated the suppression of Third Reich symbols. Italy underwent no comparable program of reëducation. Ridding Italy of thousands of Fascist memorials would have been impractical, and politically imprudent, for the Allied forces whose priority was to stabilize the volatile country and limit the power of its growing Communist Party. After the war, the Allied Control Commission’s bulletins and reports instead recommended that only the most obvious and “unaesthetic” monuments and decorations, like busts of Mussolini, be destroyed; the rest could be moved to museums, or simply be covered up with cloth and plywood. This approach set a precedent. The 1953 Scelba Law was designed to block the reconstitution of the Fascist Party and was famously vague about everything else. The ruling Christian Democratic bloc, which included many former Fascists, did not see the regime’s copious material remains as a problem, and so a more proactive policy was never put in place.

This means that, when Berlusconi brought the right-wing Italian Social Movement Party to power, his rehabilitation of Fascism was aided by an existing network of pilgrimage sites and monuments. Most notable was Predappio, Mussolini’s birthplace, where his burial crypt is situated and where shops sell Fascist and Nazi-themed shirts and other merchandise. The Mancino Law, passed in 1993, had responded to the resurgent right by sanctioning the propagation of “racial and ethnic hatred,” but it was unevenly enforced. I was living in Rome on a Fulbright fellowship in 1994, and was jolted awake more than once by shouts of “Heil Hitler!” and “Viva il Duce!” coming from a nearby pub. In the aughts, as Berlusconi cycled in and out of office, sites like Predappio surged in popularity, and preservationists of all political stripes forged alliances with the empowered right to save the Fascist monuments, which were increasingly seen as an integral part of Italy’s cultural heritage. The Foro Mussolini, like the “Square Colosseum,” is a subject of special admiration. In 2014, Matteo Renzi, the center-left Prime Minister, announced Rome’s bid for the 2024 Olympics inside the complex, which is now known as the Foro Italico, standing in front of “The Apotheosis of Fascism,” a painting that was covered up by the Allies, in 1944, because it depicts Il Duce as a God-like figure. It would be hard to imagine Angela Merkel standing in front of a painting of Hitler on a similar occasion.

In recent years, there have been some halting efforts to examine Italy’s relationship to Fascist symbols. In 2012, Ettore Viri, the right-wing mayor of Affile, included a memorial to General Rodolfo Graziani, a Nazi collaborator and an accused war criminal, in a park built with funds approved by the center-left regional government. After a public outcry, the government rescinded the funds. Recently, Viri was charged with Fascist apologism, but the memorial remains in place.

In Predappio, a new Museum of Fascism is currently under construction. Some see the museum, which is modelled on Munich’s Documentation Center for the History of National Socialism, as a much needed exercise in public education. (In 2016, I was a member of the international committee of historians that convened in Italy to evaluate the project.) Others fear that its location in Mussolini’s home town means that it will further fuel rightist nostalgia. Laura Boldrini, the president of the lower house of parliament, has been lobbying for the removal of Italy’s most egregious Fascist remnants. Her proposal, in 2015, to remove an inscription of Mussolini’s name from the Foro Italico’s obelisk prompted outcries that a “masterpiece” would be defamed.

Boldrini has often pointed to the outlawing of Nazi symbols in Germany as an example for Italy to follow. But even that model might soon be tested. In a strong showing in the elections on September 24th, the Alternative for Germany became the first far-right party to win seats in the German parliament since 1945. The right wing in Germany, lacking the benefit of emotionally charged public monuments, has been orchestrating its gatherings around fringe events such as “right rock” music concerts. Yet, at AfD events, such as a march earlier in September, in Jena, Nazi chants have begun to resound. Unless the Party takes a hard line against Fascist symbols, it’s only a matter of time, one imagines, before they reappear. In Italy, where they never went away, the risk is different: if monuments are treated merely as depoliticized aesthetic objects, then the far right can harness the ugly ideology while everyone else becomes inured. One doubts that Fendi’s employees fret about the Fascist origins of the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana as they arrive at work each morning, their stilettos tapping on floors made of travertine and marble, the regime’s preferred materials. As Rosalia Vittorini, the head of Italy’s chapter of the preservationist organization docomomo, once said when asked how Italians feel about living among relics of dictatorship: “Why do you think they think anything at all about it?”

Source: The New Yorker

In Italy, Mussolini Makes Comeback


By STEFAN NICOLA, UPI | Feb. 19, 2010

BERLIN, Feb. 19 (UPI) — Italy’s Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini is making an unexpected popularity comeback in Italy, a phenomenon nurtured by Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi over the past 15 years.

Mussolini was one of the closest allies of Hitler’s Nazi Germany; his soldiers committed brutal war crimes in Africa and the Balkans; and his regime is responsible for the deaths of around 1 million people.

Despite all that, the Duce, as Mussolini’s admirers call him, is becoming increasingly popular in Italy — even with the younger crowd.

In January, the iPhone application iMussolini became the most popular in Italy. The program, harshly condemned by Jewish groups noting the “Duce” had sent thousands of Jews into concentration camps, allowed users to read and listen to speeches of the Fascist leader. Up to 1,000 people downloaded the app each day, before Apple pulled it from its Italian store earlier this month.

The iPhone app is just one of many manifestations of the gradual rehabilitation of the Duce and his fascist dictatorship, which lasted from 1922-43.

Streets are being renamed after “regime heroes,” “good Fascists” are the stars of movies and politicians from all major parties are belittling the Fascist horrors.

In 2008, the mayor of Rome, Gianni Alemanno, a member of the National Alliance, Mussolini’s political descendants and key allies of Berlusconi, defended the Fascist dictatorship during a tour of Israel.

Last June, Michela Brambilla, the Italian minister of tourism and a possible successor to Berlusconi, did what many interpreted as the Fascist salute during celebrations in honor of the local Carabinieri.

In any other Western European country, this would have destroyed the woman’s political career — not so in Italy. She remains in power, despite the fact that doing the salute is against the law.

These are not isolated incidents but “results and symptoms” of a larger change gripping all walks of society, writes Aram Mattioli, a historian at the University of Lucerne in Switzerland, who has researched Fascist revisionism in Italy.

His 200-page study “Viva Mussolini — An Appreciation of Fascism in Berlusconi’s Italy” (Ferdinand Schoeningh) hit book stores Friday. It describes in detail how Italy for the past 15 years has cultivated a gradual revisionism of Fascism, “focusing on the period before the anti-Semitic race laws and the ever-closer alliance with Hitler’s Nazi Germany,” Mattioli told United Press International in a telephone interview Friday.

Revisionism began to bloom starting in 1994, when the decades-long Christian Democratic-dominated government collapsed and Berlusconi shot to the scene to establish himself as the new leader.

Berlusconi’s new government, comprised of political startups and political descendants of Mussolini, in 1994 was the first in Europe to include neo-Fascists — a major watershed point in European politics.

The defeat of Communism, Berlusconi’s ability to influence the media and the fact that Italy had not really come to terms with its World War II past (unlike in Germany or Japan, no war tribunal tried Italy’s fascists) made it easier for conservative and neo-Fascist politicians to rehabilitate Mussolini during the years since.

Under Berlusconi — who himself has spoken warmly of the Duce many times — opinions that would have labeled extreme years earlier all of a sudden were used even by center-right politicians.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the hapless opposition was too busy licking its own wounds to counter that development.

This revisionism affects Italy as a whole, Mattioli said. “I see a close connection between the revisionist tendencies and the inner state of today’s Italy, were political culture has reached a low-point,” he told UPI. “Italy has entered a state of post-democracy. Democracy is still formally existent but policies are increasingly illiberal.”

Berlusconi’s government has in the past been criticized for cracking down on illegal immigrants. Mattioli also warns of a general militarization of society that has seen soldiers doing police work and citizens establishing vigilante groups.

Young people increasingly back this political development.

Italian newspaper La Stampa Thursday published a poll that indicated that 45 percent of young Italians sympathize with xenophobic or racist ideologies.

These numbers worry Mattioli, who has a deep sympathy for Italy, from where his great-grandfather emigrated to Switzerland in the late 19th century.

“The European Union needs to more closely watch Italy and should try to slow down the country’s negative development,” Mattioli said.

Source

Viva ETIOPÍA!

______

Posted in Conspiracies, Ethiopia, Infos | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Wonderful Ethiopians

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on August 2, 2010

Abune Petros

A very unique and remarkable life history of martyr bishop Abune Petros who became martyr on the 29 th of July 1936, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in the struggle against colonialism and oppression.

Abune Petros was born 1882 in a farmer family in the city of Fiche, which is situated north of Addis Ababa. He got the baptismal name Hailemariam that means power of Maria. As the custom of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (EOC) tradition he got a special bishop name, that is PETROS with the Ethiopia title for a bishop which is ABUNE. As a young boy Abune Petros was known as clever, helpful and humble disciple in the city and the church in Fiche.

He chose early to study the EOC diakon and priest education. At the age of 24 he took the EOC oath and became a monk. He grew up and became a principled and well-known teacher around the monasteries in Fiche and Wolamo area. In 1918 he was assigned by the EOC as he teacher and priest for the Debre-Menkrat monastery church in the region of Wolamo. Abune Petros continued to teach there when in 1924 he was assigned as the main teacher for the well-known island monastery-church of Mary, which is situated inside Lake Zewai in southern part of Ethiopia. He was well known for his teaching and preaching to the people around the region to seek first the kingdom of God: “To put on a heart of compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience.” (Colossians 3:12).

His teachings and preaching were very popular and insightful to the people in the area and the disciples he teaches in the Monastery. In 1928 in connection with the nomination pf Ethiopia bishops in the St.Marks Monastery in Alexandria, he was nominated to one of four bishops of Ethiopia, with the title and name ABUNE PETROS.

Abune Petros was nominated as bishop of the central and eastern part of Ethiopia. Half of his time he stayed in the City of Dessie and the surrounding monasteries, while he rest of his time he spent visiting and teaching in he monasteries around the Wereilu region. To help him in the administration of the churches and monasteries in the two regions, two priests were assigned to him one from each region. He continued to preach the gospel and teach in the churches. He was liked by many for his teaching and exhortation to stand-up for the belief, the truth and follow the example of our lord Jesus Christ: “For to you it has been granted for Christ’s sake, not only to believe in Him but also to suffer for His sake.” (Phillippians 1:29). As we read further we will see that Abune Petros exemplified this with his life.

When Italy with the leadership of fascist Mussolini’s army invaded Ethiopia in 1932, Abune Peteros followed with Emperor Haile Selassie and the Ethiopian defence forces to the northern front. He helped the wounded, prayed and consecrated the dead and preached the Gospel. During that time he saw the undiscerning terror and violence of the invading army: He saw how the invading army with the help of nerve gas and technologically advanced weaponry burned down the forest and villages with innocent civilians and at last won the war at Maichew. The patriots retreated and decided to continue guerrilla warfare against the fascist army. Abune Peteros, with all the impressions he got from the war and the burned villages of civilians, returned safely and took refuge in the well-known monastery church of Debre Libanos.

In the monastery he urged the priests and monks to fast. He himself started to fast and prmy for the mercy of God to the people of Ethiopia and prepared himself for the big challenge that is waiting a head for him: “My earnest expectation and hope, is that I will not be put to shame in anything but my lord Jesus Christ will even now as always be exalted in my body, whether by life or by death.” (Phillippians 1:20).

During these difficult times he started to question in his preaching. “How a Christian country as Italy could undertake such a hideous terror action of occupation on another peaceful Christian country that is Ethiopia. “For him all Christians were brother and sister pilgrims helping each other in this world on the way to meet God in Heaven. With that he began his crusade against the invading army’s terror and killing machinery. He went further and condemned all the violent actions and killings of civilians by the invading army.

The fascist army was by then committing undiscerning violent actions against innocent civilians because they had suspicion that the people are helping the patriots who were growing in both strength and manpower. During these times there were some EOC priests who out of fear of the terror of the army accepted the Italian leadership in Addis Ababa. Through these priests the fascist army sent letters to win the support of the popular and respected bishop Abune Petros to its camp, to accept the powerful army of Italy as government and stop with his preaching against the violence of the army on civilians and the patriots. If he did this they promised him the best house quarters and a peaceful life in Addis Ababa. Abune Petros saw these letters as a incitement of commit sin against God, his Christian belief and consciousness. With that he refused to accept the offer and stayed in fasting and prayer in the monastery of Debre-Libanos. “Choosing rather to endure ill-treatment with the people of God that to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin” (Hebrews 11:25).

The resistance against the encroachment and violence of the invading army kept on growing like wild fire over the whole of Ethiopia. The patriots began to win battles at different fronts. Abune Petros continued his teachings and preaching to the people to stand-up for their belief and conviction and that God would visit the downtrodden people of Ethiopia soon. He went on further and preached against Italy’s right to occupy Ethiopia with terror and violence. He exhorted the people not to be afraid of the terror and violence from the occupying army. “I say to you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body and after that have no more that they can do. But I will warm you whom to fear: fear the one who has the power to kill the body and after that has the authority to cast in to hell; yes I tell you fear Him.” (Luke 12:4-5).

The Italian authorities in Addis Ababa who saw and heard him preach wanted by all means to stop Abune Petros from preaching and inciting people to resistance. However, since he was very popular and respected bishop, many in the Italian authorities would rather win his support to accept the Italian authority in Ethiopia than imprisoning or killing him. In the month of July 1936, the patriots planned and executed an attack on Addis Ababa. During that time one of the day Abune Petros clothed with his bishop garment and the ever – present hand cross rapped in a small blue scarlet cloth went into the capital city and began to preach to the people who were lamenting in the grips of the invading army. The soldiers were given order to arrest the Abune and bring him to court for treason against the Italian occupation. While he was in prison waiting for court appearance, both the priests in the city and the officers of Italy tried to convince him to accept the Italian occupation. And finally have him the following ultimatum: To stop preaching against the occupying army’s violence and terror against civilians and the patriots, accept the Italian authorities in Addis Ababa and finally condemn the patriots as bandits. Otherwise, he was told that he will lose his life. Abune Petros refused to comply to the ultimatum set by his tormentors and through the(Italian) interpreter gave the following answer to the interrogating officers of the invading army: “The cry of my country men who died due to your nerve-gas and terror machinery will never allow my conscious to accept your ultimatum. How can I see my God if I give blind eye to such a crime.” Listen to me you who know righteousness, a people in whose heart is my law, do not fear the reproach of man, nor be dismayed at their revilings. For the moth will eat them like garment…..” (Isaiah 51:7-8). “Blessed are those who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” (Matthew 5:10).

After this a quick assembled court sentenced Abune Petros to death. The news of the death sentence on the popular bishop of Ethiopia spread over he whole country. People begin coming to Addis to say farewell of their beloved bishop who stoop-up for the righteous cause which God have called him, for the right of the people of Ethiopia to freedom and independence and against the terror and violence of the invading army. All this form the pulpit of a church and it the presence of deadly ultimatum upon his head. Due to his popularity the fascist army was afraid of riot and attempts by the patriots to free him from prison, and decided that the execution of the death penalty should be done as soon as possible. He was taken to his execution place where a many people and the fascist army officers and generals were gathered, and were told to say his last speech. We cite the Ethiopia Orthodox Church newspaper Vol.1,No. 8,9,10,1945 for the account: ” When Abune Petros came to the place of execution and was given to say his last words, he took his hand cross and removed the blue cloth that was rapped around it and blessed the people at the four corners of the world and said the following last words: “My country men don not believe if they tell you that the patriots are bandits, the patriots are people who yearn for freedom form the terrors of fascism. Bandits are the soldiers who are standing in front of me and you, who come from afar, terrors and violently occupy a weak and peaceful country: our Ethiopia. May God give he people of Ethiopia the strength to resist and never bow down to the fascist army and its violence. May the Ethiopian earth never accept the invading army’s rule.” After that a swarm of bullets from the execution platoon pierced and killed our beloved bishop Abune Petros.

The fascist army wanted by any means to cover up the crime they did against Abune Petros and Ethiopia by forbidding everybody all writings about his execution. Because of his popularity both inside and outside of Ethiopia they thought it might injure their policy of occupying Ethiopia due to the domestic and international opinion that grew against his act. However hard they tired to stop the publicity, the example of Abune Petros shines in all people who love the truth unto this day. Above all, the fascist army’s lost all credibility from the domestic opinion, many found courage after this to leave the occupying army’s stronghold in the capital city to join the patriots and fight for independence. patriotic resistance grew more in strength and lead o a sooner freedom of the country from the fascist occupation. The poplar Ethiopian Poet-Laureate Tsegaye Gebremedhin has illustrated the last days of Abune Petros life by a theatre play called: “Petros at that Hour”.

A statue of Abune Petros was raised in the capital city Addis Ababa 10 years after his death, as a reminder to coming generations of: his unwavering stand for the truth. His unbending courage to stand up against every form of violence on human rights, his integrity and his commitment not to give in for short term gain or treat. Above all his unwavering conviction and belief that we all one day will sand up and answer for our deeds in his life before God.

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