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Posts Tagged ‘Ethiopians’

The Constrained Capabilities Of Overseas Domestic Workers In Lebanon (Report)

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 30, 2012

Kate Denman is a British born researcher who has spent large periods of her career working in Lebanon and Syria, focusing on issues of human rights, social justice and equality. She co-founded an NGO, Refocus, and is finalising her MA in Education, Gender and International Development at the Institute of Education, London. Kate continues to research social injustice and designs artistic educational programmes to help raise awareness, understanding, and to facilitate social change.

Kate has compiled a remarkably thorough, original paper which analyses the conditions for Overseas Domestic Workers (ODW) in Lebanon as vast global disparities create a modern slave-trade where post-industrialised economies opt for cheap imported labour. ODW come from some of the poorest countries to work in Lebanon where they are excluded from national labour laws. This results in limited available protection and increased risk of exploitation and loss of freedom and dignity.

The paper uses the Capabilities Approach, with specific focus on Nussbaum’s list of capabilities, as a framework to explore the constraints that ODW face. This includes their access to recourses and their possibilities to convert their capabilities to valued functionings and agency. An analysis is made of how national and international policy is responding to these concerns in the Lebanese context. The international analysis focuses on the UN anti-trafficking protocol, CEDAW, authentic commitments made by Lebanon to the International Labour Organization’s convention, and how the MDG’s and EFA goals are failing to commit to adult education and equality.

The paper exposes the lack of legal protection available, how public attitude is emulates national policy, the physical and psychological violence experienced by ODW, forms of debt-bondage slavery and contract-slavery, education and how the ethnic hierarchy has developed.

The main findings were as follows:

  • ODW in Lebanon are frequently being denied basic rights and capabilities which highly restrict valued functionings and agency.

  • Structural barriers and non-inclusion in labour laws reinforce the demeaning socio-political landscape for ODWs.

  • Attitudinal change needs to occur to reduce symbolic and physical violence that ODWs sustain.

In response the following courses of action are recommended:

  • Education for the ODW should be provided, not only to help them understand their rights, but also give access to capabilities and opportunities previously denied.

  • Pre-departure seminars in home countries need to be investigated.

  • The education of Lebanese children about ODW should be implemented.

  • To guarantee the implementation of international labour laws public awareness needs to be raised regarding ODWs circumstances. Key constituencies such as national labour officials, trade unions, employers, media must join together to create governmental pressure.

Read Kate’s full paper here (PDF)


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UAE: Two Suicides of Ethiopian Women in One Day

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 26, 2011


The epidemic of suicides of migrant workers in the UAE continues unabated: on June 13, UAE papers reported about two suicides of Ethiopian migrant workers.

At 4pm on June 11, police rushed to a house in Ras al-Khaimah where a 29-year-old Ethiopian maid attempted to end her life by overdosing on pills. She was taken to the hospital in time. Just 12 hours following this suicide attempt, an 28-year-old Ethiopian woman jumped to her death from the third floor of a building in the Mussallah area in Sharjah. The report also mentions the death of a 50-year-old Indian man who “fell” to his death from the 11th floor of a building al-Khan area in Sharjah.

Recently the suicide of a migrant worker who jumped to his death from Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, has shed light on this alarming phenomenon. Among Indian migrants alone, 26 have committed suicide in 2011. Migrant workers are often driven to suicide as a result of poor working conditions, abusive employers and heavy debt due to exploitation of recruitment agencies.

Source: Gulf News


O God, do not remain silent; do not turn a deaf ear, do not stand aloof, O God!






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UNESCO 50% የዓለማችንን ነዋሪ ግብረሰዶማዊ የማድረግ እቅድ አለው

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on January 24, 2011

በሮማዋ የጵጵስና መስተዳደር የቤተሰብ ሚንስትር የሆኑት ካርዲናል አንቶኔሊ እንደነገሩኝ ከሆነ፡ የተባበሩት መንግሥታት የትምሕርት፡ ማህበረሰብና ባህል ድርጅት (UNESCO) በመጪዎቹ 20 ዓመታት 50% የሚጠጋውን የዓለማችንን ነዋሪ ግብረሰዶማዊ የማድረግ አጀንዳ ይዟልይላሉ፡ በስፔኗ ኮርዶባ የካቶሊክ ክርስቲያኖች መሪ የሆኑት ጻጻስ ዴሚትሪዮ ፈርናንዴዝ።

እንደሳቸው ከሆነ፡ ዩኔስኮ፡ የተለያዩ ፕሮግራሞችን በመከተል፡ ማህበረሰቦች ተለምዷዊ የሆነውን መሠረታዊ የጾታ አመለካከት በመቀየር በተለይ በትምህርት ቤቶች አካባቢ ግብረሰዶማዊነት መጥፎ የሆነ ድርጊት እንዳልሆነ ለማስተማር አቅዷል።

ይህን መሰሉ ሁኔታ አዲስ ባይሆን፡ አሁን ሰለጠነበሚባለው ዓለም እየተፈጠረ ያለው ክስተት ምናልባት በዓለማችን ታሪክ ታይቶም ተሰምቶም የማይታወቅ ክስተት ነው። ጠቢብ ነው የተባለው ወገን መጥፎ ድርጊቶችን በመፈጸምና በኃጢአት በመሰልጠን ከፈጣሪው ለመራቅ ቆርጦ ተነስቷል። የሰዎችን ህሊና በመቆጣጠር፡ ብሎም የሕሊና ህወከትን ፈጥሮ የቀረውን የሰው ልጅ ወደ ዲያብሎስ ካምፕ ለመሳብ የሚታገለው የሕሊና ፖሊስ፥ ጦርነት ሰላም፡ ባርነት ነፃነት፡ ግድየለሽነት ብርታት እንደሆነ፡ ባጠቃላይ፡ ኃጢአት ጽድቅ፡ ጽድቅ ኃጢአት እንደሆነ ሊያሳምነን እየሞከረ ነው።

ልብ ብሎ ላስተዋለ፡ የሰው ልጅ በተፈጥሮ ከፈጣሪው የተሰጠውን ነጻ ፈቃድ ያላግባብ በመጠቀም ተፈጥሮን የሚጻረሩ ድርጊቶች መፈጸም ከጀመረ ቆይቷል። ሰለጠኑ በሚባሉት የአውሮፓ፡ እስያና አሜሪካ፡ ግብረሰዶማውያን ሕጋዊ እውቅና እየተሰጣቸው ነው፡ ወንዶች ከወንዶች፡ ሴቶች ከሴቶች ጋር እንዲጋቡ እየተፈቀደላቸው ነው። ከጥቂት ሳምንታት በፊት እውቁ የእንግሊዝ ሙዚቀኛ ኤልተን ጆን ከወንድ ባለቤቱጋር እንደቤተሰብ ልጆች እንዲያሳድግ ስለተፈቅደለት ብዙ ታዋቂ የሙዚቃ፡ የፊልምና የፖለቲካ ሰዎች የተሳተፉበት ድግስ ደግሷል።

ክርስቲያኖች፡ በተለይ የተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስቲያን ትምሕርት የሚከተሉት ኢትዮጵያውያን ግብረሰዶማዊነትን አጥብቀው ስለሚያወግዙ፡ በዓለማችን በመታየት ላይ ያለውን የእኩልነት ወረርሽኝ በሽታ የሚያስፋፉት መንግሥታዊና መንግሥታዊ ያልሆኑ ድርጅቶች ሊዋጓቸው በቆራጥነት ተነሳስተዋል። ማንነታችንን አጠንቅቀው የሚያቁትም እነዚህ ሃይሎች ሊበድሉን፡ ሊለዩን፡ ሊያጥላሉንና ሊገድሉን እንደተዘጋጁ ሁላችንም የምናየው ነው።

ባለፈው ሳምንት ላይ እንግሊዝ አገር ውስጥ ለሁለት ግብረሰዶማውያን ወንዶች የሆቴል ክፍል አልሰጡም የተባሉ ክርስቲያናዊ ባለቤቶች በግብረሰዶማውያኑ ተከሰው፡ ፍርድ ቤትም ፀረአድሎየሆነውን ሕግ ጥሳችኋል በማለት የገንዘብ ቅጣት ፍርድ ተሰጥቷቸዋል

ሆሊውድም ብዛት ባላቸው ፊልሞቹ የግብረሰዶማውያንን አጀንዳ የሚያራምዱ ፊልሞች በማውጣት ላይ ነው። ለምሳሌ ለመጥቀስ፡ ሮበርት ዲኔሮ፡ ደስቲን ሆፍማን፡ ጀሲካ አልባ እና ቤን ስቲለር የሚታዩበት “‘Little Fockers’…የተሳተፉበት ሦስተኛው የ ቤተሰቦችን ተዋወቁተከታታይ ፊልም ላይ መጥቀስ የማይስፈልገው አጸያፊ ግብረሰዶማዊ ተግባር በአንድ የጥቁር አክተር አማካይነት በሆስፒታል ውስጥ ሲካሄድ ይታያል። ማናቸውም በሰውነት ውስጥ ጠልቀው የሚገቡ ድርጊቶች ግብረሰዶማዊ የሆነ ባሕርይ የያዙ ናቸው። በጣም የሚገርመው ደግሞ ይህን ፊልም ለማየት የእድሜ ገደብ አለመኖሩ ነው፡ ሕፃናት ሁሉ ማያት ይችላሉ ማለት ነው። ስንቶቻችን እንሆን በዚህ ኤፒዞድ ከተመልካቹ ጋር አብረን ስንስቅ የነበርን?

አውሬው: የሰውን ልጆች ከእግዚአብሔር እጅ ፈልቅቆ ለማውጣት ከሚጠቀምባቸው መሣሪያዎች አንዱ ይህ ግብረሰዶማዊነት ነው። ይህን ድርጊት ለማስፋፋት በቅድሚያ ተለምዷዊ የሆነውን ጠንካራ የማሕበረሰባዊ ኑሮ ማናጋት ነው። ለዚህም የአንድ ህብረተሰብ ምሰሶ የሆነውን የቤተሰብን መዋቅር ማናጋት፡ የግለሰቦችን፡ ብሎም የህዝቦችን ማንነት የሚገልጹትን እንደ እምነት፡ ባሕልና ቋንቋ የመሳሰሉትን ድንቅ ሥራዎች ለማጥፋት ሃይማኖታዊ ተቋማትን፡ ድርጅቶችንና መንግሥታትን ሁሉ መፈታተን ነው።

ከፈጣሪአችን ጋር ጽኑ በሆነ እምነት ከተሳሰሩት ጥቂት አገሮች መካከል ኢትዮጵያ አንዷ ናት። የኢትዮጵያ ተዋህዶ ክርስትና በኢትዮጵያ ሕዝብ ዕምነት፡ መንፈሥ፡ ባሕል፡ ቋንቋና ስነጽሑፍ ላይ እጅግ በጣም ጥልቅ የሆነ ሚና ስለምትጫወት ለዘመናት ዲያብሎስ በገሃድ ሆነ በድብቅ ሲፈታተናት ኖሯል። ምንም እንኳን እስከ መጨረሻው መጽናት ያቃታቸው ደካማ ወገኖች ማንነታቸውን በመካድ በዲያብሎስ እጅ ሥር ለመግባት ቢበቁም፡ የኢትዮጵያ ክርስትና ኃይል ጠላቶቿን ሁሉ እየገረሰሰች እስካሁን ድረስ ለመቆየት በቅታለች፡ ለወደፊቱም የዲያብሎስን ሴራ እያጋለጠች ለደከመው የዓለማችን ክፍል ሁሉ አርአያ ለመሆን እንደምትበቃ የማያጠራጥር ነው፡ እግዚአብሔር ክርሷ ጋር ነውና።

ባዕዳን ፀረኢትዮጵያ ኃይሎች፡ ከኢትዮጵያ ተወላጆች ከሃዲዎች ጋር በመመሣጠርና በመተባበር፡ ምድረ ኢትዮጵያን ከመዋጋት ወድኋላ አይሉም። በረሃብ፡ በበሽታና በጦርነት ሕዝቡን ለማድከም ብሎም ቁጥሩን ለመቀነስ ስላልተቻላቸው፡ ለግበረሰዶማዊነት አመቺ የሆኑትን የአኗኗር ዘይቤዎች ቀስበቀስ ወደ አገራችን በማስገባት ላይ ይገኛሉ። እንደ ዩኔስኮ፡ (UNESCO) ዩኒሴፍ፡ (UNICEF) ፋኦ (FAO) እንዲሁም ቀይመስቀልን የመሳሰሉት የተባበሩት መንግሥት አካሎች፡ መንግሥታዊ ካልሆኑ ዓለምዓቀፋዊ ከሆኑ ድርጅቶች፡ ብሎም እንደ ፔንቲኮስታል እና እንደ ዋሀቢ እስላም ከመሳሰሉ የርዕዮት ዓለም ፋብሪካዎች ጋር በመተባበር ሰይጣናዊ ውጊያቸውን በማጧጧፍ ላይ ይገኛሉ።

ይህን ዲያብሎሳዊ ዘመቻቸውን እንደዱሮው ከውጭ ሆነውና ባዕዳውያንን ብቻ በመጠቀም ሳይሆን የሚያካሂዱት፡ በውስጣችን ሰርገው በመግባት እና ከእኛ የወጡትን ወይም እኛን የመሰሉትን ከሃዲዎች በመመልመል ነው። አዲስ አበባችን የተለያዩ ዓለም አቀፍ ድርጅቶች ማዕከል መሆኗ መልካም የሚሆነው፡ እነዚህ ከተማይቱ የምታስተናግዳቸው ድርጅቶች የሌላ ሳይሆን የእግዚአብሔር ልጆች አገልጋዮች ሆነው ሲገኙ ብቻ ነው።

የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች፡ ኢትዮጵያና ኤርትራ በሚሉ ሁለት አገሮች ለመከፋፈል የበቁት፡ እንዲሁም በሚሊየን የሚቆጠሩ የሩዋንዳ እና የደቡብ ሱዳን ኢትዮጵያውያኖችአሰቃቂ በሆነ መልክ ለመጨፍጨፍ የበቁት፡ እንደ ቦትሮስ ቦትሮስ ጋሊ እና እንደ ኮፊ አናንን የመሳሰለቱ ከሃዲ አፍሪቃውያንየተባበሩት መንግሥታት ዋና ፀሃፊዎች ሆነው ከተሾሙ በኋላ ነው።

የአፍሪቃውያን ትምሕርት ቤቶች ከሪኩለሞች እና አንዳንድ የማህበረሰባዊ መዋቅሮች ሁሉ ስር ሰደድ ለውጥ የተካሄደባቸው ፡ ለምሳሌ፡ ሴኔጋላዊው አማዱ ማኅታር እምቦ የዩኔስኮ ጀነራል ዳይረክተር በነበሩበት ወቅት ነበር። በዓለም የአትሌቲክስ ስፖርት የሩጫ ውድድሮች ከዓመት ወደ ዓመት በአደጉት አገሮች ተወዳጅነቱ እየቀነሰ የመጣው የዓለም አትሌቲክስ ፌዴሪሸን ማኀበር (IAAF) ፕሪዚደንት የሴኔጋሉ ተወላጅ ላሚን ዲያክ ከሆኑ በኋላ ነው። በዚህ ዓመት በኮሪያ የሚካሄደው የዓለም አትሌቲክስ ውድድር በብዙ አውሮፓውያን አገሮች በቀጥታ እንደማይተላለፍ ለዚህም የቴሌቪዥን ስርጭት መብቱን የወሰደው ድርግት ተጠየቂ እንደሆነ ተገልጿል። በመጪው ዓመት በለንደን ከተማ የሚካሄደውን ኦሊምፒክስ የሚያስተናግደው አዲስ ስቴዲየም የመሮጫ ቦታ የማይኖረው የእግርኳስ ስቴዲየም ብቻ ሊሆን እንደሚችል እየተነገረ ነው።

የግሪንፒስ (Greenpeace International)እንቅስቃሴ መሪ ሆነው የሚያገለግሉትም ህንድ ደቡብ አፍሪቃዊው ኩሚ ናይዶ ሲሆኑ፡ ኢትዮጵያዊው አቶ ከበደ ደግሞ የዓለም አቀፍ ቀይ መስቀል ፕሬዚደንት ናቸው።

እነዚህ አፍሪቃውያን የዓለም አቀፍ ድርጅቶች መሪዎች ምን ዓይነት ጥቅም ወይም ጉዳት ለወገኖቻቸው ሊያመጡ እንደሚችሉ ስራዎቻቸውን በሚቀጥሉት ዓመታት አብረን በመገምገም ለመታዘብ ያብቃን።



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See Not Sea

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on September 19, 2009


በጣም ሊጠቅሙንና ከፍተኛ ትኩረትም ሊሰጣቸው የሚችሉት ነገሮች በዓይኖቻችን ብርሃን ሊታዩ የሚችሉት ነገሮች አይደሉም። ልብ ብለን ከታዘብን፡ ዓይናችን፡ አንዳንድ ጊዜ፡ ነጩን ጥቁር፡ ቀዩን ቢጫ እያስመሰለ ሊያታልለን፡ ሊያወናብደንና መስመሩን ሊያስተን ይችላል።

ብዙ ጊዜ እንደ ምሳሌነት የምናያቸው የፖለቲካ፡ የኃይማኖት እንዲሁም የተለያዩ ተቋማት መሪዎች የሕብረተሰቡን ታሪካዊ እጣ ተቀብለው ከሕዝቦች ጋር አብረው ለመጓዝ በ እድልየተመረጡና እንዲታዩ የተደረጉ አገልጋይ መሪዎች ናቸው እንጂ ከሌላው በልጠው የተለየ ጥቅም ሊያገኙ እንደሚችሉ ተደርገው የተፈጠሩ ልዩና ከጠፈር የተገኙ መሪዎች አይደሉም። ሃቁን ለመናገር፡ ለሕብረተሰቡ የሚኖራቸው አስተዋጽኦም ቢሆን ምናልባት እያንዳንዳችን የአዳም ልጆች ሊኖረን ከሚችለው አስተዋጽኦ ብዙም የተለየ አይሆንም። እንዲያውም አንዳንድ በተለያዩ ተቋማትና መንግሥታት በመሪነት ቦታ ላይ የተቀመጡ ግለሰቦች ለዓለማችን ሊያበረክቱ የሚችሉት አስተዋጽኦ አንዲት የጓሯችን ቢራቢሮ ልታበረክተው ከምትችለው አስተዋጽኦ እምብዛም አይበልጥም።

ፈጣሪያችን በዚህች ምድር ላይ የሚታየውንና የማይታየውን ነገር ፈጥሯል። እኛ የአዳም ዘሮች በአይናችን በማየት፡ በአፍንጫችን በማሽተት ወይም በምላሳችን በመቅመስ፡ በአካባቢያችን የሚገኘውን ተፈጥሮአዊ ክስተት ምናልባት 5% የሚሆነው ነገር ላይ ብቻ ነው ልንደርስበት የምንችለው። ማለትም፤ የተቀረው 95% ነገር ሁሉ በተለየ መንግድ፡ ያለ ዓይናችን እርዳታ፡ ለምሳሌ፡ በመንካት፡ በመቅመስ፡ በማሽተት፡ ብሎም ህሊናችንን ለጸሎት በመጠቀም ብቻ ነው ሊደረስበት የሚችልው ማለት ነው።

የሰለጠኑ፡ የመጠቁና፡ የተመረጡ እንዲሁም ኃያላን ሆነው የሚታዩን ግለሰቦችና ማሕበረሰባት በዓለማችን ላይ ሊያመጡ የሚችሉት ተጽእኖ፡ ያልሰለጠነ፡ ኋላ ቀርና ያልታደለ እንዲሁም ደካማ እንደሆነ አድርገን ከምንቆጥረው የኢትዮጵያ ገበሬና ማሕበረሰብ የሚበልጥ ሆኖ ሊታየን ይችላል። ነገር ግን ይህ ትልቅ ስህተት ነው።

እነዚህ ሰለጠኑ ብለን የምናወድሳቸው ሕብረተሰቦች በርግጥ ለሰው ልጅ ብዙ ጠቃሚ የሆኑ ነገሮች አምጥተው ሊሆን ይችላል። አብዛኛው ጥቅም ግን ዘላቂ የሆነ ጥቅም ሳይሆን በተወሰኑ ትውልዶች ሊጠፋ የሚችል ጥቅም ነው። ለምሳሌ ሁላችንም የምንገለገልበት ኮምፒውተር ለሁላችንም ብዙ ጥቅሞችን አምጥቶልናል፡ ኑሯችንና የሥራዎቻችንን ክብደት ኣቃሎልናል። አንዷ ትንሽ ኮምፒውተር አንድ አንጋፋ ቤተ መጻሕፍት ውስጥ የሚገኙትን መጻሕፍት ሁሉ ገጽ በገጽ አካታ መያዝ ትችላለች። ስለዚህም፡ መረጃ ሰብሳቢ የሆኑ ወገኖች ሁሉ ታሪካዊ የሚባሉትን ጽሑፎች፡ ምስሎች ወይም ድምጾች፡ በ “Digital Archive” ውስጥ በማስገባት ወረቀት፡ እንጨት ወይም ድንጋይ ላይ ተቀርጸው የነበሩትን ጥንታዊመረጃዎች በማጥፋት ላይ ይገኛሉ። ታዲያ ኮምፒውተራችን ውስጥ አንድ ችግር ከተፈጠረ፡ ወይም ከአንድ ተፈጥሮአዊ ወይም ሰው ሰራሽ አደጋ በኋላ ኮምፒውተራችንን ከፍተን ጭራሹን መገልገል ካልቻልን፡ እነዚህ መረጃዎች ሁሉ እልም ብለው ለዘላለሙ ይጠፋሉ ማለት ነው።

ከዚህ ሁሉ ጥፋት ይጠብቀን!


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Ethiopian Americans

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on July 8, 2009

According to the official Census from the year 2000, there were less than 300,000 Americans of Ethiopian origin living in The United States of America


General Characteristics

Selected Population Group

Total Population

Total population









Median age (years)



Under 5 years



18 years and over



65 years and over



Household population



Group quarters population



Average household size



Average family size



Occupied housing units



Owner-occupied housing units



Renter-occupied housing units



Social Characteristics

Selected Population Group

Total Population

Population 25 years and over



High school graduate or higher



Bachelor’s degree or higher



Civilian veterans (civilian population 18 years and over)



Disability status (population 5 years and over)



Foreign born




Now married

except separated (population 15 years and over)




Now married

except separated (population 15 years and over)



Speak a language other than English at home (population 5 years and over)



Economic Characteristics

Selected Population Group

Total Population

In labor force (population 16 years and over)



Mean travel time to work in minutes (workers 16 years and over)



Median household income in 1999 (dollars)



Median family income in 1999 (dollars)



Per capita income in 1999 (dollars)



Families below poverty level



Individuals below poverty level



Housing Characteristics

Selected Population Group

Total Population

Single-family owner-occupied homes



Median value (dollars)



Median of selected monthly owner costs



With a mortgage (dollars)

Not mortgaged (dollars)






Source: U.S. Census Bureau


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The Antiquity, Origin, and Religion of the Abyssinian Race

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on May 17, 2009

Children of God


According to an Ethiopian legend, God molded the first humans from clay. He put the first batch in an oven to bake, but left them there too long, and they emerged burned and black, so he threw them away to the southern part of Africa. He took the second batch from the oven too soon, and they were pasty and white, so he threw them northward, where they became the Arab and European populations. The third and final batch was just right, and God put them in Ethiopia.

May be, may be not – but certain is: Ethiopians could trace back their genealogy to all the three Biblical Fathers – Shem, Ham & Japhet. That means, populations that belong to the so-called, Black, White and Yellow human races are all children of the Ethiopians.

The following amazing article was written 113 years ago…

The Most Gifted of Africans The New York Times  Published: April 19, 1896

The experience of the Italians during the past few years with the Abyssinians has shown beyond doubt that these mountaineers of “the Switzerland of Africa” are decidedly a superior race to the other peoples of the Dark Continent with whom the Europeans have come in contact in their colonization and partition schemes. To a great extent this superiority is the result of their origin and pedigree. Although the modern representatives of the Ethiopians of myth and history, they are in reality not Ethiopians at all. They are not black, but are of Caucasian descent as pure as the Anglo-Saxon or the Celt. Language and physiology stamp them as members of the Semitic race, and, consequently, as kindred peoples to the Babylonians, the Assyrians, the Arabs, the Syrians, the Jews and other history-making nations of antiquity. To call them Ethiopians in the sense of blacks is a singular misnomer, originating probably in the fact that, being the only African people except the Egyptians known at an early date to the Greek-Latin literature, the term “Ethiopian” gradually was used to designate all Africans, and is now the national name for that very people who, almost alone on the entire continent of Africa, do not belong to the Negro race.

In truth, the Abyssinians are not originally an African race at all. Their earliest traditions point to Southern Arabia as their original seat, and by a singular piece of good fortune, the German traveler, Edward Glaser, who has made four scientific journeys to Southern Arabia, hitherto never explored, has found there the indubitable evidences of the existence of the Abyssinian people in those districts before the days of Christ. In close connection with this is the other discovery that at that time there existed in Southern Arabia a mighty Sabaean Kingdom, and Prof, Sayce declares that on the basis of these finds the visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon in Jerusalem was, historically considered, “the most natural thing in the world.” Of this the Abyssinians have retained a very clear tradition. The present line of Kings claims to be descended from King Solomon by a son born to him by the Queen of Sheba, which son bore the same name. Menelik, as that in which the present ruler of Abyssinia glories. The royal house of Abyssinia can trace its lineage through a long list of generations without any break to Menelik, the son of Solomon. To doubt this descent of an Abyssinian King is equivalent to treason, and the literature on the subject is abundant.

The early connection of the Abyssinians with their kindred people of the Semitic family is also indicated by the presence in their midst of a unique semi-Helot race, numbering perhaps 500,000, and commonly known as the “Falashas” or Black Jews. They are Jewish in descent and religion, adhering only to the tenets and teachings of the Old Testament, while the Ethiopians or Abyssinians themselves are Christians. It is an old tradition, sustained and supported by some remarkable facts, that the Abyssinians were themselves first converted to Judaism and then to Christianity, and that the Falashas constitute that portion of the race which refused to accept the teachings of the Christian Church. Certain it is that the Abyssinian faith presents a somewhat odd conglomeration of Jewish and Christian elements. Thus, they still practice circumcision, although they have accepted baptism: they observe the seventh day as well as the first; the number and manner of their fasts are decidedly Jewish, and in many other ways they show traits peculiar to the Jewish faith.

They themselves, by their very name, indicate how strong a feeling of their origin is still present with them. The name “Abyssinians” they utterly despise as a term, meaning in the Arabic, a mixed or mongrel people, which has been given by their enemies. They themselves adopt the historic name of “Ethiopians,” or, still better, the native name of “Geez”. The term, “Geez”, while originally meaning almost the same as the word “Hebrews” – those who crossed over-is generally employed in a later sense of “Freedmen.” By this term the people designate themselves, as did the “Franks” of the Middle Ages, as “a people of freedmen.”

In more than one respect the Abyssinians are a unique people. Their physical and mental peculiarities, chiefly their language, mark them as a purely Semitic people, the only people of that family which, as a nation, settled and worked out its historical mission on the Dark Continent. In their history, religion, and literature they have been practically uninfluenced by the Hamitic people around them, including the oldest representatives of civilization on the African continent, the Egyptian. To all intents and purposes the history of the Abyssinian people, as far as this can be traced in their literature, is a chapter in church history, and that, too, an interesting chapter.

The civilization and culture of Abyssinia is practically a product of the Greek Church life of the fifth century. Converted to Christianity in that period of great theological and christological controversies, the Abyssinians took part in the discussions of the day, and with the decision of the Synod of Chalcedon in 451 A. D., condening Monophysitism, or the doctrine that Christ had but one will and not two, severed its connection with the Church at large, and voluntarily entered upon a period of isolation that lasted for an entire millennium, as Abyssinia did not come into touch and tone with the civilization of the world again until rediscovered by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century. Only in undefined story as the country of the “Presbyter John” was an uncertain report of the existence of an African Christian nation spread in the Europe of the Middle Ages. For to the voluntary isolation came enforced separation, when in the seventh and eighth centuries the Mohammedan hosts conquered Egypt and vainly tried to overpower the Abyssinians. It is ever to the historic credit of these sturdy mountaineers that for a thousand years they hve been able to maintain their own independence and national individuality against the fanatical hordes that overran Southeastern Europe to the very walls of Vienna and Southwestern Europe almost to the Rhine. But he Califs and the Weziri, by the conquest of Egypt, drove in a wedge between Abyssinia and the rest of Christianity that separated them as though they belonged to different worlds.

From historic factors and forces like these only one result could come, and that was the petrification of thought and life in the Abyssinian people and Church. Substantially in their faith, services, liturgies, thought, and life, with the native conservative tendency so pronounced in the Semitic peoples, in Abyssinians we have a petrification and stereotyped formalism of the Greek Christian culture of the fifth century. But during this time this “hermit nation of Africa” has preserved a treasury of Christian works,lost largely to Greco-Latin literature, and which is now invaluable.

Ethiopic literature is comparatively large, but also either directly Christian or written under the spell of Christianity. It is almost entirely a literature of translations, first from the Greek, and then later from the Arabic and Coptic. Whether the Christianity or the civilization of Menelik’s people could be rejuvenated is something that only a prophet or a prophet’s son could foretell. The efforts of Protestant and of Roman Catholic missionaries in this direction have been carried on for half a century without tangible results, except among the Falashas. Possibly if other methods or agencies were applied, better success could be reported. Certain it is that of all the nations of Africa, the Ethiopians or Abyssinians are by descent and natural endowments the most gifted on the continent.


Posted in Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , | 23 Comments »

Ethiopians Should Sacrifice

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on November 22, 2008


በአንድ ዘርፍ፣ በአንድ ግለሰብ፣ በተወሰነ ቡድንና በተወሰነ አጋጣሚ በሚደረጉ እንቅስቃሴዎች ብቻ አገር አይቀናም፣ ሕዝብ አይበለፅግም፣ ነፃነትና ሉአላዊነት አይረጋገጥም፡፡ ሁሉም በየሙያውና በየዘርፉ የድርሻውን ሲጫወት እንጂ፡፡

ወታደሩ የአገርን ዳር ድንበርና ሉአላዊነት ለመጠበቅ መስዋዕትነት ይከፍላል፡፡ የድርሻውን ይጫወታል፡፡ የአገር መከላከያ ሰራዊት ብቻ በሚከፍለው መስዋዕትነት ግን አገር አይቆምም፡፡

ምሁሩ እየተመራመረ፣ እየተማረና እያስተማረ አገርን ያሳድጋል፡፡ የመብት፣ የልማት፣ የሰላም መንገድን ያሳያል፡፡ ምሁራዊ ዋጋና መስዋዕትነት ይከፍላል፡፡ በምሁር ብቻ ግን አገር አይቀናም፡፡

መሪዎች ይመራሉ፣ መንገድ ያሳያሉ፣ ያስተባብራሉ፣ ፖሊሲ ይነድፋሉ፡፡ በዚህም ለአገር ያላቸውን ሃላፊነት ያረጋግጣሉ፡፡ መስዋዕትነት ይከፍላሉ፡፡ በመሪ ብቻ ግን የሚቀና አገር የለም፡፡

ፖሊስ ወንጀልን ይከላከላል፣ ሰላምና መረጋጋትን ይፈጥራል፣ ከወንጀለኞች ጋር ሲዋጋም መስዋዕትነት ይከፍላል፡፡ በፖሊስ ብቻ የሚቀና አገር ግን የለም፡፡

ጋዜጠኛውም መረጃ ይሰበስባል፣ ያሰራጫል፣ ሕዝብ ያሳውቃል፣ ያስተምራል፡፡ አስፈላጊ መስዋዕትነት እየከፈለም አገርን ያሳድጋል፡፡ በጋዜጠኛ ብቻ ግን የሚቀና አገር የለም፡፡

ባለሃብቱም፣ ነጋዴውም ይሰራል፣ ይለፋል፣ ያለማል፣ ሃብት ይፈጥራል፡፡ መስዋዕትነት ይከፍላል፣ አገር ያበለፅጋል፡፡ በባለሃብቱ ብቻ የሚቆም አገር ግን የለም፡፡

ሰርቶ አደሩ ሕዝብም ይለፋል፣ ላቡን ያንጠፈጥፋል፣ ዋጋ ይከፍላል፡፡ አገሩን ያለማል፣ ያበለፅጋል፡፡ በወዝአደሩ ብቻ ግን አገር አይለማም፡፡

አርሶ አደሩ ያመርታል፣ ይመግባል፣ ያለማል፣ ይከላከላል፣ መስዋዕትነት ይከፍላል፣ አገሩን ያሳድጋል፡፡ በአርሶ አደር ብቻ ግን አገር አያድግም፡፡

አርቲስቱም፣ ስፖርተኛውም፣ ዲፕሎማቱም፣ መካኒኩም፣ ፓይለቱም፣ ሾፌሩም ሁሉም በየሙያው በሚያደርገው አስተዋፅኦና በሚከፍለው መስዋዕትነት አገር ያድጋል ይበለፅጋል፡፡ በተወሰነ ዘርፍ ብቻ አገር አያድግም፡፡

ሁሉም በሙያው ይረባረብ፣ አገሩን ያሳድግ፣ ዋጋና መስዋዕትነት ይክፈል፡፡ ያኔ ነው ኢትዮጵያ የበለፀገችና የጠነከረች ጠንካራ የምትሆነው፡፡

በሙያችን አስተዋፅኦ ለማበርከት ሙያችን የሚጠይቀውን እውቀትና ብቃት ዋጋና መስዋዕትነት በሚገባ ጠንቅቀን ልንገነዘብ ይገባል፡፡ እሰቲ ስለራሳችን ሙያ እናውራ፡፡ መገናኛ ብዙሃን ነን፡፡ ፕሬስ ነን፣ ጋዜጠኞች ነን፣ ሕዝብን የማሳወቅና የማስተማር ኃላፊነት አለብን፡፡

ስናሳውቅና ስናስተምር ግን ሁሉም ይወደናል ማለት አይደለም፡፡ ሕዝብ የማወቅ መብት አለው ብሎ የሚያምን ቀናና ንጹህ ወገን በስራችን ይወደናል፡፡ የጋዜጠኛነት ሙያን ያከብራል፡፡ ለፕሬስ ያለው ምኞትና እንቅስቃሴም “እደጉ፤ ተመንደጉ” የሚል አዎንታዊ መንፈስ ይሆናል፡፡ ግን ደግሞ ከሕዝብ መካከል ማወቅና መማር የማይፈልግ ወገንም አለ፡፡ የማይፈልግ ብቻ ሳይሆን የሚያስተምርና የሚያሳውቅ ጋዜጠኛን ለማጥፋት የሚንቀሳቀስ አለ፡፡ ይህ ማለትም ፕሬስ ወዳጅ እንዳለው ሁሉ ጠላትም አለው ማለት ነው፡፡

የፕሬስ ጠላትነት በሁለት ይፈረጃል፡፡ ጋዜጠኛን በገንዘብ መደለል ፀረ ፕሬስ ነጻነት ነው፡፡ ጋዜጠኛ መረጃ እንዳያገኝ ማድረግም ፀረ ፕሬስ ነፃነት ነው፡፡ ጋዜጠኛን መከፋፈልም እንደዚሁ፡፡

እንደዚህ ዓይነት የፕሬስ ጠላትነት የሚወገዝ ነው፡፡ ሆኖም የሕብረተሰቡ ግንዛቤ ባደገ ቁጥር፣ ጊዜ እየረዘመ ሲሄድ ይፈታል፣ ይወገዳል የሚል ተስፋ ቢኖርም ብዙ መጯጯህ ሊያስከትል ይችላል፡፡

የፕሬስ ጠላትነት ወደ ሃይል፣ ድብደባና ግድያ ሲያመራ ግን የተመረጠው የወንጀል መንገድ ስለሆነ ሊከተል የሚገባው ማውገዝ ብቻ ሳይሆን በሕግ ቁጥጥር ስር ማዋልና ለፍርድ ተገዥ ማድረግም ይጠበቃል፡፡

በቅርቡ በፕሬስ ላይ እየተደረገ ያለው የወንጀል ተግባርም ፍፃሜው ወደ ሕግ ማቅረብና ተገቢ ፍርድ መስጠት ይሆናል ብለን እናምናለን፡፡ ወርዋሪን ብቻ ሳይሆን አስወርዋሪን፣ ተላላኪውን ብቻ ሳይሆን ላኪውን፣ ገንዘብ ተቀባዩን ብቻ ሳይሆን ገንዘብ ከፋዩ ለፍርድ እንደሚቀርቡ እምነታችን ነው፡፡ ከዚህ በላይ ፕሬስ እርካታ አይኖረውም፡፡

ይህ በወንጀለኞች ላይ መፈጸም ያለበት ጉዳይ ሲሆን ራሱ ፕሬስ ግን ተጎዳሁ፣ ተመታሁ ብሎ ለአገር እድገትና ልማት መክፈል ያለበትን መስዋዕትነት ከመክፈል ወደኋላ ማለት የለበትም፡፡

ሁሉም በሙያው መስዋዕትነት ይክፈል ስንል እኛ የዚህ ጋዜጣ ባለድርሻም መስዋዕትነት ለመክፈል ዝግጁ ነን ማለታችን ነው፡፡ መታሠር፣ መደብደብ ከመስዋዕትነት ዝግጁነት ወደ ኋላ አያሸሸንም፡፡ በጭራሽ” መፈክራችን ለኢትዮጵያ ሕዝብ፣ ለዚህ ደግና ቅን ሕዝብ ያልተሰዋን ለማንስ እንሰዋለን ነው፡፡ በበቂ ሁኔታ ባለመስራታችን በምንከፍለው መስዋዕትነት በጭራሽ ቅር አይለንም፡፡

ይህ ለማንም ፀረ ፕሬስና ለማንም ወንጀለኛ ግልፅ ሊሆን ይገባል፡፡ “እንፅፋለን ገና” ብለናል፡፡ መስዋዕትነት እንከፍላለን ገና ማለታችን ነው፡፡ መፈክራችንም ነፃ ፕሬስ! ነፃ ሃሳብ! ነፃ መንፈስ ነው!!

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Ethiopian Genetic Components Identified

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on November 22, 2008


Different Genetic Components in the Ethiopian Population, Identified by mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms

Seventy-seven Ethiopians were investigated for mtDNA and Y chromosome–specific variations, in order to (1) define the different maternal and paternal components of the Ethiopian gene pool, (2) infer the origins of these maternal and paternal lineages and estimate their relative contributions, and (3) obtain information about ancient populations living in Ethiopia. The mtDNA was studied for the RFLPs relative to the six classical enzymes (HpaI, BamHI, HaeII, MspI, AvaII, and HincII) that identify the African haplogroup L and the Caucasoid haplogroups I and T. The sample was also examined at restriction sites that define the other Caucasoid haplogroups (H, U, V, W, X, J, and K) and for the simultaneous presence of the DdeI10394 and AluI10397 sites, which defines the Asian haplogroup M. Four polymorphic systems were examined on the Y chromosome: the TaqI/12f2 and the 49a,f RFLPs, the Y Alu polymorphic element (DYS287), and the sY81-A/G (DYS271) polymorphism. For comparison, the last two Y polymorphisms were also examined in 87 Senegalese previously classified for the two TaqI RFLPs.

Results from these markers led to the hypothesis that the Ethiopian population (1) experienced Caucasoid gene flow mainly through males, (2) contains African components ascribable to Bantu migrations and to an in situ differentiation process from an ancestral African gene pool, and (3) exhibits some Y-chromosome affinities with the Tsumkwe San (a very ancient African group). Our finding of a high (20%) frequency of the “Asian” DdeI10394AluI10397 (11) mtDNA haplotype in Ethiopia is discussed in terms of the “out of Africa” model.

Posted in Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

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