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Posts Tagged ‘Climate Change’

Heatwave Scorches Europe, From London To Siberia

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 21, 2017

My Note: The State of Arizona — where SAUD agent canny CAIN McCain rules as a Senatorcould break scorching temperature records this summer.

These four eerie photos were taken by a friend – during the annual Ethiopian Feast of The Cross, Meskel, with its Damera – at a private lighting of torches on the eve, 27 Sep 2016.

Europe sizzled in a continent-wide heatwave on Wednesday, with London bracing for Britain’s hottest June day since 1976 as Portugal battled to stamp out deadly forest fires.

More than 1,000 firefighters were still fighting to control the flames that broke out in central Portugal at the weekend, killing 64 people.

Cooler weather was aiding their efforts, but thermometers were still hovering around 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) — a level matched across oven-like swathes of Europe, including Italy, Austria, the Netherlands and even alpine Switzerland.

Two forest fires have also broken out since Sunday on Croatia’s southern Adriatic coast, prompting the authorities to evacuate 800 tourists, though the blazes have now been brought under control.

We were scared, it’s true,” a Swedish tourist who gave her name only as Karolina told local media. “From the hotel room window it seemed like the fire was at our doors.”

As the northern hemisphere marked the summer solstice, firefighters were on alert in Austria, where revellers were due to celebrate the longest day of the year by lighting bonfires for the festival of Saint John.

In Italy, forecasters say the current heatwave could turn out to be the most intense in 15 years, with temperatures around eight degrees above the seasonal average — 39 degrees Celsius in Milan and up to 30 in the Alps at an altitude of 1,000 metres (3,300 feet).

A study released Monday warned that deadly heatwaves will become more and more common around the world even if the rise in temperatures is capped at 2.0 degrees Celsius as targeted by the Paris Agreement to combat climate change.

Even if we outperform the Paris targets, the population exposed to deadly heat will be about 50 percent by 2100,” Camilo Mora, lead author of the study published in the journal Nature Climate Change, told AFP. 

London sizzles –

Britain was set to see its first five-day stretch of temperatures over 30 degrees in June since 1995. The thermometer was forecast to hit 34 Celsius in west London, a record for the month since 1976.

In Guildford, southwest of the capital, a road surface melted on Tuesday, with motorists likening it to a bar of chocolate left out in the hot sun.

At the prestigious Royal Ascot horse races, organisers said they were considering relaxing the strict dress code for the first time.

And a thunderstorm was looming over the Glastonbury Music Festival, threatening mud just as an expected 200,000 revellers begin pitching their tents. 

Music lovers in France were also braving the heat, as the annual Fete de la Musique — a nationwide celebration with thousands of free street performances — kicked off under an official heatwave declared across many areas of the country.

The national postal service announced that its postmen would be calling on elderly and disabled residents living alone to check they were alright, with temperatures due to hit 37 Celsius in Paris.

A peak in pollution linked to the heat prompted police in the Paris region to reduce speed limits in some areas and divert heavy goods trucks, with the most polluting vehicles banned from the capital on Thursday. 

On Tuesday, the body of a 31-year-old man was pulled out of the Loire river in the central city of Tours after he got dragged down by the current while trying to cool down.

In Russia, Siberia was also suffering a heatwave, with temperatures of up to 37 Celsius in the city of Krasnoyarsk, Channel One television reported.

But at the other extreme, it was just one degree Celsius and snowing in Murmansk in northern Russia, the RIA Novosti news agency reported. Many residents are having to get by with no heating in their flats as centralised systems have been switched off for the summer.

Source

Heat, Fire, Smoke & Death – It’s Ramadan in SAUD

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia, Faith | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

The Source For 70 Per Cent Of The World’s Coffee Consumption Could Be Extinct By The End Of This Century

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 21, 2017

A study conducted by scientists in Ethiopia and London, U.K. reports that wild Arabica coffee could be extinct in 70 years due to the effects of climate change

Savoured by coffee drinkers around the world, Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia. It is the source for  70 per cent of global coffee consumption. A new study reports that its very existence is under threat due to the effects of climate change.

Scientists at London’s Kew Gardens, in collaboration with colleagues in Ethiopia, report a grim forecast for the bean if action isn’t taken. In a new study, they say that wild Arabica (Coffea arabica) could be extinct by 2080.

In Ethiopia and all over the world really, if we do nothing there will be less coffee, it will probably taste worse and will cost more,” Dr. Aaron Davis, one of the report’s authors and coffee researcher, told the BBC.

The East African nation is home to many unique varieties of wild coffee. It’s this genetic diversity that is critical to the sustainability of the industry, according to a statement from Kew. The researchers emphasize that the situation is avoidable, recommending actions such as forest conservation and replanting, and the relocation of coffee-producing areas.

There is the potential to mitigate some of the negatives and actually increase the coffee-growing area by four-and-a-half-times compared with maintaining the status quo,” Dr. Davis told the BBC.

Coffee is essential to the livelihoods of 16 per cent of Ethiopia’s population. Parts of the country are already experiencing the effects of climate change; an extended drought in the east that has resulted in crop failure and millions of people requiring emergency food assistance.

A ‘business as usual’ approach would be disastrous for the Ethiopian coffee economy in the long-term,” Kew’s Justin Moat, another of the paper’s authors, told the BBC.

Source

My Note: Covfefe is in the air – and The tribe of SAUD is changing the climate – everything related to the Arabs will be extinct by the end of this Century. So, why not rename the so-called ‘Coffee Arabica’ into Coffee Ethiopica!? Dosen’t it make sense?

— Coffee = ካፊር? | እስካሁን በተለምዶ የምናውቀውን የቡና አመጣጥ ታሪክ ከልሰን በጭንቅላቱ መገልበጥ ሊኖርብን ነው

Heat, Fire, Smoke & Death – It’s Ramadan in SAUD

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Heat, Fire, Smoke & Death – It’s Ramadan in SAUD

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 2, 2017

While the wicked and empty lords of this world talk non-stop empty talks about the environment, climate change and Paris, the satanic Islamic ritual of Ramadan brings fire, smoke and death to planet Earth. In the Northern hemisphere, Europe, in particular, air temperatures are rising and rising: 2017 Europe summer forecast: Heat to dominate the south; Storms to rattle Germany and Poland – and it begun with exact arrival date of Ramadan, on 26-27 May, 2017.

Our Ethiopian forefathers wrote in ancient books of mysteries that there is a separate world, called, SAUD, which belongs to one of the 12 worlds found on The EYOR Sky (of the Seven Skies) The Lord, Egziabher created them for punishment – as a scourge. ‘People’ of SAUD are created to destroy, cause volcanic eruptions, to dry up the air and the earth – create deserts. They move from place to place (nomads & migrants) but The Lord Egziabher doesn’t allow them to settle down wherever they move in — as they have to go back where they come from. Their food is special (Halal) not to be eaten by children of God, Egziabher. Their protector or angel is called Azazel (the fallen angel or demon – leader of the watchers)

Isn’t this mindbogglingly astonishing!?

Well, we have everything right there in front of our eyes to prove the above story:

Thursday 01 June 2017 – it started in SAUDI Barbaria:

Pay attention to the following image: on the right side of the sky we see The huge Cross with the right hand chasing something in human form to the left:

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia, Faith, Infos | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments »

Climate Change Might Turn Ethiopia Into A Food-Exporting Nation

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 14, 2016

ethiocloud1

Climate change is expected to wreak all kinds of havoc on future weather systems, with experts predicting greater and more frequent storms, hurricanes, droughts and floods. But even the darkest clouds have some silver lining, and a new study closely examining its effects on Ethiopia’s Blue Nile Basin has uncovered exactly that in the form of projected increases in rainfall, which could spur greater crop yields and large-scale hydro-power projects in the region.

The idea that climate change could bring more water to the region is actually not a new one. Earlier studies that used temperature and precipitation from climate modeling have predicted that the phenomenon could boost Ethiopia’s water availability by 10 percent, but according to researchers at Virginia Tech, this was leaving out some vital information.

ethiocloud5

In what it describes as a first-of-its-kind study, the team combined hydrologic models with bias-corrected and downscaled data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to form a more complete picture of water flow at two key headwater basins in the Blue Nile Basin, which feeds as much as 66 percent of the Nile River flowing through Sudan and into Egypt.

It then looked at the predicted impact of climate change on the region over two particular time periods, 2041-2065 and 2075-2099. It says the analysis indicates that the two basins will experience increases in mean annual water flow of 22 to 27 percent, and that monsoon season will be extended by four to six weeks, potentially making growing seasons longer and perhaps allowing for two cycles of crops to be grown per year.

“It’s interesting, because much of the Blue Nile Basin is well above 5,000 ft (1,524 m) in elevation, giving it pretty much an ideal climate for agriculture with low humidity, low disease and pest pressure, and potentially great water availability, which could spur development,” said Zach Easton, associate professor of biological systems engineering at Virginia Tech.

ethiocloud7

But don’t go firing up your six-liter V8 for the sake of Ethiopia’s prosperity just yet. The study was also the first to look at the problem of sediment transport, which is a particular concern in the Blue Nile Basin where some of the world’s highest erosion rates have been measured. The increase in water flow sounds like a good thing, but would also bring with it more sediment that could reduce the capacity and efficiency of dams, reservoirs and hydro-power projects.

“Greater water availability is certainly a positive outcome, but this is countered by more sediment,” says Easton. “One way to combat that is through installing conservation practices on farms, for instance using cover crops and low- and no-till planting methods to make the soil healthier, more stable, and reduce erosion.”

The research was published in the journal Climatic Change.

Source

Where Our Food Comes From

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia, Infos | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »

Ethiopia: One of The Greenest Countries

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 20, 2014

SemienTerarra6According to the newest edition of the Global Green Economy Index (GGEI), Ethiopia is viewed as having significant opportunities for improved green country branding

The report, released on Monday, compares how 60 different countries and 70 cities perform in the green economy.

In the country comparisons, Sweden and Germany took top honors for country performance and perception, respectively. Ethiopia had the 37th-highest perception rank and was number 26 in performance. GGEI survey respondents ranked the nation among the top markets for green investments.

The results from the 2014 Global Green Economy Index reveal a wide range of insights relevant to policy makers in the governments being measured, as well as international organizations, civil society and private actors interacting with them. This new edition of the GGEI confirms what had already been established in previous editions: Germany and a block of Nordic countries continue to dominate this Global Green Economy Index, both in terms of performance and perceptions of that performance by expert practitioners.

Beyond these impressive results, some compelling findings emerge through this latest edition, in part due to the greater diversity of countries covered and an updated methodology and data structure providing greater sector focus and integration of environment & natural capital. Covered for the first time, Costa Rica records an impressive result, ranking 3rd behind Sweden and Norway on performance and in the top 15 for perceptions overall, a notable accomplishment for such a small country. Other Latin American countries – including Colombia, Peru and Chile – also perform well in their first time being covered on the GGEI, although this performance is not yet recognized in a meaningful way through the perception survey.

These new results also reveal some vivid examples of countries where performance clearly exceeds perceptions of it, signaling significant opportunities for improved green country branding and strategic communications. Five European countries – Austria, Iceland, Ireland, Portugal and Spain – clearly fall in this category.

A similar observation emerges for a variety of other countries – most notably the African states of Ethiopia, Mauritius, Rwanda and Zambia – all covered for the first time on this year’s GGEI. In these cases, global audiences simply aren’t registering the green merits of these states or country competitors are overshadowing them with a more strategic approach to communications and information exchange.

A red flag from this year’s GGEI results is that few of the fastest growing economies in the world rank very well in the GGEI performance measure or on the perception survey, reinforcing the importance of mainstreaming the green economy concept further so it can be better integrated to policy formulation in these markets. While doing quite well in terms of perception, China ranks near the bottom of the performance measure, driven by its poor performance on Efficiency Sectors and Environment & Natural Capital. But this problem extends beyond China: rapidly growing countries in Africa (Ghana), the Gulf (Qatar, United Arab Emirates), and Asia (Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam) rank poorly on the GGEI performance measure.

These overall findings only tell part of the story, and the following pages present a brief snapshot of the results for the 60 nations covered on the GGEI as they play out on the four main dimensions: Leadership & Climate Change, Efficiency Sectors, Markets & Investment and Environment & Natural Capital. Our goal is to become the leading benchmark for countries to track their performance in the green economy over time and how experts assess it. The following pages serve as an entry point for deeper engagement with the GGEI data and associated consulting services to address more country or firm-specific challenges.

Ethiopia’s overall performance on the GGEI exceeds how experts perceive it, suggesting an opportunity for more targeted communications from leadership there. Ethiopia tops the performance rankings on the Leadership & Climate Change dimension, driven by the relatively low carbon intensity of its economy and national efforts to promote green measures through its Climate-Resilient Green Economy Strategy. Given its high GDP growth rate at the moment, Ethiopia should work on its performance in the Markets & Investment dimension and better articulate to investors the green investment opportunities there. It will also be critical to ensure that its carbon intensity remains low as development proceeds in efficiency sectors like buildings.

PERCEPTION-RANK

The full report can be viewed here

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Spraying Over Ethiopia?

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on December 20, 2013

Bio-spraying Americans: The Hidden Dangers of ‘Mosquito’ Trucks, Chemtrails and RoundUp Ready Pesticide Food

Will the mosquito truck cruise through your neighborhood next summer with swine flu “bio-spray” that actually contains bacteria and viruses only preventable with the Big Pharma antidote that costs a fortune and is reserved for elitists? Are hospitals saving money by paying companies to dump their medical waste via “chemtrails” over the skies of America? Does the term “RoundUp Ready” mean that corn and soy already contain pesticide, before they are even sprayed with it, and does it mean that those crops are sprayed with up to 10 times more herbicide than other non-GMO crops and vegetation? Just what is the U.S. Government up to, with this forced medical “care” they’ve besieged upon the nation, and why are so many toxic pest “sprays” invading our neighborhoods, our homes, our gardens and the staple foods growing on every major farm that yields corn, soy and canola to major grocers?

What will be contained in the mosquito spray next summer, the stuff coming out of those trucks that drive through neighborhoods while the kids play outside, breathing it in and absorbing it in their bare foot soles? Is that why so many cats and dogs get leukemia? Could it be more than just DDT, which is a form of Agent Orange anyway?

Why is it such a “conspiracy theory” to think that medical waste is so expensive to dispose of that the already corrupt medical mafia of America wouldn’t spray it from planes over neighborhoods? I mean, why not fuel the sick care agenda they’re already profiting from in the superbug-ridden hospitals and emergency rooms all over the country? Is it conspiracy theory or just millions of sick Americans whose doctors just can’t seem to figure out what they have? Was it that mystery disease called fibromyalgia or just a case of “inherited” cancer? Lord knows that those genes you got were “predisposed” to mutating, multiplying out of control and suffocating your vital organs. None of that could have come from the bug spray being propelled from the BUG TRUCK which has nobody’s consent to function this way. None of those diseases, disorders or malfunctions of the body could be caused by ingesting medical waste or weed killer food, now could it?

Sheeple spray keeps the masses “infected”

Continue reading…

Modifying Hurricanes and Climate

Recently published information on the resumption of CIA studies into influencing the climate naturally attracts attention on the background of recent significant climate change detrimentally impacting the economy in general and the lives of citizens in many countries, especially in Southeast Asia, Africa, and Europe.

In September 2009, on the initiative of Leon Panetta, who headed the CIA at the time, a special Center on Climate Change and National Security was set up within the agency. This division led continuous monitoring of politically strategic, economic and social impacts of climate change and disasters, desertification of fertile land, rising sea levels, and adverse weather conditions for crop harvests. The U.S. intelligence agencies paid close attention to the influence of these factors on the forced migration of people around the world, and the struggle for natural resources and fertile land. In particular, the CIA looked into the possibility that public discontent in countries affected by climate change could be used by terrorist groups, or in clandestine operations by U.S. intelligence to change individual governments. Among the documents prepared by the center was “Climate Change 2030: More Extreme Weather” for the U.S. National Intelligence Council’s consolidated report “Global Trends 2030″.  Another study, “Climate and Social Stress: Implications for Security Analysis”, was completed in October 2012 by the National Research Council of the U.S. Academy of Sciences. It contained a detailed analysis of climate change in a number of countries, including warming in Russia, floods in Pakistan and elsewhere.

The study noted that frequent natural disasters (storms, droughts, floods), which had noticeably increased in recent times, could lead to numerous problems, including a resource crisis affecting drinking water, food, and energy. CIA experts determined that the most vulnerable regions included states mostly in Africa, South Asia and the Middle East.

The Nile Basin was identified as a potentially vulnerable area, home to a large population (about 300 million people) in countries entirely dependent on the climate for their food policy. In addition, the CIA experts noted that recent large-scale acquisitions of fertile land in foreign states, by Saudi Arabia, China, and South Korea, among others, to grow food produce for their own populations, could cause more conflicts in the context of climate change.

Source

Saudi Files for ‘Killer’ Tracking Chip Patent

–2009

ChipEA Saudi Arabian made a patent application in Germany for a killer microchip intended to be implanted under the skin. His reason for this invention? The tracking device would be useful in the case of those who outstay visas. The killer switch could be employed in the case of ‘terrorists’ etc.

The tiny semiconductor device is intended to be surgically implanted or injected into the body, according to the patent application, for the purpose of tracking visitors from other nations by global-positioning satellites and preventing them from overstaying their visas.

A German Patent and Trademark Office spokeswoman told Deutsche Presse Agentur the inventor’s application, titled “Implantation of electronic chips in the human body for the purposes of determining its geographical location,” was submitted in October 2007 and published 18 months later, as required by law, in a patents database.

Under Germany’s patent law, inventions that are unethical or a danger to the public are not recognized.

In recent times the number of people sought by security forces has increased,” the Jeddah-based inventor wrote in his application.

The device would emit encrypted radio waves that would be picked up by satellites and “used to track fugitives from justice, terrorists, illegal immigrants, criminals, political opponents, defectors, domestic help, and Saudi Arabians who don’t return home from pilgrimages,” Sweden’s The Local reported.

The application included a request to patent a model B of the device that could release poison to “eliminate” the individual if he or she became a security risk.

I apply for these reasons and for reasons of state security and the security of citizens,” the statement reads.

German law allows foreigners to apply for patents in the country through a local representative. In the case of the “Killer Chip,” a Munich law firm was used.

Most people apply for a patent in several countries, and this inventor probably did too,” Stephanie Krüger of the Patent Office said.

That leaves open the possibility the Saudi inventor  will find success in another country.

Snow in Saudi: unHoly Land Hit by Heavy Snowfall

snow

Snowstorm Alexa brought blizzards to northwest Saudi Arabia as the Middle East continues to be hit by the heaviest snowfall in decades.

@Addis Abeba, watch out for those daily chartered Saudi Mosquitos. Emirates, Qatar Airways, Egypt Airways, Turkish Airlines (refueling in Khartoum) should be closely inspected.

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Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia, Infos | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

$67 Billion For Environmental Damages

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on August 27, 2009

Africa contributes very little to the pollution blamed for global warming but its people are likely to be among the hardest hit by droughts, floods and rising sea levels.”

AfricaClimate

The African Union is considering a proposal to demand at least $67 billion a year in environmental damages from developed countries at the Copenhagen Climate summit in December. Africa is seeking a common position to increase its bargaining power in Copenhagen.

For the first time, 53 African nations have come under one umbrella to speak in one voice on the upcoming climate change negotiations in Copenhagen. Representatives of 10 African heads of state have gathered this week at AU headquarters in Addis Abeba to determine how much the continent should ask in compensation at the UN climate summit in December.


Continue reading…

Of course, the effects of climate change affect the poorest people first. May be time is running out for Africa to cleaning up an environmental problem that the industrialized world has created.

African nations have struggled to find a common position in many aspects, and this sort of resolution should help in creating a united front and increasing the continent’s bargaining power.

Relevant readings:

“African farms becoming too hot to handle “

An insurance plan for climate change victims”

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C40 Large Cities – Climate

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 14, 2009

C40 Climate Summit

C40_Cities

SEOUL Declaration 18-21 May 2009

Source: http://www.c40cities.org/

Having met at the third Summit of the C40 Climate Leadership Group (hereinafter “Group”) in Seoul,

Sharing the view that the earth and human beings are facing serious threats caused by climate change and that it is necessary to address these challenges by taking immediate and collective actions based on the principles of co-existence, mutual benefit, and common but differentiated responsibilities.

Recognising that at present over 50% of the world’s population lives in cities, which now account for 75% of global energy consumption and 80% of global greenhouse gas emissions and at this rate, by 2030, two thirds of the world’s population is predicted to live in urban areas,

Further recognising that densely populated cities and their citizens are facing fundamental lifestyle changes in the areas of housing, transportation, and other services, and, at the same time, are exposed to numerous threats, including extreme weather events, natural disasters and newly emerging diseases,

Reaffirming that cities must take responsibility for their contribution to climate change, and establish and implement immediate and practical measures for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the threats caused by climate change at the individual city level,

Further reaffirming that it is important for C40 cities to cooperate with all cities around the world and share best practice and technologies, and that cities in developed countries need to assist the efforts of cities in developing countries in taking actions as they are more vulnerable to climate change and have lower capacity to cope with environmental hazards,

Proclaim that:

C40 cities hereby set a common goal of transforming themselves into low-carbon cities, by cutting greenhouse gas emissions to the largest extent possible, by adapting themselves to the unavoidable climate change consequences, by making cities less vulnerable to climate change, and by enhancing cities’ capacity for remediation.

C40 cities identify their current level of carbon emissions from all city operations and stages of community development including urban planning, design and infrastructure building. Cities reduce emissions wherever possible through policies, programmes and projects and taking steps to negate the impact of remaining emissions.

C40 cities continue to catalogue and monitor their greenhouse gas emissions and implement Climate Change Action Plans. C40 cities include measures or targets for greenhouse gas reductions and specific policies, projects and programmes with a schedule for implementation wherever possible. The majority of C40 cities have already completed Climate Change Action Plans. C40 cities that are reviewing existing plans or developing new Climate Change Action Plans are asked to consider the measures presented in the attached Annex: Policies and Measures to Address Climate Change. The 2011 C40 Summit will include a review of progress on the implementation of Climate Change Action Plans.

C40 cities actively work together to accelerate delivery of low-carbon technologies, programmes and financing, including through active coordination in procurement of specific technologies through the C40 Secretariat.

C40 cities work collaboratively with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and other international bodies, national governments, non-governmental organisations, and eco-friendly businesses, including sharing goals and experiences and, in some instances, engaging in joint projects, and providing resources. We are committed to delivering common awareness and measures outlined in the UNFCCC to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and tackle climate change

In the run up to the COP15 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, the leading role of cities in the global effort against climate change must be recognised. C40 cities and all cities with shared goals, must be engaged, empowered and resourced, so that cities can work together to deliver on greenhouse gas reduction targets and stop climate change.

Cities will notify the C40 Secretariat of the names of staff in charge of climate change policies and programmes to enhance implementation of various action items set forth in this Declaration, as well as report on their established measures, targets and achievements at the 4th C40 Summit and subsequent summits

The C40 Climate Leadership Group calls upon cities and their citizens to exert their efforts to address the threats caused by climate change for the benefit of all the people and future generations.

Annex Policies and Measures to Address Climate Change in Cities

To tackle climate change, cities shall adopt and implement policies and measures most suitable to their circumstances. It is important that C40 cities cooperate with all cities around the world and share best practices and technologies. The Clinton Climate Initiative has developed a Measurement Tool that each C40 city can use to calculate a baseline inventory of current emissions. The tool will also allow cities to track progress on their climate change goals.

In establishing their own Climate Change Action Plans, cities will give preferential consideration to the following measures proven to be effective in many cities.

  1. To take a systematic and secure approach, take institutional measures such as enacting city ordinances based on technical studies, engaging in long-term planning, and establishing Climate Change Funds.

  2. To avoid, mitigate, or delay the impact of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions:

      • adopt eco-friendly architectural design guidelines for construction, lighting, and insulation, etc., introduce a new and renewable energy certification, prescribed ratio of new and renewable energy for new and renovated buildings, and promote eco-friendly buildings and rationalise energy consumption by providing incentives for energy-efficient designs;

      • establish a sustainable transport system through policies that favour public transit and encourage the use of bicycles, promote sustainable land-use and urban design, including preserving natural landscape, continuous expansion of green areas and other eco-spaces and conduct urban planning with focus on low-energy consumption;

      • expand citywide resource reclamation and reuse facilities and promote recycling programmes, and

      • raise the share of new and renewable energy in the total energy mix.

  1. To adapt cities to the unavoidable climate change consequences, providing citizens with a secure environment and higher quality of life by conducting forecasting analysis and thus minimising the damages caused by climate change:
      • prepare for disasters by building infrastructure and establishing management plans that will protect citizens against extreme weather events;

      • ensure networks such as disaster information systems and weather observation facilities are in place ;

      • prepare measures to protect population groups most vulnerable to intense heat waves and improve the monitoring and control systems for communicable and other diseases;

      • strengthen ability to anticipate changes in the urban eco-system, improve monitoring of air and other types of pollution, and enhance early warning systems;

      • improve energy demand management, such as ability to forecast and respond to fluctuations in seasonal energy demands;

      • reflect climate change impacts, such as heat island effects, in the urban planning process; and

        improve water resource management.

  1. To promote the engagement of city residents to address climate change effectively:
      • provide tools for measuring individual carbon footprints and the amount of emission generated by normal, daily activities of citizens;

      • develop and promote practical ways for a low-carbon lifestyle,

      • support activities of civic organisations to tackle climate change.

      • Promote environmental educational policies to prepare next generations for climate change and to think on what citizens can do to develop a sustainable lifestyle and mitigate greenhouse gas emission

  • ________________________________________________________

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – view on map

Leader: Mayor Kuma Demeksa
Population: 3,146,999
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.addisababacity.gov.et

Athens, Greece – view on map

Leader: Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis
Population: 3,072,992
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cityofathens.gr

Bangkok, Thailand – view on map

Leader: Governor Apirak Kosayodhin
Population: 8,160,552
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.bangkoktourist.com

Beijing, China – view on map

Leader: Mayor Guo Jinlong
Population: 15,380,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn

Berlin, Germany – view on map

Leader: Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit
Population: 3,387,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.berlin.de/english

Bogotá, Colombia – view on map

Leader: Alcalde Mayor de Bogotá Samuel Mareno
Population: 8,550,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.bogotaturismo.gov.co

Buenos Aires, Argentina – view on map

Leader: Mayor Mauricio Macri
Population: 3,034,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.buenosaires.gov.ar

Cairo, Egypt – view on map

Leader: Governor Abdel Azim Wazir
Population: 6,800,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cairo.gov.eg

Caracas, Venezuela – view on map

Leader: Mayor Antonio Ledezma
Population: 3,140,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.alcaldiamayor.gob.ve

Chicago, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Richard M. Daley
Population: 2,833,000
Chicago Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/home.do

Delhi NCT, India – view on map

Leader: Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit
Population: 17,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: delhigovt.nic.in

Dhaka, Bangladesh – view on map

Leader: Mayor Sadeque Hossain Khoka
Population: 6,700,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.dhakacity.org

Hanoi, Vietnam – view on map

Leader: Chairman of the Hanoi Municipal People’s Committee Nguyen The Thao
Population: 3,399,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.hanoi.gov.vn/hanoien

Houston, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Bill White
Population: 2,200,000
Houston Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.houstontx.gov

Hong Kong, China – view on map

Leader: Chief Executive Donald Tsang
Population: 6,985,000
Hong Kong Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.gov.hk

Istanbul, Turkey – view on map

Leader: Mayor Kadir Topbas
Population: 11,373,000
City status: Participating city
Website: english.istanbul.gov.tr

Jakarta, Indonesia – view on map

Leader: Governor Fauzi Bowo
Population: 8,389,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.jakarta.go.id/v21/home/default.asp?lg=2

Johannesburg, South Africa – view on map

Leader: Mayor Amos Masondo
Population: 3,888,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.joburg.org.za

Karachi, Pakistan – view on map

Leader: Nazim Syed Mustafa Kamal
Population: 16,500,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.karachicity.gov.pk

Lagos, Nigeria – view on map

Leader: Governor of Lagos State Babatunde Raji Fashola
Population: 7,938,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.lagosstate.gov.ng

Lima, Peru – view on map

Leader: Mayor of Metropolitan Lima Luís Castañeda Lossio

Population: 7,800,000

City status: Participating cityWebsite: http://www.munlima.gob.pe

London, United Kingdom – view on map

Leader: Mayor Boris Johnson
Population: 7,500,000
London Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.london.gov.uk

Los Angeles, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa
Population: 3,800,000
Los Angeles Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.ci.la.ca.us

Madrid, Spain – view on map

Leader: Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón
Population: 3,200,000
Madrid Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.munimadrid.es

Melbourne, Australia – view on map

Leader: Lord Mayor Robert Doyle
Population: 3,800,000
Melbourne Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au

Mexico City, Mexico – view on map

Leader: Mayor Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon
Population: 8,700,000
Mexico City Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.df.gob.mx/

Moscow, Russia – view on map

Leader: Mayor Yuri Mikhailovich Luzhkov
Population: 10,300,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.mos.ru/

Mumbai, India – view on map

Leader: Mayor Shubha Raul
Population: 13,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.mcgm.gov.in/

New York, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Population: 8,200,000
New York Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.nyc.gov

Paris, France – view on map

Leader: Mayor Bertrand Delanoë
Population: 2,200,000
Paris Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.paris.fr

Philadelphia, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Michael Nutter
Population: 5,800,000
Philadelphia Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.phila.gov

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – view on map

Leader: Prefeito Eduardo Paes
Population: 6,100,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.rio.rj.gov.br

Rome, Italy – view on map

Leader: Mayor Gianni Alemanno
Population: 4,000,000
Rome Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.comune.roma.it

Sao Paulo, Brazil – view on map

Leader: Mayor Gilberto Kassab
Population: 10,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.capital.sp.gov.br

Seoul, South Korea – view on map

Leader: Mayor Oh Se-hoon
Population: 10,300,000
City status: Participating city
Website: english.seoul.go.kr

Shanghai, China – view on map

Leader: Mayor Han Zheng
Population: 18,450,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.shanghai.gov.cn/shanghai/node8059/index.html

Sydney, Australia – view on map

Leader: Lord Mayor Clover More
Population: 4,280,000
Sydney Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au

Tokyo, Japan – view on map

Leader: Governor Shintaro Ishihara
Population: 12,800,000
Tokyo Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/

Toronto, Canada – view on map

Leader: Mayor David Miller
Population: 5,500,000
Toronto Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.toronto.ca

Warsaw, Poland – view on map

Leader: Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz Waltz
Population: 3,350,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.e-warsaw.pl

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