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Posts Tagged ‘Humera’

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 7, 2021

Families travel for weeks to find health care centers that are not destroyed and looted

#Tigray #Ethiopia #TigrayGenocide

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Posted in Ethiopia, Infos, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

አማራ ለክርስቶስ ካለው ፍቅር ይልቅ ለትግራዋይ ያለው ጥላቻ በለጠበት?

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 7, 2021

😠😠😠 😢😢😢

❖❖❖ታላቁ ክርስቲያን ንጉሠ ነገሥት አፄ ዮሐንስ አንገታቸውን የሰጡበትን ምድር፤ አማራ ለአህዛብ ሱዳኖች ሰጣቸው። ዋይ! ዋይ! ዋይ!❖❖❖

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Posted in Ethiopia, Faith, Infos, Life, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Reuters | Ethnic Cleansing in Western Tigray by Amhara Forces

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 7, 2021

😠😠😠 😢😢😢

How Killings And Expulsions Swept Across Ethiopia’s Western Tigray

👉 Witnesses to slaughter: The conflict in Ethiopia

In November last year, fighting erupted in Ethiopia’s Tigray region between the rebellious Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and the army. Within days, reports emerged of communal killings in a farming town called Mai Kadra, in western Tigray.

In the months that followed, ethnic violence rolled across western Tigray, land that is claimed by Tigrayans and by the neighbouring Amhara region. Hundreds of thousands of people fled their homes. Reuters has mapped the course of the slaughter across western Tigray by drawing on more than 120 interviews in Ethiopia and Sudan.

👉 Nov. 9, 2020

A first wave of killings in Mai Kadra, Ethiopia

Violence erupted in Mai Kadra, an ethnically mixed town of Tigrayans and Amharas. Tigrayan youths and a TPLF-dominated town militia shot, stabbed and bludgeoned to death hundreds of Amhara civilians, according to dozens of Amhara witnesses. Some recognised neighbours among their attackers. The TPLF denied attacking Amhara civilians.

👉 Agerie Getnet, Amhara housewife

Mai Kadra, Nov. 9

The Tigrayan killers came to her house, where she used to rent out rooms, she said. “At 4pm they came and said, ‘This is an Amhara house.’ There were people who ran. When we locked the house, they broke the door and came through the window,” she said. “At first my husband was hiding in the roof, and they came in and threatened my son, my 11-year-old. When he saw his baby might die, he came down. They took us outside and started killing – my husband Tabaka Zewda, friends and lodgers Shagri and Yohannes and Ale Abera.” Four men were killed, she said, as she clutched her newborn baby and two other children.

👉 Desa Adoma, 38, an Amhara living in Mai Kadra

Mai Kadra, Nov. 9

He said he and 18 others were in his house when Tigrayans armed with machetes arrived and blocked the door. Behind them were the town’s police with guns. “After I was hit, I was bleeding and fainted,” he said, showing a scar on the back of his neck. When he woke up his brother was dead beside him. He said the police were shooting at Amhara people who tried to escape. The town’s police force has since been disbanded.

👉 Nov. 10, 2020, and the following days

Reprisals begin in Mai Kadra

Ethiopia’s military and forces from the neighbouring Amhara region, including a militia called Fano, arrived and took control of the town. By now, Tigrayan fighters had left Mai Kadra. Revenge attacks by Amharas began, Tigrayan witnesses say.

Weretaw Azanaw, a Fano volunteer, said the group didn’t attack civilians. The Amhara-appointed administrator in western Tigray, Yabsira Eshetie, said, “The accusation that Tigrayans were killed by Amhara armed forces is groundless.”

👉 Hailay Weldegebriel, 18, Tigrayan farmer

Mai Kadra, November 2020

He lay on a mat in Village 8 refugee camp in Sudan with flies swarming around him, one of his hands bandaged. “People were fleeing from Mai Kadra, but I decided to stay behind to tend to my sesame farm. When the Fano saw me, they shot at me. They hit my hand, and I lost two fingers. I can’t think clearly. I keep having nightmares that I was killed.”

👉 Alifa Sagada, 40, Tigrayan farmer

Mai Kadra, November 2020

“When they entered, the Amhara and the Fano said Tigrayans shall not remain here. The Fano said they’ll keep no boy or man alive; they’ll cut off their heads,” she said. “I have two sons, and one is 25 – I have no idea where he is … We were walking around, and you’d find a dead body on the ground. Who killed them? Walk here, you find another one dead … We would turn over the bodies to check, is this my son? Is that my son? …They killed the young people. Any boy. Not necessarily members of the TPLF. If they find a Tigrayan boy; if they find that you don’t speak Amharic, they ask for your ID, and if you’re Amhara they let you go, but if you’re Tigrayan they kill you right away.”

👉The violence spreads across western Tigray

November-December 2020

Ethnic violence spiralled across western Tigray, sending tens of thousands of people fleeing into Sudan and some south into the Amhara region. Dozens of Tigrayans told Reuters they were driven from their homes by Amhara forces and their property was seized. Some accused Ethiopian soldiers of brutality.

Ethiopia’s government denies there has been “a targeted, intentional ethnic cleansing against anyone in the region.” It has said one soldier has been convicted and 28 are on trial for killing civilians in the whole of Tigray, but has given no further information. Neither the government nor Ethiopia’s military responded to detailed questions for this article. Amhara regional officials and Fano denied their forces attacked civilians.

👉 Desta Kebed, 65, Amhara and Tigrayan farmer

Baeker, November 2020

The farmer of mixed Amhara-Tigrayan parentage told Reuters in a refugee camp in Sudan that eight troops pushed around his daughter and slapped her across the face in their home in Baeker.

“I went to try and talk to one of the men; he pointed the gun at me and said, ‘If you want to live, shut up.’ He kicked me in the chest. I fell down. My wife was begging them not to do anything – ‘You don’t have to do this’.”

Two of the troops told them to get out.

“One pointed an AK-47 at us. They told us, ‘From now on this is the property of the Amhara. You don’t belong here. This is our property. This is our land.’ There was shooting outside the house, and one person was killed. I told them that I am from Amhara also. ‘Why are you doing this to us?'”

👉 Saha Gebieselasie, 44, Tigrayan driver

Adebay, November 2020

He said he and his wife, two sons and seven others were fleeing from the town of Adebay. They were stopped by soldiers wearing Ethiopian army uniforms.

“They took my son, he was 11 years old. One of the soldiers shot him in the thigh and the shin… I watched my son bleed to death.”

👉 Asqual Helwa, 28, Tigrayan mother, wife of a TPLF fighter

Humera, November 2020

The Tigrayan woman was fleeing the border town of Humera after shelling destroyed her house. “On the road where I was walking, many people were dead. I saw their bodies. Some were inside the church, and others were outside,” she said. “I was afraid, caring for my child. On one side of the road I saw around 70 or 80 dead bodies.”

👉 Giday Mahamod, 54, Tigrayan nurse

Division, November 2020

According to seven residents, Amhara forces arrived in the predominantly Tigrayan town of Division in early November and began setting fire to homes. Sensors aboard U.S. government satellites detected a series of potential fires in and around Division on Nov. 7, a Reuters analysis found. One resident said around 400 houses were burned. Giday Mahamod said hers was among them. “I saw my house being burned. A Fano member said, ‘You are a Tigrayan, get out’.I said we are all Ethiopian, and he said, ‘If you want to live, get out,'” she said.

👉 Anonymous woman (identity withheld), 25, Tigrayan coffee seller

Tekeze River, Early December 2020

The Tigrayan woman, who spoke to Reuters in mid-December in the Sudanese refugee camp of Hamdayet, said an Ethiopian soldier raped her at the Tekeze River as she tried to flee. “After he showed me the path, he said, ‘Choose, either I kill you or rape you.’ I had shown him my identification papers. When he raped me, he was swearing at me and saying, ‘You are the daughters of the Tigray.'”

👉 January 2021 to present

A final push in western Tigray

A second, larger wave of displacement started: Tens of thousands of Tigrayans fled western Tigray into central and eastern Tigray, saying they were being driven out by Amhara forces. Many spoke of looting and killing. Schools were turned into emergency camps; classrooms hosted 60 or 80 people, and more families spilled out onto the ground outside. Many sought refuge with family members already struggling to feed their own children.

👉 Biedela Tekle, 35, A Tigrayan vegetable vendor

Tekeze River, January 2021

She said she was among hundreds of Tigrayans who were bussed by Fano militia in January to the Tekeze River, a natural boundary between east and west Tigray, and told not to come back. For the previous two months, she and her two young children were held in a makeshift detention centre. There were thousands of prisoners, including pregnant women and people with families, she told Reuters from a camp for displaced people in Mekelle in March. Conditions were very bad, with almost no food or water before an aid agency intervened. Degalem Sisay, the interim mayor of Mai Kadra, said the facility functioned more as a “safe house” than a prison.

👉 Berhe (last name withheld), 35, Tigrayan farmer

Adebay, Early March 2021

He said Amhara militiamen drove him, his wife and three sons out of the town of Adebay, in western Tigray. “They said leave,” he said. It was the second time Berhe had been told to leave – he’d moved to Adebay with his family after Amhara fighters ejected them from their home village, Mylomin, two months earlier.

His 5-year-old son, Kibrom, was shot by a member of the arriving force when the Ethiopian army and its Amhara allies reached Mylomin on Nov. 9, he said. Neighbours later told him that Amhara gunmen had stolen his cattle and other belongings while he took his boy to hospital. From Adebay, Berhe walked for four or five days, carrying Kibrom, and crossed the Tekeze River on foot until a Tigrayan lorry driver gave them a ride.

Source

ስት ሺህ ዓመት ሥልጣኔ አለን፣ ቅኝ አልትገዛንም ቅብርጥሴ ትላላችሁ፤ ግን ጣዖት አምላኪው ወራሪ የኦሮሞ ቁራ ምንም ሳይለፋና ደሙን ሳያፈስ እንዲህ በቀላሉ እርስበርስ አባላችሁ። ያውም አንድ ጥይት እንኳን ሳትተኩሱ ሥልጣኑንም፣ ባንኩንም ታንኩንም በሰፊ ሰፌድ አስረክባችሁት። ወዮ! ወዮ! ወዮ! ሰነፎች! ደካሞች! ከንቱዎች! ወንድማማቾችን እርስበርስ የሚያባሏቸው ኦሮሞዎቹ፣ እስማኤላውያኑ እና ኤዶማውያኑ ምን ያህል እየተደሰቱ እንደሆነ እያየናቸው ነው። እያንዳንዱ የአማራ ልሂቅ ሆነ የግራኝ ደጋፊ ለዚህ ግፍና ሰቆቃ በጽኑ ተጠያቂ ነው፤ ተዋሕዶ ክርስቲያን ወንድሞቻችሁን እና እኅቶቻችሁን ከሃገራቸው አባርራችሁና ገድላችሁ የሱድን መሀመዳውያንን እስከ መተማ ዘልቀው በመግባት ግዛታችሁንና ቤቶቻችሁን እንዲወርሱ ፈቀዳችሁላቸው፤ እግዚኦ!ከየት እንደመጣችሁ አላውቅም፤ የዋቄዮ-አላህ መንፈስ ሙሉ በሙሉ ተቆጣጥሯችኋል፣ ያዛችኋልና የምታነበዋን ምስኪኗን ኢትዮጵያን ከእናንተ ጋር በጭራሽ መጋራት አልሻም፤ ሁላችሁም ገሃነም እሳት እንድሚጠብቃችሁ ከወዲሁ እወቁት! አረመኔዎች!

❖❖❖[መጽሐፈ ምሳሌ ምዕራፍ ፮]❖❖❖

፲፮ እግዚአብሔር የሚጠላቸው ስድስት ነገሮች ናቸው፥ ሰባትንም ነፍሱ አጥብቃ ትጸየፈዋለች፤

፲፯ ትዕቢተኛ ዓይን፥ ሐሰተኛ ምላስ፥ ንጹሕን ደም የምታፈስስ እጅ፥

፲፰ ክፉ አሳብን የሚያበቅል ልብ፥ ወደ ክፉ የምትሮጥ እግር፥

፲፱ በሐሰት የሚናገር ሐሰተኛ ምስክር በወንድማማች መካከልም ጠብን የሚዘራ።

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Posted in Ethiopia, Faith, Infos, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

‘Leave No Tigrayan’ | in Ethiopia an Entire Ethnicity is Erased

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on April 7, 2021

👉 ትግራዋይን ጨርሷቸው አትተዋቸው! | በኢትዮጵያ መላው የትግራይ ጎሳ እየተደመሰሰ ነው

💭 “Their aim is to leave no Tigrayan,” she said. “I hope there will be a Tigray for my children to go home to.”

💭 “They told me, ‘Go home, you’re Tigrayan,’” she said. “We Tigrayans are Ethiopian. Why do they treat us as non-Ethiopian?”

💭 “They accidentally killed an ethnic Oromo in a Tigrayan household,” she said. “When they realized their ‘mistake,’ they came and buried him.”

💭“ዓላማቸው የትግራይን ተወላጅ አለመተው ነው። ልጆቼ ወደ ቤታቸው የሚሄዱበት ትግራይ ይኖራል ብዬ ተስፋ አደርጋለሁ።”

💭ወደ ቤትህ ሂድ አንተ ትግራዋይ ነህ” ብለውኛል። “እኛ የትግራይ ተወላጆች ኢትዮጵያዊ ነን። ለምን እኛ እንደ ኢትዮጵያዊ ያልሆነን አድርገው ይቆጥሩናል? ”

💭በትግራይ ተወላጆች ቤት ውስጥ የሚኖር አንድ ብሄር ኦሮሞ ገበአጋጣሚ ድለዋል፡፡ “ስህተታቸውን” ሲገነዘቡ መጥተው ቀበሩት።”

🔥 ዋውው! አይ አማራ! አይ ጋላ! አይ ጋላማራ! የዋቄዮ-አላህ-አቴቴ ባርያ! አዬዬዬ! ግድየለም! ንስሐ ብትገቡና ብትመለሱ ብልን እስከ ጌታችን ስቅለት ድረስ እየጠብቅኳችሁ ነው! ከዚያ እናንተን እና ዘር ማንዘራችሁን አያድርገን፤ የሚመጣውን ታዩታላችሁ! ወዮላችሁ! ወዮላችሁ!

🔥 ትግራይ ወገኖቼ ግን ኢትዮጵያዊነትንም ተዋሕዶ ክርስትናንም ከአማራና ጋሎች ንጠቋቸው፣ ሁለተኛም አታስጠጓቸው! ለእነዚህ አረመኔዎች ብቸኛው መድኃኒት ይህ ነው የሚሆነው!

The atrocities have been seared into the skin and the minds of Tigrayans, who take shelter by the thousands within sight of the homeland they fled in northern Ethiopia.

They arrive in heat that soars above 38 C (100 F), carrying the pain of gunshot wounds, torn vaginas, welts on beaten backs. Less visible are the horrors that jolt them awake at night: Memories of dozens of bodies strewn on riverbanks. Fighters raping a woman one by one for speaking her own language. A child, weakened by hunger, left behind.

Now, for the first time, they also bring proof of an official attempt at what is being called ethnic cleansing in the form of a new identity card that eliminates all traces of Tigray, as confirmed to The Associated Press by nine refugees from different communities. Written in a language not their own, issued by authorities from another ethnic group, the ID cards are the latest evidence of a systematic drive by the Ethiopian government and its allies to destroy the Tigrayan people.

The Amhara authorities now in charge of the nearby city of Humera took Seid Mussa Omar’s original ID card displaying his Tigrayan identity and burned it, the soft-spoken nurse said. On his new card examined by the AP, issued in January with the Amharic language, an Amhara stamp and a border of tiny hearts, even the word Tigray had vanished.

“I kept it to show the world,” Seid said. He added that only 10 Tigrayans remained of the roughly 400 who worked at the hospital where he had been employed, the rest killed or fleeing. “This is genocide … Their aim is to erase Tigray.”

What started as a political dispute in one of Africa’s most powerful and populous countries has turned into a campaign of ethnic cleansing against minority Tigrayans, according to AP interviews with 30 refugees in Sudan and dozens more by phone, along with international experts. The Ethiopian government of Nobel Peace Prize winner Abiy Ahmed is accused of teaming up with his ethnic group — his mother was Amhara — and soldiers from neighboring Eritrea to punish around 6 million people. Witnesses say they have split much of Tigray between them, with the Amhara in the west and Eritrean forces in the east.

Ethiopia claims that life in Tigray is returning to normal, and Abiy has called the conflict “tiresome.” But the refugees the AP spoke with, including some who arrived just hours before, said abuses were still occurring. Almost all described killings, often of multiple people, rapes and the looting and burning of crops that without massive food aid could tip the region into starvation.

For months, the people of Tigray have been largely sealed off from the world, with electricity and telecommunication access severed and mobile phones often seized, leaving little to back up their claims of thousands, even tens of thousands, killed. That has begun to change.

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken asserted last month that “ethnic cleansing” has taken place in western Tigray, marking the first time a top official in the international community has openly described the situation as such. The term refers to forcing a population from a region through expulsions and other violence, often including killings and rapes.

Refugees told the AP that Amhara authorities and allied forces in western Tigray have taken over whole communities, ordering Tigrayans out or rounding them up. A refugee from Humera, Goitom Hagos, said he saw thousands of Tigrayans loaded into trucks and doesn’t know what happened to them.

The Amhara now control some government offices in western Tigray and decide who belongs — and even whether Tigrayans exist at all. Some were ordered to accept the Amhara identity or leave, and others were told to leave anyway, the refugees said.

Lemlem Gebrehiwet was forced to flee while heavily pregnant and gave birth three days after reaching Sudan. She recalled the new authorities telling her, “This is Amhara.”

Shy, her baby girl waiting, she struggled to comprehend. “Maybe we did something wrong.”

Seid, the nurse, fled Humera early in the conflict after his hospital came under heavy shelling, with the wounded carried in screaming and colleagues killed. He returned in January in the hope that conditions had improved, as Abiy’s government promised.

They hadn’t. His home had been looted, and the remaining Tigrayans had shrunk to a quiet population of the elderly, women and children who were discouraged from speaking their own language, Tigrinya.

At the hospital, Tigrayans had to pay for care, unlike the Amhara. Anyone who came was allowed to speak Amharic only. Tigrayan staffers weren’t paid, and every night there was gunfire.

Ten days after returning to the hospital, Seid left for Sudan. Now, at this dusty post, refugees pass blazing days sprawled on plastic mats under shelters of woven straw. They stay perilously close to the border in the hope that missing loved ones will emerge from Tigray.

“The federal government is trying to be king. We Tigrayans refuse,” said one refugee, Nega Chekole.

In response to allegations that the Amhara are ordering Tigrayans to leave and issuing new ID cards, the spokeswoman for the prime minister’s office, Billene Seyoum, said the area is under a provisional administration “who are all from the region.”

The Ethiopian government says it rejects “any and all notions and practices of ethnic cleansing” and will never tolerate such practices, “nor will it turn a blind eye to such crimes.” However, almost everyone the AP interviewed said they had watched fellow Tigrayans being killed or seen bodies on the ground.

In her town of more than a dozen ethnic groups, Belaynesh Beyene was dealt a ghastly lesson in just how little Tigrayans suddenly were worth.

In the early days of the fighting, she said she saw 24 bodies in the streets of Dansha in western Tigray. The 58-year-old grandmother and other residents were prevented from burying them by the Amhara youth militia, a practice that witnesses across Tigray have reported as an added insult to grief. The practice applies only to Tigrayan corpses.

“They accidentally killed an ethnic Oromo in a Tigrayan household,” she said. “When they realized their ‘mistake,’ they came and buried him.”

A spokesman for the Amhara regional government, Gizachew Muluneh, didn’t answer questions from the AP. The Amhara have said they are taking back land they claim belongs to them.

Soldiers from Eritrea, long an enemy of Tigray’s now-fugitive leaders, have also been blamed for some of the worst human rights abuses. Under pressure, Abiy said last month the soldiers will leave, after long denying their presence.

Hiwot Hadush, a teacher from Zalambessa, said scores of people were killed after the Eritreans went house to house, opening fire.

“Even if someone was dead, they shot them again, dozens of times. I saw this,” she said. “I saw many bodies, even priests. They killed all Tigrayans.”

In another border community, Irob, furniture maker Awalom Mebrahtom described hiding and watching Eritrean soldiers order 18 Tigrayans, mostly young men like him, to lie in a remote field. They were shot to death.

The killings continue. In early March, after months on the run, 30-year-old Alem Mebrahtu attempted a desperate crossing of the Tekeze river. Separated from her three small children in the early chaos of the conflict, she had heard they were in Sudan.

Sympathetic women from the Wolkait ethnic group pleaded with Eritrean soldiers near the river to let Alem cross, while urging her to pretend to be Wolkait, too. It worked, but she saw a grim reminder of what could have happened if she had failed.

Bodies lay scattered near the riverbank, she said. She estimated around 50 corpses.

“Some were face-down. Some were looking up at the sky,” she said.

Exhaustion still pressed deep under her eyes, Alem started to cry. There by the river, confronted with death, tears hadn’t been allowed. The Eritrean soldiers beat people for expressing grief, she said.

Samrawit Weldegerima, who had arrived just two weeks earlier in Hamdayet, also saw corpses by the river, counting seven. Freshly branded on their temples were the markings some Tigrayans have to express their identity, she said.

“When I saw them, I was terrified,” Samrawit said, touching her belly, six months pregnant. “I thought I was already dead.”

Those who crossed the river were amazed to find that the Amhara were now in charge in western Tigray. Alem’s home in Humera was occupied by Amhara militia. She asked them for her clothes, but they had been burned. She was told to get out.

Reluctantly, to protect herself, she is trying to learn Amharic.

“Their aim is to leave no Tigrayan,” she said. “I hope there will be a Tigray for my children to go home to.”

The idea of home remains dangerous. Days after Abiy urged people in Tigray to return in late March, at least two men trying to do so from Hamdayet were fatally shot within sight of the border crossing.

They were buried by hundreds of refugees at the Orthodox church in Hamdayet, where the blank walls are being mapped for murals of sacrifice and salvation. Some of the faithful drop to their knees and clutch the stones, deep in prayer. Others rest their foreheads against the entrance, as if they can’t go on.

Even as the Amhara fighters took turns raping her, they offered the young woman a twisted path to what they considered redemption.

She had returned to her looted home in Humera. There, she was seized by militia members speaking Amharic. When she asked them to speak her native Tigrinya, which she understood far better, they became angry and started kicking her.

She fell, and they fell upon her. She remembers at least three men.

“Let the Tigray government come and help you,” she recalled them saying.

They also made her a proposal: “Claim to be Amhara and we’ll give you back your house and find you a husband. But if you claim to be Tigrayan, we will come and rape you again.”

The woman’s Amhara neighbor was present during the attack. When she later approached him for help, there was none.

“So what?” she recalled him saying. “You came back. Behave and be quiet.”

The woman cried all night. The next day, she found little comfort in learning that many others in her neighborhood had been raped, too.

“One mother and daughter had been forced to watch each other,” she said. “One woman was raped on the road, with people watching. Other accounts were worse than mine.”

She left for Sudan. It was mid-February. Afraid to speak with anyone, she waited almost a month before seeking medical care.

“I was ashamed,” she said, and started to cry. She watched the doorway warily, fearing the rumors that can spread among the refugees.

She said she was grateful to be HIV-negative, but she is pregnant. For a long moment, she was silent. She can hardly think about that yet. Her family back home doesn’t know.

The United Nations has said more than 500 rapes in Tigray have been reported to health care workers. But the woman from Humera, whose account was confirmed by her doctor, assumes many more survivors are hiding it just as she did. The AP doesn’t name people who have been sexually abused.

Several refugees from different Tigray communities told the AP they watched or listened helplessly as women were taken away by Amhara or Eritrean fighters and raped. It was like taunting, said Adhanom Gebrehanis from Korarit village, who had just arrived in Hamdayet with the welts from a beating by Eritrean soldiers on his back.

“They do these things openly to make us ashamed,” he said.

He described watching Eritreans pull aside 20 women from a group of Tigrayans and rape them. The next day, 13 of the women were returned.

Go,” Adhanom said the Eritreans told the others. “We already have what we want.”

A midwife from Adwa, Elsa Tesfa Berhe, described treating women secretly after Eritrean soldiers swept through health centers, looting even the beds and telling patients to leave. As Berhe snuck out to deliver babies and care for the wounded, she saw people trying to bury bodies at the risk of being shot, or pouring alcohol on corpses in an attempt to hide the smell.

With the health centers destroyed, little if any care remains for women and girls who have been raped. No one knows how many now carry the children of their attackers.

Berhe had just arrived in Sudan. She cried as she recalled a 60-year-old woman who was raped vaginally and anally by Eritrean soldiers and then waited for days, trying to hide the bleeding, before seeking help.

“She didn’t want to tell anyone,” Berhe said. She heard the woman ask, “Can anyone trust me if I say I was raped?”

Another woman was raped by four Eritrean soldiers while her husband hid under the bed, Berhe said. Her husband recounted the attack when they sought an abortion.

A third woman described how Eritrean soldiers ordered her father to rape her, then shot and killed him when he refused. The soldiers raped her instead.

Berhe fears that the situation in rural areas is even worse, as described by the displaced people arriving in cities. So far, few from the outside world can reach the areas where the majority of Tigrayans lived before the conflict, as fighting continues.

“Do you think there is a word to explain this? There is no word,” said a midwife from Humera, who gave only her first name, Mulu.

In Hamdayet she befriended seven women from the same village, Mai Gaba, who said they were raped separately by various fighters, including Ethiopian federal forces. Mulu fears that Mai Gaba is a conservative example and estimates that some communities have seen scores of assaults.

“This is to harm the community psychologically,” Mulu said. “Most of the people in Tigray support the (fugitive Tigray leaders). To destroy them, you must destroy Tigrayans.”

There is more to come.

Almost every person interviewed described a worrying shortage of food, and some said Tigrayans are being starved. Many recalled seeing crops being looted or burned in communities by Amhara or Eritrean fighters, a toll that even shows up in satellite imagery.

Kidu Gebregirgis, a farmer, said he was questioned almost daily about his ethnicity, his shirt yanked aside to check for marks from the strap of a gun. He said the Amhara harvested around 5,000 kilograms (5.5 short tons) of sorghum from his fields and hauled it away, a task that took two weeks. He shook his head in amazement.

The conflict began shortly before the harvest in the largely agricultural region. Now the planting season approaches.

“But there is no seed,” Kidu said. “There’s nothing to start again.”

The prospect is terrifying, said Alex de Waal, the author of a new report warning of mass starvation in Tigray and a researcher at the Fletcher School at Tufts University.

“What I fear is that millions of people are in the rural areas, staying because they are hopeful they will be able to plant,” he said. “If they’re not able to plant, if food supplies run out, then all of a sudden we could see a mass migration.”

Tigrayans who passed through rural communities described starving people, often elderly, begging outside churches. Sometimes they did, too.

Alem, the exhausted mother, begged for money and tightened her clothes to control the hunger pangs. Abedom, a day laborer who only gave one name, begged while roaming the mountains and villages for three months.

“It was normal to go a whole day without food,” he said. “So many people were hungry. They loot everything, so if they take it all, how do I survive?”

The hunger was staggering. One refugee saw a man faint on the road in Adi Asr, close to death. Another described a fellow traveler so tired he simply stopped walking. Yet another saw a child, too weak to go on, left behind.

Again, ethnicity was crucial. Belaynesh, from Dansha, said she made sure to speak Amharic when approaching farmhouses in western Tigray for food.

Ethiopia, under international pressure, has said food aid has been distributed to more than 4 million people in Tigray. Refugees disagreed, saying they saw no such thing in their communities or asserting that food was being diverted.

Maza Girmay, 65, said she heard food was being distributed, so she went to the government office in her community of Bahkar to inquire.

“They told me, ‘Go home, you’re Tigrayan,’” she said. “We Tigrayans are Ethiopian. Why do they treat us as non-Ethiopian?”

The rejection brought her to tears. An Orthodox cross tattooed on her forehead, long faded from childhood, wrinkled with her sorrow.

In the community of Division, farmer Berhane Gebrewahid said he was shot by Amhara fighters seeking his cattle. He said food aid was distributed in February by Amhara authorities but refused to Tigrayans, including him. Even the name of his homeland had been changed to Northern Gondar, after a major city in Amhara.

A colonel with the Tigray fighters, Bahre Tebeje, worried that starvation will kill more people than the war itself.

“Most food aid returns to the Amhara and Eritreans,” he asserted, leaning forward intently, a tattered black-and-white kaffiyeh around his neck. “It’s not being distributed to the people.”

Severe malnutrition is already above emergency levels as humanitarian workers rush to reach communities, the U.N. has said. In Hamdayet, a handful of such cases were recently sent to a regional hospital for treatment, according to a doctor there. One woman, recovering, still couldn’t produce milk for her baby, who whimpered and sucked at a limp breast.

Battered and hungry, Tigrayans still arrive daily at the border post where Sudanese soldiers watch a no man’s land in the shadow of a fading flag. One recent evening, the AP saw three new refugees approaching.

In Sudan, the Tigrayans are registered and asked for their ethnicity. For once, they are free to answer.

Source

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Ethiopia Accused of Using Rape as a Weapon of War in Tigray as New Evidence Emerges of Massacres

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on April 5, 2021

🔥 #TigrayGenocide / የትግራይ ጀነሳይድ

💭 “Many people believe that it is now genocidal, that what is a political intent to destroy is becoming now an intent to destroy, in whole or part, a people,”

💭“ብዙ ሰዎች አሁን የዘር ማጥፋት ነው ብለው ያምናሉ ፣ ለማጥፋት የታቀደው የፖለቲካ ዓላማ አሁን ሙሉ በሙሉ ወይም በከፊል ህዝብን የማጥፋት ፍላጎት እየሆነ ነው”

👉 አዲስ የጅምላ ጭፍጨፋዎች ማስረጃ ብቅ ብቅ ሲል የኢትዮጵያ መንግስትአስገድዶ መድፈርን እንደ ጦር መሳሪያ ይጠቀማል ተብሎ ተክስሷል

የኢትዮጵያ መንግስት የኤርትራ ወታደሮች በሰሜን ኢትዮጵያ ከሚገኘው የትግራይ ክልል እየወጡ መሆናቸውን ካስታወቀበት አዲስ መረጃ አግኝተናል፡፡ የኤርትራ ወታደሮች የትግራይ ተወላጆችን እና ወንዶችን ሲገድሉ እና አስገድዶ መድፈር የኢትዮጵያ እና የኤርትራ ወታደሮች ለጦር መሳሪያነት መጠቀማቸውን የሚያሳዩ ምስክሮች እየወጡ ነው፡፡ የኢትዮጵያ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር አብይ አሕመድ በኅዳር ወር የትግራይ ሕዝብ ነፃ አውጪ ግንባርን ያነጣጠረ ወታደራዊ ጥቃት ለመደገፍ ኤርትራና ወደ ትግራይ ክልል አስገባት። በግጭቱ እውነተኛው የሟቾች ቁጥር እስካሁን አልታወቀም ፣ ግን ተመራማሪዎቹ በቅርቡ እንደገለጹት በጦርነቱ በ ፻፶/150 የጅምላ ጭፍጨፋዎች የተገደሉ ወደ ፪ሺ/2,000 የሚጠጉ ሰዎችን በስም ለይተው ለማሳወቅ በቅተዋል፡፡ ስለ አካባቢው መረጃዎችን አቅርባ የተመለሰችው የሲኤንኤን ከፍተኛ ዓለም አቀፍ ዘጋቢ ኒማ ኤል-ባጊር “በሥልጣን ፉክክር” ተብሎ የተጀመረው ወደ ብሔር ማጽዳት መግባቱን ትናገራለች፡፡ “ብዙ ሰዎች አሁን የዘር ማጥፋት ነው ብለው ያምናሉ ፣ ለማጥፋት የታቀደው የፖለቲካ ዓላማ አሁን አንድን ህዝብ በሙሉ ወይም በከፊል የማጥፋት ዓላማ እየሆነ ነው” ብላለች።

We get an update on how the Ethiopian government has announced Eritrean forces are withdrawing from the Tigray region in northern Ethiopia, where harrowing witness accounts have emerged of Eritrean soldiers killing Tigrayan men and boys and rape being used as weapon of war by Ethiopian and Eritrean soldiers. Eritrea entered the Tigray region to support Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s military offensive in November targeting the Tigray People’s Liberation Front. The true death toll from the conflict remains unknown, but researchers recently identified almost 2,000 people killed in 150 massacres by warring factions. CNN senior international correspondent Nima Elbagir, who just returned from reporting on the region, says what started as a “competition for power” has descended into ethnic cleansing. “Many people believe that it is now genocidal, that what is a political intent to destroy is becoming now an intent to destroy, in whole or part, a people,” says.

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Posted in Ethiopia, Infos, Life, Media & Journalism | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

NY Times: ‘They Told Us Not to Resist’: Sexual Violence Pervades Ethiopia’s War

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on April 1, 2021

From The New York Times

👉 ገብርኤል 👉 ማርያም 👉 ኡራኤል 👉 ጊዮርጊስ 👉 ተክለ ሐይማኖት 👉 ዮሴፍ 👉መድኃኔ ዓለም

ይህ የዘር ማጽዳት ነው። ወታደሮችየትግራይን ሴቶች የሚያጠቋቸው፤ የበለጠ ትግራዋያንን ለመውለድ እንዲያቆሙ ነው

☆ በታዋቂው የሞና ሊዛ ሥዕል ስም የተሰየመችው የ ፲፰/18 ዓመቷ ኢትዮጵያዊ የሁለተኛ ደረጃ ት / ቤት ምሩቅ ከሰባት የጥይት ቁስሎች እና ከተቆረጠ ክንድ ጋር ከደረሰባት አስገድዶ መድፈር በሕይወት መትረፍ ችላለች።

☆ እ.ኤ.አ. በታህሳስ ወር መጀመሪያ ላይ ሞና ሊዛ እንዳለቸውት አንድ ኢትዮጵያዊ ወታደር በማዕከላዊ ትግራይ ውስጥ በአቢ አድዲ ውስጥ ከአያቷ ጋር በምትጋራበት ቤት ውስጥ ገብቶ ወሲብ እንዲፈጽሙ አዘዛቸው፡፡

☆ ሞና ሊዛ፡ የኦርቶዶክስ እምነት ተከታይ የሆኑት አያቷ ለወታደሩ “እባክህ ይህ በእኛ ዘንድ ያልተለመደ እና ከሃይማኖታዊ እምነታችን ጋር የሚጋጭ ነው።” ሲሉ መስማቷን ታስታውሳለች።

☆ በፆታዊ ጥቃት ወቅት ድንጋዮች ፣ ጥፍሮች እና ሌሎች ነገሮች በሴቶች ሃፍረተ ስጋ አካላቸው ውስጥ መገኘቱን የጤና ሰራተኞች ጠቁመዋል፡፡ ሴቶች የራሳቸውን የቤተሰብ አባላት ለመድፈር መገደዳቸውም ተገልጿል፡፡

☆ በመቀሌ ከተማ የትግራይ ሴቶች ማህበር የሚያስተዳድረው ለሴቶች ደህንነት የተጠበቀ ቤት አባል የሆኑት ለታይ ተስፋይ፤ “አስገድዶ መድፈር ለጦር መሳሪያነት እያገለገለ ነው፤ እየሆነ ያለው ነገር ለማሰብ እንኳን የሚከብድ ነው፡፡” ብለዋል።

☆ አንዲት ሴት “ብንጮህም እንኳ የሚሰማን የለም” ብላለች። “መቁጠር እንኳን አቅቶናል፤ ደፋሪዎቹ ፎቶ አንስተውና ሰውነቴ ላይ አልኮል ካፈሰሱብኝ በኋላ እርስበርስ ተሳሳቁብኝ፡፡ አጥቂዎቹ የ ፲፪/12 ዓመት ወንድ ልጇን በጥይት እንደገደሉባት አክላለች፡፡

☆ “ግን የአካባቢው ፖሊሶች እና የፌደራል ፖሊሶች ባሉበት ትናንትም ዛሬም ሴቶች እየተደፈሩ ነው፡፡”

💭 የቀድሞው ጠቅላይ ሚንስትር መለስ ዜናዊ በአንድ ወቅት “ኦሮሞ ሀገር ማስተዳደር አይችልም! ብለው ነበር። ሌላ ጊዜም “ለኦሮሞ ስልጣን መስጠት ለህፃን ውሀ በብርጭቆ መስጠት ነው” ብለው ነበር። 100% ትክክል ነበሩ! ታዲያ ይህን እያወቁ እነ አቶ ስብሐት ነጋ ሁሉንም ነገር ለኦሮሞዎች አስረክበው መቀሌ ገቡ። ትልቅ ወንጀል! ያው ከኦሮማራዎችና የኤርትራ ቤን አሚር ጋር በመመሳጠርና ተክትለዋቸውም በመምጣት በትግራይ ሕዝብ ላይ አስከፊ ግፍና በደል ይፈጽማሉ።

ዛሬ ኦሮሞዎቹ ብርጭቆውን መስበር ብቻ አይደለም፤ በዓለምም በኢትዮጵያም ታሪክ ይህን ያህል በአስከፊ መልክ ዘግናኝ፣ ታይቶም ተሰምቶም የማይታወቅ ወንጀል እየፈጸሙ ነው። ጋሎች ከማደጋስካር እና ታንዛኒያ አካባቢ አምልጠው/ተባርረው ውደ ምስራቅ አፍሪቃ ሲገቡ ለአፍሪቃ ቀንድ እራሳቸው መጤዎች የሆኑት ሶማሌዎች እንኳን ሳይቀሩ የጋሎችን አረመኔነት ስለተገነዘቡት ነበር ዛሬ ወደሰፈሩበት የአክሱም ግዛት ገብተው እንዲወርሩና እንዲስፋፉ ያደረጓቸው። ኢትዮጵያ ሀገሬ ሞኝ ነሽ ተላላ የሞተልሽ ቀርቶ የገደለሽ በላ!

❖ ❖ ❖ አብ ወልድ መንፈስ ቅዱስ ሆይ በስማችሁ ብዙ ተአምራትን ያደረገና ኮከብ ክብርየተባለ የሰማዕታት አለቃ በሚሆን በኃያሉ በቅዱስ ጊዮርጊስ ላይ ለመፍረድ በልዳ ሀገር የተሰበሰቡትን ፯(ሰብዓ)ነገሥታትን ደምስሰው እንዳጠፏቸው፡ የተነሱብንን የጽዮንን ተቃዋሚዎች፣ የኔንም/የኛንም ጠላቶች ሁሉ ይደመስሱልን ዘንድ እማፀናለሁ። አሜን! አሜን! አሜን!❖ ❖ ❖

☆ “This is ethnic cleansing. Soldiers are targeting Tigrayan women to stop them giving birth to more Tigrayans.

☆ Mona Lisa, named for the iconic painting, the 18-year-old Ethiopian high school graduate had survived an attempted rape that left her with seven gunshot wounds and an amputated arm.

☆ In early December, Ms. Mona said, an Ethiopian soldier burst into the house she shares with her grandfather in Abiy Addi, a town in central Tigray, and ordered them to have sex.

☆ “Please,” she recalled her grandfather, an Orthodox Christian, telling the soldier. “This is abnormal and against our religious beliefs.”

☆ Rocks, nails and other objects have been forced inside the bodies of women — and some men — during sexual assaults, according to health workers. Men have been forced to rape their own family members under threat of violence, Pramila Patten, the top U.N. official on sexual violence in conflict, said in January.

☆ “Rape is being used as a weapon of war,” said Letay Tesfay of the Tigray Women’s Association, which runs a safe house for women in Mekelle. “What’s happening is unimaginable.”

☆ “Even if we had shouted,” one woman said, “there was no one to listen.”

☆ “I lost count,” she said. “They took photos of me, poured alcohol on me and laughed.” Some of her assailants also shot dead her 12-year-old son, she added.

☆ “But women were raped yesterday and today when the local police and federal police are around.”

‘They Told Us Not to Resist’: Sexual Violence Pervades Ethiopia’s War

Rape is being used as a weapon as fighting rages in remote parts of Tigray region. “Even if we had shouted,” one woman said, “there was no one to listen.”

Mona Lisa lay on a hospital bed in Mekelle, the main city in war-torn northern Ethiopia, her body devastated but her defiance on display.

Named for the iconic painting, the 18-year-old Ethiopian high school graduate had survived an attempted rape that left her with seven gunshot wounds and an amputated arm. She wanted it to be known that she had resisted.

“This is ethnic cleansing,” she said. “Soldiers are targeting Tigrayan women to stop them giving birth to more Tigrayans.”

Her account is one of hundreds detailing abuses in Tigray, the mountainous region in northern Ethiopia where a grinding civil war has been accompanied by a parallel wave of atrocities including widespread sexual assault targeting women.

A senior United Nations official told the Security Council last week that more than 500 Ethiopian women had formally reported sexual violence in Tigray, although the actual toll is likely far higher, she added. In the city of Mekelle, health workers say new cases emerge every day.

The assaults have become a focus of growing international outrage about a conflict where the fighting is largely happening out of sight, in the mountains and the countryside. But evidence of atrocities against civilians — mass shootings, looting, sexual assault — is everywhere.

In early December, Ms. Mona said, an Ethiopian soldier burst into the house she shares with her grandfather in Abiy Addi, a town in central Tigray, and ordered them to have sex.

“Please,” she recalled her grandfather, an Orthodox Christian, telling the soldier. “This is abnormal and against our religious beliefs.”

When her grandfather refused, the soldier shot him in the leg and locked him into the kitchen. Then he pinned Ms. Mona to a sofa and tried to rape her. She fought back, kicking the man in the crotch and briefly grabbing his gun, she said.

But he quickly overpowered her and, after shooting her in the hand and firing warning shots into the floor, issued another ultimatum. “He said he would count to three and if I did not take off my clothes he would kill me,” she said.

The soldier fired a volley of bullets that cut through Ms. Mona’s right arm and right leg. By the time she got transportation to the Mekelle General Hospital a day later, doctors were forced to amputate the arm.

She is still in the hospital, the bones in one leg still shattered. An uncle at her bedside corroborated her account of the assault on Dec. 4. Ms. Mona, who consented to be identified, called it a calculated act of war.

“My case is not unique,” she said. “I fought the soldier off. But there are so many women all over this region who were actually raped.”

After months of increasingly desperate pleas for international action on Ethiopia, led by senior United Nations and European Union officials, the pressure appears to be producing results. President Biden recently sent an envoy, Senator Chris Coons, Democrat of Delaware, to Ethiopia for talks with Ethiopia’s prime minister, Abiy Ahmed, that lasted five hours.

The majority of sexual violence accusations in Tigray have been leveled against Ethiopian and allied Eritrean soldiers. But Tigrayan forces may also be guilty of war crimes, the top U.N. human rights official, Michele Bachelet, said this month.

In some ways, the bitter fight is driven by deeply rooted forces — longstanding land disputes, opposing visions over the future shape of Ethiopia, and a rivalry with Eritrea going back decades. But civilians, and particularly women, are bearing the brunt of the most disturbing violence.

Rocks, nails and other objects have been forced inside the bodies of women — and some men — during sexual assaults, according to health workers. Men have been forced to rape their own family members under threat of violence, Pramila Patten, the top U.N. official on sexual violence in conflict, said in January.

“Rape is being used as a weapon of war,” said Letay Tesfay of the Tigray Women’s Association, which runs a safe house for women in Mekelle. “What’s happening is unimaginable.”

The epidemic of sexual assault is exacerbated by a collapsing health system. Many victims have contracted sexually transmitted diseases, including H.I.V., doctors say. Demand for abortions and emergency contraceptives has risen.

But outside the main towns of Tigray, most health clinics are shut — some destroyed in fighting, others plundered by soldiers as part of what Doctors Without Borders recently called a concerted effort to destroy the region’s health care system. In his meeting with Mr. Abiy in March, Senator Coons said they discussed “directly and forcefully” the reports of widespread human rights violations including rape.

Whether Mr. Abiy delivers on his promise of bringing the perpetrators to justice, he added, “is going to be critical to any successful resolution of this conflict.”

The anguish of victims resonates quietly through the wards of the Ayder Referral Hospital in Mekelle, the region’s biggest medical facility.

A doctor specialized in sexual assault said he had received at least three new patients every day since Ethiopian troops marched into Mekelle on Nov. 28. Some said they had been raped by soldiers in the camps for displaced people on the edge of the city; others were abducted from their homes in rural areas and held for days as soldiers repeatedly raped them.

The doctor, who like several other medics spoke on the condition of anonymity for fear of reprisals from the authorities, produced a list of 18 registered sexual violence patients at the hospital. The youngest was 14. Most said their attackers were soldiers, he said.

In one bed, a 29-year old woman who asked to be identified only by her first name, Helen, trembled as she recounted how Eritrean and Ethiopian troops had tied her to a tree near her home in Agula, 15 miles north of Mekelle, and assaulted her repeatedly over a 10-day period in late November.

“I lost count,” she said. “They took photos of me, poured alcohol on me and laughed.” Some of her assailants also shot dead her 12-year-old son, she added.

Selam Assaeffae, a police investigator working on rape cases at the Ayder Referral Hospital, corroborated Ms. Helen’s account.

Most sexual assault cases in Tigray, however, may not be recorded anywhere. Health workers said that officials are reluctant to register such violence, fearing that the military could target them for documenting the crime. Patients often remain anonymous for the same reason.

Filsan Abdullahi Ahmed, Ethiopia’s minister of women, children and youth, insisted that the federal government was taking seriously the reports of sexual violence in Tigray, and had sent a task force including social workers, police officers and prosecutors to investigate.

While her own mandate was limited to providing victims with psychological support, Ms. Filsan said she had pressured Ethiopia’s attorney general to deliver justice. But it is a difficult process, she insisted.

“I cannot 100 percent confirm whom this is being committed by,” Ms. Filsan said, referring to the perpetrators.

The sexual attacks are so common that even some Ethiopian soldiers have spoken out. At a public meeting in Mekelle in January, a man in military uniform made an outburst that was broadcast on state television.

“I was angry yesterday,” he said. “Why does a woman get raped in Mekelle city?” The soldier, who was not identified, questioned why the police weren’t stopping them. “It wouldn’t be shocking if it happened during fighting,” he said. “But women were raped yesterday and today when the local police and federal police are around.”

Haben, a waitress in Mekelle, was raped with two other women at the cafe where they work in December, she said. Her body is still covered in bruises from the assault.

“They told us not to resist,” she recalled. “‘Lie down. Don’t shout.’”

But even if they had shouted, she added, “there was nobody to listen.”

Source

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NPR | The Case of PM Abiy Ahmed | What is Happening in Tigray is Worse Than War

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 22, 2021

🔥 A Nobel Peace Laureate and Horror in Ethiopia

🔥 የኖቤል የሰላም ተሸላሚ እና አስፈሪ ሰቆቃ በኢትዮጵያ

👉 የጠ / ሚ አብይ አህመድ ጉዳይ | በትግራይ እየሆነ ያለው ከጦርነት የከፋ ነው

🔥 ዛሬ ኢትዮጵያ በሀገሪቱ ሰሜናዊ ክፍል በጦርነት በምትገኘዋ ትግራይ ምክኒያት እንደገና በዜና ውስጥ አለች። እዚያ እየሆነ ያለው ከጦርነት የከፋ ነው ፥ ትግራይ የጦር ወንጀልና በሰው ልጆች ላይ የሚፈጸሙ ወንጀሎች ቲያትር ናት።

🔥 አስገድዶ መድፈር ከረጅም ጊዜ በፊት የጦር መሣሪያ ሆኖ ቆይቷል ፥ በሱዳን ፣ በባልካን ፣ በበርማ እና በሌሎች በርካታ ቦታዎች። በትግራይ በጅምላ መድፈር እጅግ ዘግናኝ በሆነ ደረጃ ላይ ይገኛል። እ... ጃንዋሪ 21 አንድ የተባበሩት መንግስታት ባለስልጣን ፕራሚላ ፓተን መግለጫ ሰጡ። የተባበሩት መንግስታት “በግጭቶች ውስጥ ወሲባዊ ጥቃት” በሚለው ርዕስ ጉዳይ ላይ “ልዩ ተወካይ” ነች። የእርሷን መግለጫ የመጀመሪያዎቹን ሁለት ዓረፍተ ነገሮችን ብቻ እጠቅሳለሁ፦

በትግራይ ዋና ከተማ በመቐለ ከፍተኛ ቁጥር ያላቸው አስገድዶ መድፈርን ጨምሮ ከባድ የወሲብ ጥቃቶች መከሰታቸው በጣም አሳስቦኛል። በቅርቡም “የኃይል እርምጃ ይወሰድባችኋል” የተባሉ ግለሰቦችም በማስፈራራት የገዛ ቤተሰቦቻቸውን ለመድፈር ተገደዋል የሚሉ የሚረብሹ ዘገባዎች አሉ።”

🔥 ለትግራይ ሲኦል ተጠያቂው ማነው? ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩ ፣ የኖቤል የሰላም ተሸላሚ? የጥፋተኝነት ምደባ ብዙ የመተንተን ገጾችን ይወስዳል። በትግራይ እና በውጭው ዓለም መካከል ያለው የግንኙነት መቆራረጥ እና የሰብዓዊ ዕርዳታ መዘግየትን ለክልሉ በጣም አስፈላጊ በመሆኑ ፣ በብዙዎች ዘንድ ዋናው ተጠያቂ አብይ አህመድ እንደሆነ ግልጽ ነው። ብዙዎች የአብይ የኖቤል የሰላም ሽልማት እንዲሰረዝ/ እንዲሻር ጥሪ እያደረጉ ነው።

🔥 የኖርዌይ የኖቤል ኮሚቴ ዛሬ ፊቱ ላይ እንቁላል አለበት። ከበርማዋ ጠቅላይ ሚንስትር ኦንግ ሳን ሱ ኪይ ጎን ለጎን የኮሚቴው የ 2019 ተሸላሚ ይህንን ነፍሰ ገዳይ እና ጭራቃዊ/ አሰቃቂ ጭፍጨፋ በትግራይ እየመራ ነው። ግን የ 2019 ሽልማት በኖቤል ውሎች ትርጉም አለው።

🔥 የኖርዌይ የኖቤል ኮሚቴ ዛሬ ፊቱ ላይ እንቁላል አለበት። ከበርማዋ ጠቅላይ ሚንስትር ኦንግ ሳን ሱ ኪይ ጎን ለጎን የኮሚቴው የ 2019 ተሸላሚ ይህንን ነፍሰ ገዳይ እና ጭራቃዊ/ አሰቃቂ ጭፍጨፋ በትግራይ እየመራ ነው።

🔥 በትግራይ ያለው ገሃነም ሳይቋረጥ ሊቀጥል ይችላል። ሊዛመትና ኢትዮጵያንም የከሸፈች/ ያልተሳካች ሀገር ሊያደርጋት ይችላል።

🔥 ኢትዮጵያ የተወሳሰበች ሀገር ናት ፣ ግን እኔ ለማንኛውም ለኢትዮጵያተመልካቾች ወይም በአጠቃላይ ለተመልካቾች ምክር አለኝ። ምክሩ የእኔ አይደለም ፣ ግን በባግዳድ ኢራቅ የተወለደው እና ያደገው ታላቁ የእንግሊዛዊ የታሪክ ምሁር ኤሊ ኬዱሪ፤ “አይናችሁን በሬሳዎች ላይ አድርጉ!” ሲል ለዴቪድ ፕራይስጆንስ የሰጠው ምክር ነው።

🔥 Today, Ethiopia is again in the news, for war in Tigray, a region in the country’s north. What is happening there is worse than war, if such a thing is possible: Tigray is a Theater For War Crimes & Crimes Against Humanity.

🔥 Rape has long been a weapon of war — in Sudan, the Balkans, Burma, and any number of other places. Rape in Tigray is on a mass, horrific scale. On January 21, a U.N. official, Pramila Patten, issued a statement. She is the U.N. “special representative” on the subject of “sexual violence in conflict.” I will quote just the first two sentences of her statement:

🔥 „I am greatly concerned by serious allegations of sexual violence in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, including a high number of alleged rapes in the capital, Mekelle. There are also disturbing reports of individuals allegedly forced to rape members of their own family, under threats of imminent violence.”

🔥 Who is responsible for the hell in Tigray? The prime minister, the Nobel peace laureate? The assignment of blame would take many pages of analysis. Suffice it to say, Abiy Ahmed is to blame for a lot, including the cut-off of communication between Tigray and the outside world, and the delay of humanitarian aid — desperately needed — to the region. Many are calling for the revocation of Abiy’s Nobel Peace Prize.

🔥 Today, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has egg on its face. Aung San Suu Kyi aside, the committee’s 2019 laureate is presiding over this murderous, monstrous mayhem in Tigray. But the 2019 award made sense, on Nobel terms. Classically, a committee asks itself, “Who has done the most or best work for fraternity between nations during the preceding year?”

🔥 The hell in Tigray may go on and on. It may spread, making Ethiopia a failed state.

🔥 Ethiopia is complicated, but I have advice for any Ethiopia-watchers, or watchers in general. It is not my advice, but the advice that Elie Kedourie, the great British historian, born and raised in Baghdad, gave to David Pryce-Jones: “Keep your eye on the corpses.”

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Posted in Ethiopia, Infos, Life | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

CNN:’Practically This Has Been a Genocide’ | Rape Used as a Weapon of War in Ethiopia

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 20, 2021

Thank you, CNN! We love you, dear Nima Elbagir! You are a real woman, a good-hearted, bright woman – a lot better than the current female president of Ethiopia and her wicked female ministers. They all are in a conspiracy of silence with evil Abiy Ahmed’s riffraff female ministers and president. You, Nima, from now on you are a citizen of the one and only true Ethiopia — which at the moment, and only at the moment, sadly exists only in virtual and celestial hug. But soon!

እናመሰግናለን፡ ሲ.ኤን.ኤን! ውድ ኒማ ኤልባጊር፤ እንወድሻለን! እውነተኛ ሴት ነሽ ፣ ጥሩ ልብ ያለሽ፣ ብሩህ ሴት ነሽ ፥ ከአሁኗ ከንቱ የኢትዮጵያ ሴት ፕሬዚዳንት እና ከትርፍራፊ ሴት ሚኒስትሮች እጅግ በጣም የተሻልሽ ሴት ነሽ፡፡ እነዚህ የአረመኔው የአብይ አህመድ ሴት ሚኒስትሮች እና ፕሬዝዳንቷ ሁሉም የዝምታ ሴራ ላይ ናቸው፡፡ ኒማ ኤልባጊር ከአሁን በኋላ የአንዷ እና ብቸኛዋ የእውነተኛዋ ኢትዮጵያ ዜጋ ነሽ ፥ በአሁኑ ወቅት እና በአሁኑ ጊዜ ፣ ይህች ኢትዮጵያ በምናባዊ እና ሰማያዊ እቅፍ ብቻ የምትኖር እንጂ በሚያሳዝን ሁኔታ እዚህ የለችም። ግን በቅርቡ!

💭 ሲ.ኤን.ኤን. ‘በተግባር ይህ የዘር ማጥፋት ወንጀል ሆኗል’ | አስገድዶ መድፈር በኢትዮጵያ እንደ ጦር መሣሪያነት አገልግሏ

🔥“እሱ ገፋኝና “እናንተ የትግራይ ተወላጆች ታሪክ የላችሁም ፣ ባህል የላችሁም ፣ የምፈልገውን ላደርግባችሁ እችላለሁ፣ ማንም ግድ አይሰጥም!” አለኝ ፡፡”

🔥 ተደፋሪዎቹ ሴቶች ደፋሪዎቻቸው የነገሯቸውን ነገሮች ሲገልጹ፤ “ማንነታቸውን መለወጥ እንዳለባቸው ፥ ወይ አማራ ለማድረግ ወይም ቢያንስ የትግሬ ማንነት ደረጃቸውን እንዲተው… እና እዚያ የመጡትም እነሱን ለማጥራት፣ የደም መስመሩን ለማጥራት እንደሆነ” ይናገራሉ … “። ዶ / ር ቴድሮስ ተፈራ አክለውም፤ “በተግባር ይህ የዘር ማጥፋት ወንጀል ነው!” ብለዋል፡፡

🔥 እንደ ሀኪሞቹ ገለፃ የሚያክሟቸው ሁሉም ሴቶች ማለት ይቻላል በኢትዮጵያና በኤርትራ ወታደሮች የተደፈሩት ሁሉ ተመሳሳይ ታሪኮችን ይተርካሉ።፡ ሴቶቹ እንዳሉት ወታደሮቹ የመበቀል ተልእኮ ላይ እራሳቸውን አውጀዋል እና በክልሉ ውስጥ ከሞላ-ጎደል-የጅምላ ቅጣት ጋር ይንቀሳቀሳሉ።

🔥 “አንዲት ሐኪም እንዳስተናገደቻቸው ያከሟቸው ብዙ ሴቶችም በአካል ተጎድተዋል ፣ አጥንቶቻቸው ተሰባብረዋል፣ የአካል ክፍሎቻቸው ቆሳስለዋል፡፡ ከታካሚዎቹ መካከል ትንሹ ልጃገረድ የ ፰/8 ዓመት ልጅ ስትሆን ትልቋ ደግሞ የ፷/60 ነበሩ።”

🔥 “He pushed me and said, ‘You Tigrayans have no history, you have no culture. I can do what I want to you and no one cares.'”

🔥 “The women that have been raped say that the things that they say to them when they were raping them is that they need to change their identity — to either Amharize them or at least leave their Tigrinya status … and that they’ve come there to cleanse them … to cleanse the blood line,” Dr. Tedros Tefera said.

“Practically this has been a genocide,” he added.

🔥 According to the doctors, almost all the women they treat recount similar stories of being raped by Ethiopian and Eritrean soldiers. The women said the troops were on a self-proclaimed mission of retribution and were operating with near-total impunity in the region.

🔥 One doctor said many of the women she treated were also physically abused, with broken bones and bruised body parts. She said the youngest girl she treated was 8 years old, while the oldest was 60.

More evidence of sexual violence being used as a deliberate weapon of war is emerging from Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region, where an armed conflict has been raging for months.

Women are being gang-raped, drugged and held hostage, according to medical records and testimonies from survivors shared with CNN. In one case a woman’s vagina was stuffed with stones, nails and plastic, according to a video seen by CNN and testimony from one of the doctors who treated her.

CNN has spoken with nine doctors in Ethiopia and one in a Sudanese refugee camp who say they’ve seen an alarming increase in sexual assault and rape cases since Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed launched a military operation against leaders in Tigray, sending in national troops and fighters from the country’s Amhara region. Forces from neighboring Eritrea are participating in the military campaign on the side of Ethiopia’s government, as CNN has previously reported.

“He pushed me and said, ‘You Tigrayans have no history, you have no culture. I can do what I want to you and no one cares.'”

According to the doctors, almost all the women they treat recount similar stories of being raped by Ethiopian and Eritrean soldiers. The women said the troops were on a self-proclaimed mission of retribution and were operating with near-total impunity in the region.

A CNN team in Hamdayet, a sleepy Sudanese town on the Ethiopian border where thousands of refugees from Tigray have gathered in recent months, spoke with several women who described being raped as they fled fighting.

“He pushed me and said, ‘You Tigrayans have no history, you have no culture. I can do what I want to you and no one cares,'” one woman said of her attacker. She told CNN she is now pregnant.

Many say they were raped by Amhara forces who told them they were intent on ethnically cleansing Tigray, a doctor working at the sprawling refugee camp in Hamdayet told CNN.

“The women that have been raped say that the things that they say to them when they were raping them is that they need to change their identity — to either Amharize them or at least leave their Tigrinya status … and that they’ve come there to cleanse them … to cleanse the blood line,” Dr. Tedros Tefera said.

“Practically this has been a genocide,” he added.

The flood of refugees has become a trickle since Ethiopian forces reinforced the border in recent days, worrying refugees who are still hoping to be reunited with family members.

The Ethiopian and Eritrean governments didn’t immediately respond to CNN’s request for comment on allegations that their forces are carrying out a coordinated campaign of sexual violence against women in Tigray.

Thousands of civilians are believed to have been killed in the conflict. CNN has previously reported that soldiers from neighboring Eritrea have perpetrated extrajudicial killings, assaults and human rights abuses in the Tigray region. Separate investigations by CNN and Amnesty International in February revealed evidence of massacres carried out by Eritrean forces in Dengelat and Axum. Eritrea’s government has denied involvement in the atrocities.

The new reports of sexual violence come as US President Joe Biden dispatches Senator Chris Coons to meet with Abiy and convey US “concerns about the humanitarian crisis and human rights abuses in the Tigray region.” The State Department has previously called for an independent investigation into atrocities committed during the war.

Ethiopia’s government has severely restricted access to journalists until recently, making it challenging to verify survivors’ accounts. And an intermittent communications blackout during the fighting has effectively blocked the war from the world’s eyes. But in recent weeks, as foreign journalists have been allowed in, horrifying stories of rape and sexual violence are beginning to surface.

On Thursday, CNN affiliate Channel 4 News published a harrowing report into sexual violence against women in Tigray. The report included interviews from a safe house — the only one believed to be operating in Tigray for rape survivors — where around 40 women too traumatized to return to their families are receiving shelter and support.

“… they’ve come there to cleanse them … to cleanse the blood line.”

Dr. Tedros Tefera

One of the survivors told Channel 4 News that she and five other women were gang-raped by 30 Eritrean soldiers who were joking and taking photos throughout the attack. She said she knew they were Eritrean troops because of their dialect and uniforms. She said she was able to return home only to be raped again. When she tried to escape, she recalled being captured, injected with a drug, tied to a rock, stripped, stabbed and raped by soldiers for 10 days.

Outside of the safe house, many more women and young girls are being treated in Ayder Referral Hospital, the main medical facility in the regional capital Mekelle. Most have been referred there by hospitals in rural areas that are not equipped to handle rape cases, Channel 4 News reported.

One doctor at the hospital told CNN that more than 200 women had been admitted for sexual violence in recent months, but many more cases have been reported in rural villages and centers for the internally displaced, with limited to no access to medical care.

The fighting in Tigray, which has included attacks on health care facilities, has severely restricted access to medical treatment, according to a report published Thursday by international medical humanitarian organization Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF). Of the 106 medical facilities MSF visited in the region, barely one in 10 were still operating, and one in five had been or was occupied by armed soldiers. One facility was being used as an army base, MSF said.

Between a lack of access to medical services and stigma surrounding sexual violence, doctors CNN interviewed said they suspect the true number of rape cases is much higher than official reports.

On February 10, the state-appointed Ethiopian Human Rights Commission (EHRC) admitted that the war and associated dismantling of the regional administration in Tigray had “led to a rise in gender-based violence in the region.”

A month later, on March 4, the United Nation’s High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, demanded an “objective, independent assessment” of the situation on the ground in Tigray.

According to the UN statement, more than 136 cases of rape were reported in eastern region hospitals in Mekelle, Ayder, Adigrat and Wukro between December and January.

One coordinator at a gender-based violence crisis center in Tigray told CNN they used to hear of cases every few days or once a week. Since the conflict broke out, up to 22 women and girls seek treatment for rape every day, she said.

Demand for emergency contraception and testing for sexually transmitted infections have also surged in recent months. Many of the women who have been raped have contracted sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, doctors told CNN.

One doctor said many of the women she treated were also physically abused, with broken bones and bruised body parts. She said the youngest girl she treated was 8 years old, while the oldest was 60.

The doctor said that many women who come forward share stories of others who haven’t — mothers, sisters, friends and other acquaintances.

A spokesperson for the UN Human Rights Office told CNN that they would carry out a joint investigation with EHRC into allegations of serious human rights violations in Tigray.

Source

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Posted in Ethiopia, Infos, Life | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

የአጥፍቶ-ጠፊዎችን ፈለግ የተከተለው የአማራ/ ጋላማራ “የዘር ማጽዳት” ዘመቻ በትግራይ

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 20, 2021

🔥 ክፍል ፩

በምዕራብ ትግራይ ትግሬዎች በፋሺስቱ የአማራ ፋኖ ሚሊሺያ እየተገደሉና ለስደት እየተዳረጉ ነው፣ ቤቶቻቸውም እየተቃጠሉ ነው

🔥 ክፍል ፪

ዶ/ር + ☆ዶ/ር + ☆ ዶ/ር ዋውውውው! ንጹሕ ኢትዮጵያውያን ይህን ጉድ ሰምታችሁ አትደንግጡ፣ አትበሳጩ! ጥሩ ትምህርት ነው! የአማራ / ጋላማራ ሊሂቃን በዋቄዮ-አላሁ-አቴቴ-ኤልዛቤል የጥላቻ መንፈስ ሥር

የትግራይ ኢትዮጵያውያን፡ ምንም እንኳን መሪዎቻቸው በይሉኝታ ከትግራዋይ ይልቅ ሌሎች ኢትዮጵያውያንን በተለይ ኦሮሞ እና አማራ ኢትዮጵያውያንን በይበልጥ በመጥቀም፤ ኢትዮጵያን ባልተጠበቀና በሚያስደንቅ መልክ አልምተዋትና፣ በሰላም ጠብቀዋትም ነበር። እነዚህ ሰሜን ኢትዮጵያውያን ኢትዮጵያ ዘ-ነፍስ በኢትዮጵያ ዘ-ስጋ ዘንድ ለአንዴም እንኳን ተወዳጅነትን ሳያገኙና በዚህም ብዙም ሳይቀየሙ፣ ሳይበቀሉና በአማራዎች፣ ኦሮሞዎች፣ ሶማሌዎችና ደቡቦች ላይ አንዲትም ጥይት ሳይተኩሱ ፺/90% የምትሆነውን ኢትዮጵያን ትተውላቸው ወደ ሚጢጢዋ ትግራይ ኮሮጇቸውን ጠቅልለው ሄዱ። እዚያም ብዙም ሳያማርሩና “ያንንም ይሄንም አምጡ፣ ጎንደር እርስቴ፣ አዲስ አበባ ኬኛ”(ለነገሩማ ሁለቱም የአክሱም ግዛቶች ናቸው) ሳይሉ በሰላም መኖር ጀምሩ፣ ብዙም ሳይቆን ሁሉም በድብቅና በግልስ በትግራይ ሕዝብ ላይ ያነጣጠር ሤራ ጠንስ ሰው ጦርነት አወጁበት። ዛሬ በኢትዮጵያ ታሪክ ታይቶም ተሰምቶም ለማይታወቅ ግፍ ሰለባ ሲሆኑ፤ ቪዲዮው ላይ የምናያቸው የአማራ/ጋላማራ ልሂቃን ብቅ ብለው ደስታቸውን ለማሳየትና ትክክለኛዎቹ ኢትዮጵያውያን በሆኑት የጽዮን ልጆች ላይ ለመሳለቅ በቅተዋል።

ይህ ሁሉ እንግዲህ የሚያሳየን እነዚህ ደካሞችና ግብዞች በዋቄዮአላህአቴቴኤልዛቤል መንፈስ ሥር መውደቃቸውን ነው። የቃኤላዊ ማንነት ይህ ነው! የዛሬዎቹን ልሂቃኑን የፈለፈለው ያ ትውልድ በእነ ጥላሁን ገሠሠ እና ብዙነሽ በቀለ የፍዬል ድምጽ በኩል አቴቴ ሥራዋን እንድትሠራበት የፈቀደ መሰሪ ትውልድ ነው። ልክ በአረቦችና በመሀመዳውያኑ ዘንድ እንደምናየው እነርሱም አመጸኞች፣ ትዕቢትን፣ እብሪትንና ተንኮልን እንደ ብልኸነት የሚቆጥሩ፣ እንደ ፍዬል ደፋርነትን ጀግነነት አድርገው የሚወስዱ፣ ምስጋናቢሶች፣ የበሉበትን ወጪት ሰባሪ፤ ያጎረሳቸውን እጅ ነካሾች፣ ስጋዊ፣ ክፉና ዲያብሎሳዊ የባዕድ ርዕዮተ ዓለማትን መከተል የመረጡ ናቸው። “አምጡ!” እንጅ “እንኩን!” ያልለመዱ፣ “በቃኝን” ፣ “ትህትናን” እና “ይቅርታን” የማያውቁ “ሁሉ ኬኛ፣ ሁሉም እርስቴ፣ ሁሌ እኛ እንጂ ሌላው አልተበደለም” እያሉ እንደ ጅራፍ እራሳቸው ገርፈው እራሳቸው ሲጮሁ የሚሰሙ ውዳቂዎች ናቸው።

የሞናሊዛን አሰቃቂ ታሪክ የሰማና ያየ፣ በትግራይ ሴቶች ላይ እየተፈጸመ ያለውን ኢኢትዮጵያዊ፣ ኢሰብዓዊና ኢሴታዊ ከባድ ወንጀል መላው ዓለም “ኡ! !” እያለ በመዘገብ ላይ እያለ እነዚህ የአማራ/ ጋላማራ ልሂቃን፣ ያውም ሴት ዶ/ሮች በጾታ አጋሮቻቸው ላይ ይህን ያህል መሳለቅ ምን ያህል ጥልቅ መንፈሳዊ ውድቀት ላይ እንዳሉ ነውና የሚያሳየን እንዲህ በርህራሄአልባ በሆነ መልክ በአደባባይ እየወጡ ቆሻሻ ሲያስታውኩ ስናይና ስንሰማ እንዘንላቸው፣ ግን አንደናገጥ፣ አትበሳጩ! ጥሩ ትምህርት ነው!

[ኦሪት ዘዳግም ምዕራፍ ፲፭፥፱]

ባተኛው ዓመት የዕዳ ምሕረት ዓመት ቀርቦአል ብለህ ክፉ አሳብ በልብህ እንዳታስብ፥ ለድሀውም ወንድምህ አንዳች የማትሰጥ እንዳትሆን፥ ዓይንህም በእርሱ ላይ ክፉ እንዳይሆን፥ እርሱም ወደ እግዚአብሔር በአንተ ላይ እንዳይጮህ፥ ኃጢአትም እንዳይሆንብህ ተጠንቀቅ።”

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US Poised to Intervene in Ethiopia Crisis | Amhara/ Oromara Ethnic-Cleansing in Tigray

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 20, 2021

አይ አማራ/ ጋላማራ፤ ኢትዮጵያን እንዲህ ታዋርዷት?! እንደው ከኢትዮጵያ እና ተዋሕዶ እምነቷ ታሪካዊ ጠላቶች ከሆኑት አህዛብ ጎን ተሰልፋችሁ በጽዮን ላይ ትዘምቱ?! እስኪ አስቡት፤ አብረን ተባብረን መላዋ አፍሪቃን ነፃ እናውጣ በማለት ሌሎች ሕዝቦች ሁሉ በተለይ በዚህ ዘመን እንደሚያድርጉት ቅርርቦሽንና ፍቅርን በመፍጠር ፈንታ፤ ለብዙ ሺህ ዓመታት ከአክሱም እስከ ሞቃዲሾ አብሯቸው የኖረውን የትግራይን ሕዝብ “ከወልቃይት እርስቴ ውጣ”እያለ ሲያባርር እና ሲገድል። ይህን እኮ ነው የዋቄዮ-አልህ-አቴቴ ዲያብሎሳዊ መንፈስ የምንለው። ከአምስት መቶ ዓመታት በፊትና በኋላም በጣሊያን እና ቱርክ-ግብጽ-ድርቡሽ ወረራዎች ጊዜ እናንተ ነበራችሁ ማለት ነው ባንዳዎቹ። “ያለፈው ታሪክ የዛሬና የወደፊቱ ታሪክ መስተዋት ነው” የተባለው በእናንተ በኩል ሲፈጸም እያየነው እኮ ነው። እንደው በስንፍናችሁ እንዲህ በቀላሉ የትንቢት መጸፈሚያ ትሁኑ?!እጅግ በጣም አዝናለሁ! 😢😢😢 መቼስ አሁን ውጊያችሁ ከእግዚአብሔር ጋር ነውና የእናቶች እንባ በጣም ከባድ ዋጋ ያስከፍላችኋል! ጥቂት ቀናት ቀርተዋና፤ “እስከ ጌታችን ስቅለት ዕለት ድረስ ንስሐ ግቡ” ብለናል። ❖

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Posted in Ethiopia, Infos, Life | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

 
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