Addis Ethiopia Weblog

Ethiopia's World / የኢትዮጵያ ዓለም

  • January 2023
    M T W T F S S
     1
    2345678
    9101112131415
    16171819202122
    23242526272829
    3031  
  • Archives

  • Categories

  • Recent Posts

Posts Tagged ‘ወንጌል’

Apostle Matthew in Ethiopia | ሐዋርያው ቅዱስ ማቴዎስ በአክሱማዊቷ ኢትዮጵያ | በፍርድ ቀን፤ ከ፪ሺ ዓመት በኋላ፤ “ወንጌል አልተሰበከልንም” ማለት የለም

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 22, 2022

✞✞✞

ጥቅምት ፲፪/ 12፤ የሐዋርያውና ወንጌላዊው ቅዱስ ማቴዎስ በዓለ ዕረፍቱ ነው፤ ከቅዱስ ማቴዎስ ረድኤት በረከት ይክፈለን፡፡

💭 ፊልሙን ከዚህ ድንቅ ጽሑፍ ጋር እናነጻጽረው፦

👉 በ መሪራስ አማን በላይ

የዓለም መድኃኒት እየሱስ ክርስቶስ እኔን ማቴዎስን መርጦ ተከተለኝ አል እኔም ስላመነታ ተከተልኩት የመዳን ተስፋ የሆነውን የወንጌሉን ቃል እንድንሰማና ከእርሱ አፍ የሰማሁትንም ለዓለም እንዳሰማ ልኮኛል።

መድኃኒታችን እየሱስ ክርስቶስ ዓለምን ሊያድን ከእግዚአብሔር አብ የመጣ ከእርሱም ሌላ አዳኝና መሐሪ ወደ እግዚአብሔር መንግሥትም የሚያገባ እንደሌለ የአየሁትን ልመሰክር የሰማሁትን ቃል ለእናንተ ለአሰማ ከቃሉ የተነሣ የእግዚአብሔር ሕዝቦች ትሆኑ ዘንድ በስሙም ትጠመቁ ዘንድ ልኮኛል። ከአብና ከልጁም ከእኛም ህብረት እንዳላችሁ ያንጊዜ ታውቃላችሁ፤ ዓለሙ ግን የፈጠረውን ተጣሪውን ትቶ ላልፈጠረው ምህረት የአደረገለትን ጌታውን ትቶ ሥቃይንና መአትን ለሚያመጣበት ለክፉ መንፈስ እየተገዛና የክፉ መንፈስ ባሪያ በመሆን የኃጢአትን ንጉሥ ዲያብሎስን እያገለገለ ይገኛል።

ይህ ክፉ መንፈስ በሰዎች ልብ ላይ መርዙን እንደረጨ ሁሉ እንዲሁ በእግዚአብሔር ልጆች ላይ ደጋኑን ወጥሮ ቀስቱን እንደቀተረ ነው። አንዳንዶች ወገኖች ለእርሱ ሲማረኩለት ጥቂቶችም የሆኑ የእግዚአብሔር ምርጥ ሕዝቦች ከፍጹም እምነታቸውና ከመንፈስ ቅዱስ ጸጋ የተነሣ በጸሎት ድል ያደርጉታል፡ በጾምም ያሸንፉታል ያሳፍሩታልም። ወደ ሰማየ ሰማያት ለወጣው ለእግዚአብሔር ልጅ ለእየሱስ ክርስቶስ ታማኝ ሠራዊቱ ናቸው። መንፈሱን ተላብሰዋል፣ ጸጋውን ተሞልተዋል፣ ኃይሉንም ታጥቀውታል። ሥልጣንም በአፋቸው ተሰጥቷል። እኒሁ እናንተም የእግዚአብሔር አብን ምህረት የልጁንም የእየሱስ ክርስቶስን አዳኝነት የመንፈስ ቅዱስን ጸጋ ልትቀበሉትና ልትለብሱት ለመጣችሁ ሁሉ እንደ እግዚአብሔር ፈቃድ ይሁንላችሁ። የልጁም የእየሱስ ክርስቶስ ፍቅር ይፅናላችሁ። አሜን።

እቴ ህንድኬ ዣን ንግሥተ ነገሥታት ዘኢትዮጵያ በሆነች በአሥራ አንደኛው ዘመነ መንግሥትዋ ከእየሱስ ክርስቶስ ደቀ መዛሙርት አንዱ ቅዱስ ማቴዎስ በመርዌ ከተማ የሚኖሩትን ህዝቦች ቃለ ወንጌል እየሰበከ አስተምሮ ማጥመቁን ሰማች፤ ይዘውት ወደ እርስዋ እንዲመጡ መልእክተኞችን ወደ ወንጌላዊ ማቴዎስ ላከች፡ ነገር ግን ስለክርስቶስ መወለድና ብዙ ታእምራትንና ድንቅ የሆኑ ሥራዎችን እየሱስ ክርስቶስ መሥራቱን ሰምታ ስለነበረ የእየሱስ ክርስቶስ ደቀ መዝሙር ነው ሲሏት መልኩን ለማየት የሚያስተምረውንም ለመስማት ጓጉታ እርሱ የእግዚአብሔር አገልጋይ ከመምጣቱ እኔ መሄድ አለብኝ ብላ በብዙ ሺህ ሠራዊት ታጅባ ወደ መርዌ /መርዋ/ በ70 ዓ.ም. ሄደች።

በዚያም ቅዱስ ማቴዎስን አግኝታ እንዲህ አለችው፦

“እየሱስ ክርስቶስ የእግዚአብሔር ልጅ ከእግዚአብሔር ዘንድ ወደ እኛ እንደተላከና የሰላም አለቃ የዘለዓለም አባት እንደሆነ ከነቢዩ ኢሳይያስ ትንቢት የተነሣ አምናለሁ፤ ነገር ግን በውኃ ጥምቀት ከእግዚአብሔር መወለድን የእግዚአብሔር ልጅ መባልን አላውቅም ነበር፡ አሁን ግን አንተን ወደ እኛ የላከህና ከአንተ ላይ የአለ የእግዚአብሔር መንፈስ ቅዱስ ከስብከትህ የተነሣ ገለፀልኝ፡ የምትነግረን ቃለ ወንጌል ህይወት መድኃኒት እንደሆነ አወኩ በእርሱም አመንኩ ስለዚህ አጥምቀኝ።” አለችወ።

ቅዱስ ማቴዎስም እግዚአብሔር ወደ እርሱ እንደላካት አውቆ በደስታ ከሠራዊትዋ ጋር ወደ ግዮን ወንዝ ወረዱ ከዚያም ከእርሱዋ ጋር የነበረው ሠራዊትና መኳንንት ሁሉ በእየሱስ ክርስቶስ ስም አጠመቃቸው። እንዲህ ሲል፦

“በአብ በወልድ በመንፈስ ቅዱስ ስም አጠቃችሁ አለሁ!” እያለ።

እቴ ህንደኬ ዣን እንደህዝብዋ ተጠመቀች፤ ፍጹም ክርስቲያን ሆነች፤ ከዚያም ቅዱስ ማቴዎስን ከደቀ መዛሙርቶቹ ጋር ወደ አክሱም አምጥታ አክሎስ የሚባለውን ባልዋን ልጆችዋን ቤተሰብዋን ሁሉ በእየሱስ ክርስቶስ ስም አስጠመቀች። ቅዱስ ማቴዎስ በአክሱም አድርጎ ወደ ኢየሩሳሌም ሄደ፤ ከበርቶሎሜዎስ ቀጥሎ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ የኑብያን፣ የኢትዮጵያንና የናግራንን ሰዎች የአጠመቀ ከአሥራ ሁለቱ ደቀ መዛሙርት አንዱ ወንጌላዊ ማቴዎስ ነው።

እንደዚህም ሆነ እቴ ህንደኬ ዣን ክርስቲያን በሆነች በአሥራ ሦስት አመትዋ አቡሳውያን /አበሾች/ የሚባሉት የአክሱም የአዶሊስ ሕዝቦችና ፈላስያን /ፈላሾች/ በሌዋውያን ምክር ወንድሙዋን ንጉሠ ባህር ዘዝቃሌስ ተብሎ የነበረውን ከተብን አፄ ባህር ሰገድ ንጉሠ ነገሥት ዘኢትዮጵያ ብለው በበላዩዋ ላይ አነገሡት፤ እቴ ህንደኬን ዣንና አክሎስ ልጆቸዋን ገድለው አቃጠሏት። እርሷም በሰማእትነት በሰማንያ ሦስት /83/ በነገሠች በ24 ዘመነ መንግሥቱዋ አረፈች።

አፄ ባህር ሰገድ ተብሎ በነገሠው በከተብ ዘመነ መንግሥት እየሱ የእግዚአብሔር ልጅ ነው ክርስቶስ ተወልዶአል ብሎ የሚያስተምርና የሚአምን ሰው ቢገኝ እንዲገደል በአዋጅ ተነገረ።

የእስራኤል ልጆች የሆኑ ሌዋውያን ካህናት እየሱ ክርስቶስም አይደለም ስሙንም መድኃኒት አይደለም ለማለት “ኢየሱስ” እንጂ “እየሱስ” ብላችሁ አትጥሩ ብለው በምኩራብ በአደባባይ በቢተ መቅደስ በገበያ አስተማሩ።

እግዚአብሔርም የእስራኤልን ልጆችን ጥጦስ የሚባለውን አስነስቶ በጭካኔ እንደገደላቸው ሁሉ እንዲሁ የባህር ሰገድን መርከብ ሠራተኞችና በአዶሊስ በዳህቂቅ የሚኖሩትን ቤተ እስራኤል ሂክሶስ የሚባሉት የግሪኮችን ሰዎች አስነስቶ አስገደላቸው።

ንጉሠ ነገሥቱ ባህር ሰገድ ክርስቶስ እየሱስ በተወለደ 105 መታራ ከሚባለው አገር ላይ ከግሪኮች ከሮማውያን ጋር ጦርነት አድርጎ ተማርኮ በ81 ዓመት እድሜው በነገሠ በ22 ዘመነ መንግሥቱ ሞተ።

አንዳንድ ጎሣዎችና በጎሣዎች ውስጥ የሚገኙ ነገዶች ቃለ ወንጌል ያልተሰበከላቸው በጨለማ ዓለም ውስጥ ከመኖራቸው የተነሣ ከንቱ የሆነ አምልኮት ያመልኩና ለሚያመልኩት ነገር እንስሳና አእዋፍ ዶሮ ያርዱለት ነበር። ከዚያም አልፈው ሰውን አስረው እንደ እንስሳ የሚያቀርቡና የሚሰው ነበሩ። የሚያመልኳቸው ተራራዎች ዛፎች ሸለቆዎች ኮረብታዎች አራዊቶች ነበሩ። እንደዚሁ አስቀያሚ መልክ ያላቸው ቅርጾችን ያመልኩባቸው ነበር።

ነገር ግን የሰው ልጅ ክቡር ፍጥረት እንደሆነ ከሁሉም በላይ መሆኑን የሚያምኑና ሁሉን የፈጠረና ቻይ ጌታ እግዚአብሔር ብቻ አንድ አምላክ እንደሆነ በነቢያት ላይ አድሮ ለሰው ልጆች ህግና ሥረአት እንዲኖራቸው የፈቀደ ወይም የአዘዘ ትእዛዙንም የሚፈጽሙ የመልከ ጼዴቅ ካህን ዘሮች የእግዚአብሔር ልጆች ተብለው የሚጠሩ ኢትዮጵያውያን ብቻ ነበሩ። በኋላ ዘመን ደግሞ የአብርሃም ዘሮች በሙሴ አማካኝነት አንድ እግዚአብሔርን ማምለክ ጀመሩ። ከዚህ በኋላ ነው ሁለቱ ጎሣዎች አንድ እግዚአብሔርን በማምለክና በማመን ሲኖሩ የአለም መድኃኒት እየሱስ ክርስቶስ በቤተ ልሔም በተወለደ ጊዜ ሊሰግዱለት ሄደው ከሌላው ዓለም በፊት የተገኙትና ገጸ-በርከት አቅርበው ወደ ሀገራቸው በሰላም የተመለሱ።

አሁንም እኛ ኢትዮጵያውያን የክርስቶስን ትእዛዝና ትምህርት የተቀበልን እንደ ኃዋርያት ማለት ብሉያት መጽሐፍትን አስቀድመን እንደተቀበልን፡ መጽሐፍተ አዲሳትንም ወዲያውኑ ነው የተቀበልንና አምነን በጌታችን በእየሱስ ክርስቶስ ስም የተጠመቅነው፤ በስሙ ክርስቲያኖች የተባልነው እንጂ ሐዲሳትን መጻሕፍትን ብቻ እንደተቀበሉት እንደ አሕዛቦች አይደለም። ለዚህ ሁሉ ምስክራችን ፈጣሪያችን እግዚአብሔርና እግዚአብሔር ያዘዘው የአምልኮታችን ሥርአት ነው። እሄውም የማይታየው አምላክ በነቢያት ሰው እንደሚሆን አስቀድሞ መነገሩ በሐዋርያት ሰው መሆኑ መሰበኩን የሚያበስሩትን ብሉያትና ሐዲሳትን /በማስማማታችን/ በማዋሐዳችን እምነታችን ተዋሕዶ ሃይምንት ተብሏል። ምስጢሩም ቃል ሥጋ በመሆኑ የነቢያት ትንቢት በመፈጸሙ ተዋሕዶ ሃይማኖት አሰኝቶታል።

እሄን ክብርና ጸጋ ለሰጠን ለአንድ እግዚአብሔር የአምልኮት ምስጋናና ሥግደት ይገባዋል። እግዚአብሔር ለዘለዓለም ለሰው ልጆች ሰላምንና ፍቅርን ሕብረትንም ይስጠን። ምህረቱና ቸርነቱም በሰማይ እንደሆነ በምድርም ይሁን። አሜን።

______________

Posted in Ethiopia, Faith, Saints/ቅዱሳን | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Axum:The Mysterious ‘Fifth Evangelist’ Who Created the Bible as We Know It

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 16, 2022

✞ አክሱም፡- እኛ የምናውቀውን መጽሐፍ ቅዱስን የፈጠረው ምስጢራዊው ‘አምስተኛው ወንጌላዊ/ የቤተ ክርስቲያን ታሪክ አባት’ ቅዱስ አውሳቢዎስ

✞✞✞ ኢትዮጵያና ኢየሩሳሌም በዘመነ ክርስትና ✞✞✞

እስራኤላዊና የእስራኤልን እምነት የተቀበለ ወንድ ልጅ ሁሉ በዓመት ሶስት ጊዜ የሚያከብራቸው እጅግ የተከበሩ በዓላት ሶስት ናቸው፡፡ እነዚህም

  • የቂጣ በዓል (በዓለ ናዕት)
  • በዓለሰዊት
  • በዓለመጸለት (የዳስ በዓል) ናቸው።

እነዚህ በዓላት እስራኤላዊ ወንድ ሁሉ እግዚአብሔር በመረጠው ቦታ ማክበር ግዴታው መሆኑን ኦሪት ያዛል፡፡ [ዘዳ ፲፮፥፲፮]

ይህን ሐይማኖታዊ ሕግ መሠረት በማድረግ ሕገ ኦሪትን የቀበሉ ኢትዮጵያዊያን ሁሉ እግዚአብሔር ወደ መረጠው ቦታ ወደ ኢየሩሳሌም እየሔዱ በዓል ያከብሩ ነበር።

በሕጉ መሠረት እስራኤላውያን ከፋሲካ በኋላ ሱባዔ ቆጥረው በዓለ ሰዊትን ሲያከብሩ ኢትዮጵያውያን ምዕመናን እየተገኙ በአንድነት እግዚአብሐርን ያመሰግኑ ነበር፡፡ [ሶፎንያስ ፫]

በዘመነ ክርስትናም ልማድ ስለቀጠለ ከትንሳኤ በኋላ በ ፴፬/34 ዓም ይህን በዓል ሲያከብሩ ሐዋርያት መንፈስ ቅዱስን ተቀብለው በሀገሩ ሁሉ (በ፸፪/72) ቋንቋዎች ሲናገሩ እና ሲያመሰግኑት ከሰሙት መካከል ኢትዮጵያዊያን እንደነበሩ አበው ይናገራሉ።

ቅዱሳን ሐዋርያት ጸጋ መንፈስ ቅዱስ በተቀበሉበት ወቅት ከተገኙ የዓለም ምዕመናን መካከል ኢትዮጵያዊያን ነበሩ ሲል ቅዱስ ዮሐንስ አፈወርቅ ጽፏል፡፡ (ድርሳን ዘቅ ዮሐ አፈ) [ሐዋ ፪፥፩፡፲፫]

የኢትዮጵያውያን ንግስት ሕንደኬ ሙሉ ባለስልጣን የነበረው ኢትዮጵያዊ ጃንደረባ ሕገ ኦሪት በሚያዘው መሠረት በ፴፬/34 ዓም ወደ ኢየሩሳሌም ሄዶ በዓሉን አክብሮ ሲመለስ በጋዛ መንገድ ከወንጌላዊ ፊሊጶስ ጋር ተገናኘ ጃንደረባውም ትንቢተ ኢሳያስ ምዕራፍ ፶/50 እያነበበ ነበርና ቅዱስ ፊሊጶስ ተርጉሞ አስተምሮት ለክርስትና ጥምቀት አብቅቶታል፡፡ [ሐዋ ፪፥፩፡፲፫]

ቪዲዮው በአስገራሚ መልክ የተረከለትና የቤተክርስቲያን የታሪክ አባት የተባለው ቅዱስ አውሳቢዎስ ዘቂሳርያ ይህን ሲገልጽ ከእስራኤል ሕዝብ ቀጥሎ በክርስቶስ አምኖ በመጠመቅ ኢትዮጵያዊው ጃንደረባ የመጀመሪያ የወንጌል ፍሬ ነው፡፡ ብሏል፡፡ (አውሰንዮስ ዘቂሳርያ የቤ/ታሪክ ፪ኛመጽሐፍ)

ከቅዱሳን ሐዋርያት መካከል ቅዱስ ማቴዎስ፣ ቅዱስ ናትናኤል፣ ቅዱስ በርተሎሜዎስ፣ ቅዱስ ቶማስ በኖብያና በኢትዮጵያ ስለመሰበካቸው የታሪክ ጸሐፊዎት እነ ሩጼኖስና ሶቅራጥስ መስክረዋል፡፡

በይበልጥ ቅዱስ ማቴዎስ በስፋት ማገልገሉ ይታወቃል፡፡ ይህን የመሳሰለውና ሌሎችም ማስረጃዎች የሁለቱን ሀገራት ግንኙነት ይገልጻሉ፡፡

ከኢራን እና አረብ ሃገራት ጎን ለዘመን ፍጻሜ ሤራዋ የቃልኪዳኑን ታቦት ተግታ በመፈለግ ላይ ያለችው እስራኤል ዘስጋ (በየመንም እየፈለጉ ነው፤ የመን ወይም ኢትዮጵያን የጽላተ ሙሴ መቀመጫ እንደሆኑ ስለሚያምኑ) የአክሱም ጽዮናውያንን ከትግራይ ግዛት ምድር የማጥፋቱ ሤራ ተካፋይ ናትን? ቤተ እስራኤላውያንን ከሰሜን ኢትዮጵያ ወደ እስራኤል ወስዳ በሁሉም አቅጣጫ በመከተብ ላይ ያለችው እስራኤል ዘስጋ አክሱም ጽዮናውያንን እንዲጠፉ ካስደረገች በኋላወደ ሰሜን ኢትዮጵያ ወስዳ ልታሰፍራቸው ትሻለችን?

እንግዲህ ሁሉም እርስበርስ ጠላት የሆኑት ሃገራት ሁሉ በአክሱም ጽዮን ላይ በተከፈተው ጥንታውያኑን ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ክርስቲያኖች የአቡነ ገሪማ ልጆችን የማጥፊያው ጂሃድ ላይ አንድ ሆነው መገኘታቸው በአጋጣሚ አይደለም። እስራኤልና ኢራን በጋራ፣ ቱርክና ኤሚራቶች በጋራ፣ ሩሲያ + ዩክሬይንና ምዕራባውያኑ በጋራ ወዘተ.

በነገራችን ላይ፤ በዩክሬይን እና ሩሲያ መካከል የሚካሄደውም ጦርነት ኦርቶዶክስ ክርስቲያኖችን ከግዛታቸው የማስወገጃ ጦርነት ነው። ልብ ካልን፤ በተለይ በዩክሬይን፤ ከፕሬዚደንቱ ዜሊንስኪ እስከ ሚንስተሮቹ ድረስ ሥልጣኑን ሙሉ በሙሉ የተቆጣጠሩት እስራኤል ዘ-ስጋ/ አይሁዶች ናቸው። ቤተሰቦቹ ከአስከፊው የዘመነ ናዚ ሆሎኮስት ጭፍጨፋ ያመለጡት የአሜሪካው የውጭ ጉዳይ ምኒስትር አንቶኒ ብሊንከን በናዚዎች ለተሞላው የዩክሬይን አገዛዝ ድጋፉን መስጠቱ በጣም ያሳዝናል/ያስደነግጣል። በትናንትናው ዕለትም ብሊንክን ባወጣው መግለጫ ፋሺስቱን የኦሮሞ አገዛዝ ለማበረታታት፤ የትግርያ ኃይሎች እራሳቸውን እንዳይከላከሉ ወቀሳ ነገር መሰንዘሩ ብዙዎችን በጣም አስገርሟል። ግን ተልዕኳቸው ፀረ-ኦርቶዶክስና ፀረ-ጽዮናዊ ክርስቲያን እንዲሁም የቃል ኪዳኑን ታቦት ፍለጋ መሆኑ ግልጽ ነው። አቶ ብሊንክን ገና እጩ አያለ ነበር “የትግራይ ጦርነት ይመለከተኛል” በኋላም ሲመረጥ “በምዕራብ ትግራይ የዘር ማጽዳት ወንጀል እየተፈጸመ ነው” ሲለን የነበረው። ወዮላቸው!

💭 If you were traveling through the verdant Ethiopian highlands, you might make a stop at the Abba Gärima monastery about three miles east of Adwa in the northernmost part of the country. If you were a man—and you’d have to be to gain entry into the Orthodox monastery—then you might be permitted to look at the Abba Gärima Gospel books. These exquisitely illuminated manuscripts are the earliest evidence of the art of the Christian Aksumite kingdom. Legend holds that God stopped the sun in the sky so the copyist could finish them. Leafing through a Gospel book you would come upon portraits of the four evangelists—Matthew, Mark, Luke and John—the authors of the book’s contents. You might be surprised to find, however, that there is a fifth evangelist included there.

“A fifth evangelist?!” you say, and rightly so. This fifth portrait is that of Eusebius of Caesarea, the man who taught us how to read the Gospels. A new book, Eusebius the Evangelist: Rewriting the Fourfold Gospel in Late Antiquity, by Dr. Jeremiah Coogan, an assistant professor of New Testament at the Jesuit School of Theology at Santa Clara University, sheds light on history’s lost “fifth evangelist” and explains the pervasive influence of the bishop who has, arguably, done more than anyone else to shape how we read the gospels.

Eusebius of Caesarea is not a very well-known name outside of scholarly circles. He was born in the last half of the third century in Caesarea Maritima, in what is today Israel. He became first a priest and then a bishop. He would later become a biographer of the emperor Constantine possibly even a wheeler-dealer in the ecclesiastical politics of the imperial court. Under the influence of the third-century theologian Origen, who spent a long period of his life in Caesarea, Eusebius became an accomplished textual scholar.

If you’ve heard Eusebius’s name before it’s probably because of his Church History, an account of Christianity’s origins from the Apostles to his own day. As influential as the Church History is—and it became the template for how people have written the history of Christianity ever since—it doesn’t compare to the impact of his less visible and least-known literary production, the canon tables (also known as the Eusebian Apparatus).

In Eusebius’ time the contents of the New Testament were not universally established. Though many agreed that there should be four Gospels, and even grounded this assumption in the natural order of the universe, they did not read the Gospels in parallel. At least part of the reason for this was that, practically speaking, this was hard to do. Even if you had a Gospel book that contained copies of the four canonical Gospels, identifying how the various stories related to one another involved familiarity with the text, deductive skills, and a real facility navigating the physical object itself. Gospel books were big and heavy; the text was usually written in a series of unbroken Greek letters; and there were no chapter, verse, or page numbers to help you find your way.

Enter Eusebius, the man whose invention made reading the Gospels in parallel possible. It is basically a carefully organized reference tool that allows you to navigate books. In a period before chapter and verse divisions, Eusebius and his team of literary assistants divided the canonical Gospels into numbered sections and produced a set of coordinating reference tables that allow readers to cross-reference versions of the same story in other Gospels. This was an important innovation in book technology in general. As Coogan put it “the Eusebian apparatus is the first system of cross-references ever invented—not just for the Gospels, but for any text.” Reference tables might not seem sexy, but by producing them Eusebius inaugurated a trend that would dominate how Christians ever since have read the Bible.

“While Eusebius was never formally denounced as a heretic, some of his opinions were pretty unorthodox.”

The enormity of his innovation is hard to see precisely because it has become ubiquitous. We thread the different sayings of Jesus from the Cross together into one story. We merge the infancy stories of Matthew and Luke together to produce a single shepherd and wise men-filled Nativity story. These decisions are relatively uncomplicated, but we should consider the amount of decision-making that went into the production of this reading scheme. First, the team had to decide on unit divisions: what is a unit, where does it begin, and where does it end? While today church services have designated readings, early Christians often read for as “long as time permitted.” In segmenting the Gospel, the Eusebian team was cementing preexisting yet informal distinctions about what constituted a particular story, episode, or section of the life of Jesus.

Once this was accomplished, each unit had to be correlated to the corresponding units in the other Gospels. Some decisions seem easy: Jesus feeds 5,000 people in all four Gospels, for example. But there is an additional story—relayed by Mark and Luke—in which he feeds 4,000 people. What should we do with them? What about chronological discrepancies? The incident in the Jerusalem Temple where Jesus gets into a physical dispute with moneychangers appears in the final week of his life in the Synoptics but kicks off his ministry in the Gospel of John. Are they the same story? Did Jesus cleanse the Temple twice? These were and indeed are live questions for Christian readers, but by drawing up his tables, Eusebius and his team provided answers by means of a simple chart. A great deal of interpretation and theological work happens in the construction of the chart, but the tables seem to be factual accounting. Instead of argumentation that makes itself open to disagreement, we see only beguilingly agent-less lines and numbering.

This kind of schematization might seem to be the ancient equivalent of administrative or clerical work. Indeed, it drew upon technologies and practices from ancient administration, mathematics, astrology, medicine, magic, and culinary arts. The portraits from the Ethiopian Gärima Gospel, however, capture an often-hidden truth: Schematization is theological work. Segmenting the Bible and mapping its contents created theologically motivated juxtapositions and connections. For example, by connecting the story of divine creation from the prologue of the Gospel of John (“In the beginning was the word…”) to the genealogies of Matthew and Luke (the so-and-so begat so-and-so parts), the Eusebian team could underscore the divine and human origins of Jesus. Equally important, they instructed the reader to read the Gospels in a new way: a way that reoriented the original organization. If this shift seems unimportant or intuitive to us, it is only because we have so thoroughly absorbed it.

Take, say, the interweaving of Jesus’s finals words at the crucifixion. Mark’s version ends with Jesus in psychic and physical distress crying that God has abandoned him. It’s an uncomfortable scene and it is meant to be. Luke and John have more self-controlled conclusions: Jesus commends his spirit into the hands of his father (Luke) and authoritatively proclaims his life “finished” (John). Though Eusebius doesn’t reconcile these portraits himself, his apparatus allowed future generations to combine them in a way that neutralizes the discomfort we have when we read Mark.

While others had thought about reading the Gospels alongside one another, it was Eusebius and his team who came up with the tool to do it in a systematic way. From Eusebius onwards, Coogan told The Daily Beast, “most manuscripts of the Gospels included the Eusebian apparatus. When a reader encountered the Gospels on the page, they generally did so in a form shaped by Eusebius’ innovative project. While Eusebius prepared his Gospel edition in Greek, the apparatus had an impact in almost every language the Gospels were translated into. We find it in manuscripts in Latin, Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic, Gothic, Georgian, Arabic, Caucasian Albanian, Nubian, Slavonic, Old English, Middle German, and Dutch. Thousands of Gospel manuscripts, from the fourth century to the twentieth, reflect Eusebius’ approach to reading the Gospels.” Even today when academics think about the relationships between the Gospels and print Gospels in parallel with one another, we are asking the same questions as Eusebius did. It might be said that Eusebius is still controlling how we think.

The truth is however that any kind of supplementary material (scholars call them paratexts) like an index or a table of contents creates new ways to read a text. Matthew or Mark may have wanted you to read their stories linearly from start to finish, but Eusebius and his team gave you a new way to read. You could hunt and peck between the bindings. Reading out of order can be powerful work, as Wil Gafney’s A Women’s Lectionary for the Whole Church is, because it creates new pathways through the text that disrupt the ways that the authors meant the texts to be read. Most authors don’t write narratives with the expectation that people will just use Google to search inside it.

While Eusebius was never formally denounced as a heretic, some of his opinions—including some of the judgments that inform his apparatus—were pretty unorthodox. Like Origen he was sympathetic to views about the nature of Christ that would later be condemned as heresy. It’s probably because of the ambiguities surrounding his theological views that Eusebius, one of the most influential figures in Christian history, never became a saint. But his story proves that it is sometimes invisible actors who are the most powerful of all.

Source

______________

Posted in Ethiopia, Faith, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Massacres, Rape, Siege: Why Israel Must Stop Its UAE Ally Aiding Ethiopia’s Atrocities

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on December 15, 2021

The UAE is running a huge airlift arming an Ethiopian regime committing mass atrocities in Tigray. That inhumane adventurism is a strategic problem for Israel, too

The Abraham Accords gave Israel new leverage across the Arab world. Israel has new allies, notably the United Arab Emirates. It’s now vital to examine what these allies might be doing — especially when they contradict the founding values of the State of Israel.

Genocide scholars are sounding the alarm over Ethiopia, where the UAE is arming the government. Emirati-supplied weapons are encouraging Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed to go all out for a military solution, which risks mass ethnically-targeted violence.

Israel should stop its new ally before a blunder becomes a crime.

The war in Ethiopia broke out last year, pitting the Ethiopian government and its allies—Eritrea and Ethiopia’s Amhara regional state—against the Tigray region. All sides share responsibility for the war. Once it began, the Ethiopian government chose to fight with unspeakable brutality against Tigrayan civilians.

I receive daily calls from Tigrayans. My instinctive greeting, by now, is to offer condolences. Every single caller has lost a family member, often in one of the 260 documented massacres. I don’t ask about the daughters, sisters and mothers who have been raped. I hear about deaths from disease, of people who cannot get medicine because the hospitals were ransacked. I hear about children and their mothers perishing from hunger, because food was looted and plow oxen slaughtered.

This suffering is unseen. Journalists are forbidden from travelling to Tigray. The few aid workers let in work under a rigidly enforced code of silence.

Faced with imminent annihilation, Tigrayans rallied and fought back. Last June, they defeated the Ethiopian army and reoccupied their region. The government imposed a starvation siege: only about ten percent of the needed emergency aid has been allowed to get through.

Today the Tigrayan people are facing an even greater threat. Abiy Ahmed has rallied his supporters around a campaign of blatant ethnic hostility. They portray the Tigrayans as a “cancer,” “weeds,” “daylight hyenas” and “rats.” One of Abiy’s leading supporters was videotaped saying that they should be destroyed with the “utmost cruelty.”

Local militia and vigilantes are mobilized to the front line. They also instructed to patrol their own neighborhoods, far from the front line, to identify “enemies”—in practice, any Tigrayan. At least 40,000 Tigrayan civilians are believed to be held in internment camps and police stations in and around the Ethiopian capital.

Anyone who speaks of peace is hounded. A singer, Tariku Gankisi, was asked to perform at a rally, and he deviated from the script, telling the crowd, “This is no time for singing, there is nothing to sing about.” He called for peace. His microphone was shut off and the official media rounded on him, trying to force him to grovel and apologize.

Prominent elders of the peacemaking community, academics and businesspeople have also been targeted for online vilificationand real life intimidation for standing for peace or reaching out for dialogue with the opposition.

Among Tigrayans, I hear the sentiment that Ethiopia no longer wants them, and in turn they no longer want to be part of Ethiopia.

International efforts to negotiate a political solution are getting no traction. Efforts by the African Union, Kenya and the United States have been rebuffed. The Tigrayans say that they cannot trust Abiy. For his part, Abiy promises he will crush Tigray.

Abiy is emboldened by the weapons he has obtained on a global arms-buying spree. His supplies include the usual suspects—China, Russia, Ukraine and eastern European countries that manufacture small arms—and also Turkey and Iran. His most significant supplier has been the UAE, which is running a massive airlift of lethal equipment, including drones.

The UAE is a newcomer to the Horn of Africa. It sees opportunities for investment in agriculture and ports, and wants to make Ethiopia part of its security perimeter in the western Indian Ocean. Abu Dhabi was the sponsor of the peace agreement between Ethiopia and Eritrea in 2018, which won Abiy Ahmed the Nobel Peace Prize.

The Nobel committee didn’t give Eritrean president Isaias Afewerki a share in the award, because he is a totalitarian despot who runs his country like a personal fiefdom. Isaias didn’t mind. He got what he wanted, which was a security pact against Tigray — whose leaders had run Ethiopia for the previous quarter century and had fought a war against him.

It seems that when Crown Prince Mohamed bin Zayed hosted Isaias and Abiy, he promised them ongoing financial and military support. He is certainly fulfilling that promise to Abiy, even though in doing so he is defying the U.S. policy of trying to de-escalate the Ethiopian war in favor of a negotiated peace.

The UAE belatedly reconsidered its support for proxies and its air campaigns in the wars in Libya and Yemen, but not before irreparable damage had been done to those countries. It should not have to re-learn this lesson at the expense of Ethiopia. With 110 million people, characterized by significant ethnic and religious diversity, the collapse of the country would be a calamity of surpassing size.

Israel should be worried. It has ties to Ethiopia dating back to the time of Emperor Haile Selassie. It has a deep connection to the country’s historic Jewish community, the Beta Israel. It has a security interest in a country strategically positioned at the southern end of the Red Sea arena, neighboring Muslim-majority countries.

Over the years Israel has cut deals to secure its strategic interests, and to get Ethiopia to allow its Jews to emigrate. Thirty years ago, during the last months of the communist military regime, Israel reportedly supplied munitions to the Ethiopian air force in return for expediting Operation Solomon which airlifted out 39,000 Beta Israel. Recently, as the Red Sea arena has become a theater of strategic rivalries and turmoil, Israel has kept a close eye on possible threats in the region, including militant groups.

And with the Abraham Accords, Israel is becoming a partner to bin Zayed’s adventurism. In Washington DC and European capitals, Israeli and Emirati diplomats work hand in glove. The allies are building a new security architecture for the region — which is also giving the Emiratis a free pass when they go rogue.

Emirati arms may save Abiy Ahmed’s government, but, as we have seen from Libya and Yemen, saving a government may come at the cost of losing a functioning state. That could destabilize the Horn of Africa for an entire generation.

Worse still, knowingly or not, the UAE is abetting an Ethiopian regime committing mass atrocities that are escalating by the day. The warning sirens of genocide are blaring, loudly.

Israel took a moral stand against genocide in Rwanda and Darfur. It must act now when Tigrayans face that hideous prospect. It should tell its new-found ally in Abu Dhabi to stop, now, in the name of humanity.

Source

___________________

Posted in Ethiopia, Faith, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Ethiopia | Christian Genocide in Tigray & “Lucifer’s “One World Religion” Agenda | Babylon UAE

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 19, 2021

ኢትዮጵያ | በትግራይ የክርስቲያኖች እልቂት & “የሉሲፈር“ የአንድ ዓለም ሃይማኖት ”አጀንዳ | ባቢሎን ኤሚራቶች 😈

የጋሪማ ወንጌሎች በአቡ ዳቢ? 😈

ከእኛ ዘንድ ወጡ፥ ዳሩ ግን ከእኛ ወገን አልነበሩም፤ ከእኛ ወገንስ ቢሆኑ ከእኛ ጋር ጸንተው በኖሩ ነበር፤ ነገር ግን ሁሉ ከእኛ ወገን እንዳልሆኑ ይገለጡ ዘንድ ወጡ።”

❖ ❖ ❖[፩ኛ የዮሐንስ መልእክት ምዕራፍ ፪]❖ ❖ ❖

፲፰ ልጆች ሆይ፥ መጨረሻው ሰዓት ነው፥ የክርስቶስም ተቃዋሚ ይመጣ ዘንድ እንደ ሰማችሁ አሁን እንኳ ብዙዎች የክርስቶስ ተቃዋሚዎች ተነሥተዋል፤ ስለዚህም መጨረሻው ሰዓት እንደ ሆነ እናውቃለን።

፲፱ ከእኛ ዘንድ ወጡ፥ ዳሩ ግን ከእኛ ወገን አልነበሩም፤ ከእኛ ወገንስ ቢሆኑ ከእኛ ጋር ጸንተው በኖሩ ነበር፤ ነገር ግን ሁሉ ከእኛ ወገን እንዳልሆኑ ይገለጡ ዘንድ ወጡ።

እናንተም ከቅዱሱ ቅባት ተቀብላችኋል፥ ሁሉንም ታውቃላችሁ።

፳፩ እውነትን የምታውቁ ስለ ሆናችሁ፥ ውሸትም ሁሉ ከእውነት እንዳልሆነ ስለምታውቁ እንጂ እውነትን ስለማታውቁ አልጽፍላችሁም።

፳፪ ክርስቶስ አይደለም ብሎ ኢየሱስን ከሚክድ በቀር ውሸተኛው ማን ነው? አብንና ወልድን የሚክድ ይህ የክርስቶስ ተቃዋሚ ነው።

፳፫ ወልድን የሚክድ ሁሉ አብ እንኳ የለውም፤ በወልድ የሚታመን አብ ደግሞ አለው።

፳፬ እናንተስ ከመጀመሪያ የሰማችሁት በእናንተ ጸንቶ ይኑር። ከመጀመሪያ የሰማችሁት በእናንተ ቢኖር፥ እናንተ ደግሞ በወልድና በአብ ትኖራላችሁ።

፳፭ እርሱም የሰጠን ተስፋ ይህ የዘላለም ሕይወት ነው።

፳፮ ስለሚያስቱአችሁ ሰዎች ይህን ጽፌላችኋለሁ።

፳፯ እናንተስ ከእርሱ የተቀበላችሁት ቅባት በእናንተ ይኖራል፥ ማንም ሊያስተምራችሁ አያስፈልጋችሁም፤ ነገር ግን የእርሱ ቅባት ስለ ሁሉ እንደሚያስተምራችሁ፥ እውነተኛም እንደ ሆነ ውሸትም እንዳልሆነ፥ እናንተንም እንዳስተማራችሁ፥ በእርሱ ኑሩ።

፳፰ አሁንም፥ ልጆች ሆይ፥ በሚገለጥበት ጊዜ እምነት እንዲሆንልን በመምጣቱም በእርሱ ፊት እንዳናፍር በእርሱ ኑሩ።

፳፱ ጻድቅ እንደ ሆነ ካወቃችሁ ጽድቅን የሚያደርግ ሁሉ ከእርሱ እንደ ተወለደ እወቁ።

Marionettes, being controlled by a marionette

You see, what I saw? The Gospel in Babylon UAE? Whaat!?

The Garima Gospels” The World’s Earliest Known Gospel Book is in an Ethiopian Monastery. Have the Luciferians and their UAE marionettes stolen it from Tigray? In November 2020, ancient Monasteries & Churches Have Been Bombed by UAE Drones & Heavy weapons. Is it part of Luciferian March for One World religion. For that they have decided to annihilate ancient Christians of Tigray – keepers of The Ark of The Covenant and many other sacred Christian Treasures. They did that earlier in Syria, Iraq, Egypt and Armenia.

👉 We see some manuscripts from “The Garima Gospels” in Babylon New York – at The New York Public Library

Where Are The Garima Gospels? Some Fear The Worst

After having survived 1,500 years of history in a remote monastery, the Garima Gospels now face their most serious threat.

One of the greatest treasures in the Christian world, guarded for over 1,500 years in northern Ethiopia, may not have survived the latest threat.

You Garima Gospels, written in goatskin and dated between 330 and 650 AD, are in an area that has been under siege for months by the armies of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Religious sites near the Abba Garima monastery in Tigray were bombed and precious looted artifacts, so it is feared that the worst happened to this treasure.

It is frightening for many of us to think that these Gospels and other ancient artifacts are on the road to danger,” said Suleyman Dost, a professor in the Department of Jewish and Near Eastern Studies at Brandeis University in Massachusetts, quoted by The Globe and Mail.

The Garima Gospels are not only among the first complete texts of the Christian scriptures, but they also offer us a rare glimpse into the language, religion and history of ancient Ethiopia,” he added.

The online newspaper advances that the Garima Gospels, bound and illustrated copies of the Four New Testament Gospels written in the classic Ethiopian language Ge’ez, are one of the treasures of the ancient Axumite kingdom, whose heart is now engulfed by the war zone in Tigray.

The war threatens countless priceless traces of this period, including inscriptions, religious buildings and manuscripts that have been diligently preserved in monasteries for centuries,” said Dost.

The Axumite kingdom, whose territories extended across the Red Sea to Yemen, was one of the great cultural and economic empires of that time and one of the first states to accept Christianity as an official religion, in the early fourth century, even before the Roman Empire.

The capital, Axum, is known as the home of Ark of the Covenant – another sacred relic whose fate is currently unknown.

The Garima Gospels are older than the most famous Western manuscripts, such as the Book of Kells, and are more closely linked to the original Greek Gospels.

To the morning man, Michael Gervers, a historian at the University of Toronto, explained that “they are of extreme importance for the Christian culture as a whole”. “Yours loss would be disastrous for the Judeo-Christian cultural heritage. ”

The war in Tigray destroyed much of Ethiopia’s religious and cultural heritage, even more than the invasions of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, who burned churches and manuscripts across the country in the 16th century.

The historian and his colleagues are attentive to the antique markets, if someone tries to sell the manuscripts. “It would be an offense against Christianity if the Garima Gospels ended up for sale,” he said, adding that there was still a possibility that soldiers had burned the manuscripts “out of spite”.

So far, however, its whereabouts are a mystery.

__________________

Posted in Ethiopia, Faith, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Protestant Jihad | Is Tigray Crisis God’s Judgment or the Regime’s? Ethiopian Christians Take Sides

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on July 7, 2021

😈 Protestants/ጴንጤዎች፤

☆“What is happening in Tigray is the judgment of God. Tigrayans deserve what they get.”

☆ “በትግራይ ውስጥ እየሆነ ያለው የእግዚአብሔር ፍርድ ነው፡፡ የትግራይ ተወላጆች የሚገባቸውን ነው ያገኙት!

💭 ይገርማል ይህን ርዕስ አስመልክቶ ቪዲዮዎችንና ጽሑፎችን ልኬ ነበር፤ አይተውት ይሆን?

ታዋቂው ክርስቲያናዊ ሜዲያ “Christianity Today“ በትግራይ ላይ እየተካሄደ ያለውን ፀረ-ኦርቶዶክስ ክርስትና እና የዘር ማጥፋት ዘመቻ አስመልክቶ በኢትዮጵያ ላሉ ፕሮቴስታንቶች/ጴንጤዎች ቃለ መጠይቅ አድርጎላቸው ነበር።

☆ ውጤቱም፤ ፺፰/ 98.5% የሚሆኑት ፕሮቴስታንቶች በኦርቶዶክስ ክርስቲያን ትግራይ ላይ የተከፈተውን ጦርነት እንደሚደግፉት እና ውስጥ በጦር ወንጀል እና የዘር ማጥፋት ወንጀል ጥፋተኛ ከሆነው እርኩሱ ጭራቅ አቢይ አህመድ አሊ ጎን እንደሚሰለፉ እንደሚከተለው በግልጽ ተናግረዋል።

☆ አብዛኛው ፣ ቃለ መጠይቅ ያደረግኩላቸው ፕሮቴስታንት/ጴንጤ ኢትዮጵያውያን እና በኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ያሉ የሚኒስቴር መስሪያ ቤቱ ሠራተኞች እንደሚሉት ወታደራዊውን ዘመቻ ይደግፋሉ ። በሲቪሎች ሞት ፣ በብሄር ማፅዳት ፣ ዘግናኝ የሰብአዊ መብት ረገጣዎች እና በትግራይ ህዝብ ላይ የተፈጸመ የተስፋፋ ረሃብ ዘገባዎች መጠነ ሰፊ እና አስቸኳይ እየሆኑ ቢመጡም ድጋፋቸው ግን ተጠናክሮ ቀጥሏል።

☆ ያ የፕሮቴስታንቶቹ/ጴንጤዎቹ ድጋፍ አሁን ባለው ግጭት ውስጥ እንደነርሱ፤ ‘እግዚአብሔር’ እያደረገ ካለው ልዩ ትርጓሜ የመጣ ይመስላል። እንደ ሥነ-መለኮት ምሁር እና ሰባኪው ጳውሎስ ፈቃዱ ያሉ ብዙ የወንጌላውያን ክርስቲያኖች “በሰሜን ኢትዮጵያ ፣ በትግራይ ውስጥ እየታየ ያለው የእግዚአብሄር(‘ሄ’ በጴንጤዎች አጻጻፍ)ፍርድ ነው” ብለው በይፋ ተናግረዋል። ቃለ-መጠይቅ ካደረግኳቸው በርካታ ኢትዮጵያውያን ክርስቲያኖች መካከል ጓደኞቻቸው እና ቤተሰቦቻቸው ሁሉ፤ “ትግራውያን የሚገባቸውን ነው ያገኙት!” በማለት ማወጃቸውን በግልጽ አስታውቀዋል።

☆ እራሱ ትግራዋይ የሆነ የወንጌል ሰባኪ ጓደኛዋ ደሳለኝ አሰፋም በዚህ ይስማማል። እናም፤ “በትግራይ የሚገኙ ኦርቶዶክስ ክርስትያኖች ለግጭቱ ንቁ አስተዋፅዖ ያደርጋሉ” ሲል ይከሳቸዋል።

“የትግራይ ኦርቶዶክስ ክርስቲያኖች ከወያኔ ጋር በክፉ ነገር ይሳተፋሉ። ከህወሃት ጋር ሙሉ በሙሉ ይሳተፋሉ። እነሱ ‘በመጽሐፍ ቅዱስ ውስጥ እኛ ነፃነትን ስለምንፈልግ የፌዴራል መንግስትን መቃወም እንችላለን’ ይላሉ። ” እሱ ግን በተቃራኒው እንደሚሟገተው፤ “ ዶ/ር አብይ የሚያስተምረው እና የሚሰብከው ከእግዚአብሄር (‘ሄ’ በጴንጤዎች አጻጻፍ) ቃል ስለሆነ በኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ያሉት አብዛኛዎቹ የፕሮቴስታንት ክርስቲያኖች ከፌዴራል መንግስት ጋር ይስማማሉ።”

💭 ለብዙ የኢትዮጵያ ፕሮቴስታንት/ጴንጤ ተጋድሎ የሚመስለው ጥያቄ ይህ ነው፤

ኢየሱስ ክርስቶስ ከየትኛው ወገን ጎን ይቆማል? ጌታችን ከማን ጋር ይሆን?

😈 ጠላቶቹን ለማሸነፍ ቆርጦ ተነሳው ፕሮቴስታንታዊ መሪ አብይ አህመድ ጎን?

ወይንስ

በከፍተኛ ሁኔታ እየተሰቃዩ ሉትፕሮቴስታንት/ጴንጤ ካልሆኑት ኦርቶዶክስ ትግራዋይ ጎን?

👉 መልሱን የቄስ ትምህርት ቤት ተማሪ ሕፃን እንኳን በትክክል ይመልሰዋል!

The majority, according to Christian Ethiopians and ministry workers in Ethiopia that I interviewed, support the military operation. Their support has held strong even as reports of civilian deaths, ethnic cleansing, horrific human rights abuses, and widespread hunger inflicted on the Tigrayan population rise in scale and urgency.

That evangelical support seems to be rooted in a particular interpretation of what God is doing in the current conflict. Many evangelical Christians, such as theologian and preacher Paulos Fekadu, have publicly declared that what is happening in north Ethiopia, in Tigray is the judgment of God.” Several of the Ethiopian Christians I interviewed said their friends and family readily declare that the Tigrayans “deserve what they get.”

Her friend Desalajn Assefa Alamayhu, an evangelist who is Tigrayan himself, agrees. And he accuses Orthodox Christians in Tigray of being active contributors to the conflict.

Tigray Orthodox Christians participate in evil things with TPLF. They participate completely with TPLF. They said, ‘In the Bible, we can oppose federal government because we need freedom.’” In contrast, he contends, “most Protestant Christians in Ethiopia agree with the federal government because Dr. Abiy teaches and preaches from the Word of God.”

The question that many evangelical Ethiopians seem to be wrestling with is this: With whom would Jesus side—the charismatic evangelical leader determined to defeat his enemies, or the primarily nonevangelical Orthodox Tigrayans who are suffering immensely?

💭 EndNote: 98.5 % of Protestants side with the evil monster Abiy Ahmed Ali, who is guilty of war crimes and genocide in Christian Tigray.

As the humanitarian issues escalate in the largely Orthodox north, the conflict tests evangelicals’ loyalty and theology.

The transition to an ethnically Oromo leader marked a break from 27 years of rule by the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF). And in a country historically dominated by Orthodox and Muslim believers, Abiy became the first openly evangelical head of government Ethiopia ever had.

But since a bitter and violent conflict broke out between Abiy’s government and the formerly ruling TPLF in the northern Tigray region in November 2020, evangelicals—who make up just over 18 percent of the population—have been divided over how to respond.

The majority, according to Christian Ethiopians and ministry workers in Ethiopia that I interviewed, support the military operation. Their support has held strong even as reports of civilian deaths, ethnic cleansing, horrific human rights abuses, and widespread hunger inflicted on the Tigrayan population rise in scale and urgency.

Earlier this month, the UN announced that more than 350,000 people in the Tigray region are already living in famine conditions, with another 1.7 million approaching famine. While the national government this week unilaterally declared a ceasefire after Tigrayans recaptured their regional capital, the TPLF is vowing to continue the fight.

Mazaa (a pseudonym), a 44-year-old who runs a K-8 school with her husband outside of Addis Ababa, has tried to share her concerns about the grave suffering of Tigrayans with fellow evangelicals. She asked not to be named out of fear of retribution against her students’ families.

Her school near the capital city serves a number of Tigrayan families; she has seen firsthand how the fathers of her students have been “disappeared,” and then how the surviving widows and children are isolated socially and economically. Her friends’ response? “These people brought it on themselves. It’s not without cause.”

“I don’t care what the cause is,” Mazaa told me. “Jesus says we have to love one another. Love doesn’t take any conditions. The love we offer and give has to be without any condition.”

She also believes the war is unnecessary. The dispute between Abiy and the TPLF “should have been resolved another way. Fighting could have been avoided, if there was dialogue or reconciliation or willingness on their part to go through a lot of steps.”

But Mazaa is in a relatively small minority. Among non-Tigrayan evangelicals, the justification for the war extends decades back. Under the TPLF, Protestantism was treated like a second-class religion. Muslims and Orthodox Christians were given preference in myriad ways, from political access to venue options for worship services.

Before the TPLF, when Ethiopia was under imperial and then Communist rule, the oppression against evangelical Christians was even worse, with regular executions and imprisonments. But all that changed with Abiy’s unexpected rise to power. He freed thousands of political prisoners, unblocked hundreds of websites, facilitated the end of a schism within the Orthodox church—and promoted long-awaited equity for evangelical Christians.

In Ethiopia, the term “Pente,” which began as a nickname for Pentecostals, has come to refer to evangelicals and most Christians outside the Orthodox Church. The prime minister attends a Pente church whose denomination is part of the Evangelical Churches Fellowship of Ethiopia.

“Right now, the evangelical Christian is getting more attention, is getting rights, is getting more opportunities to be part of the political movement because we’re being led by an openly evangelical Christian,” explains Eshe (a pseudonym), who works for two evangelical ministries and attends a Mennonite-affiliated church in Addis Ababa.

She does not support how Abiy is handling the conflict, and she expressed concern that her views could get her labeled as part of the “opposition.” But for many other evangelicals, Abiy is a gift from God, an anointed leader, and even a prophet.

Abiy’s many political and social reforms have been widely celebrated across Ethiopia—and the world. Up until last year, Abiy was best known as the man who made peace with longtime foe and neighbor Eritrea, which resulted in the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize.

But the evangelicals’ gain has been the Tigrayans’ loss, including evangelicals living in the Tigray region, which is home to a higher concentration of Orthodox Ethiopians and their holy sites. According to a recent statement from the Evangelical Churches Fellowship of Tigray Region:

Tigray has been ravaged by a war of revenge, destruction, and death. The damage to the people of Tigray is immeasurable, and the enormity of the need of millions of people is great and pressing.

One of the unforeseen and unexpected experiences of the current conflict has been the fact that the leadership of the Ethiopian Evangelical church has supported this evil war against the population of Tigray. The Ethiopian Evangelical church has lent its financial and unwavering spiritual support to the Ethiopian government through false prophecy of guidance and praying for the success of the military mission against the people of Tigray.

That evangelical support seems to be rooted in a particular interpretation of what God is doing in the current conflict. Many evangelical Christians, such as theologian and preacher Paulos Fekadu, have publicly declared that “what is happening in north Ethiopia, in Tigray is the judgment of God.” Several of the Ethiopian Christians I interviewed said their friends and family readily declare that the Tigrayans “deserve what they get.”

Biruktawit Tsegaye, a 27-year-old volunteer with an evangelical college ministry, believes the TPLF laid the groundwork for the current conflict.

“TPLF corrupted the nation, the people, based on ethnicity. TPLF sowed a bad seed based on ethnicity, so the nation is divided. TPLF is based on differentiating and dividing the nation in the past 20 years,” she explained to me. “After that, with the new government coming in, they refuse to participate and accept the new change. That is the main reason for the division and the war.”

Her friend Desalajn Assefa Alamayhu, an evangelist who is Tigrayan himself, agrees. And he accuses Orthodox Christians in Tigray of being active contributors to the conflict.

Tigray Orthodox Christians participate in evil things with TPLF. They participate completely with TPLF. They said, ‘In the Bible, we can oppose federal government because we need freedom.’” In contrast, he contends, “most Protestant Christians in Ethiopia agree with the federal government because Dr. Abiy teaches and preaches from the Word of God.”

But to Eshe, a just response to past offenses and the current insubordination of the TPLF should not have been a large-scale conflict.

“It was just between two political parties. The leaders are the ones in conflict,” she explains. Eshe believes that the previous TPLF leaders who committed serious crimes number less than a hundred. Abiy’s government should have simply gone after those individuals instead of “taking war as a solution.”

The question that many evangelical Ethiopians seem to be wrestling with is this: With whom would Jesus side—the charismatic evangelical leader determined to defeat his enemies, or the primarily nonevangelical Orthodox Tigrayans who are suffering immensely?

Where they ultimately land is complicated by the fact that media reports and even interpersonal communications coming out of Tigray have been tightly controlled; misinformation and propaganda abound. And under a government that has shown itself increasingly willing to punish dissidents, there is the real threat that vocal opponents of the war could be jailed—or worse.

For Kofi (a pseudonym), where his loyalty lies is clear.

For me, as a Christian, our allegiance is with God first. The Bible says we have to ally with those who are hurt,” said the 26-year-old, who declined to be named to protect his missions agency, which partners with churches and evangelizes in Tigray.

That’s one of the things that Christ says to the disciples: Cry with those who are crying, share with those who don’t have nothing. We have to be with those who are suffering. No matter the political explanation, I don’t care. That’s not the primary need. There are many who are suffering and in need of our prayers and help.”

EndNote: Nevertheless, 98.5 % of Protestants side with Abiy Ahmed Ali, who is guilty of war crimes and genocide in Christian Tigray.

Source

💭 The Nobel Committee Should Resign Over The Atrocities in Tigray

🔥 2019 Nobel Peace Prize for a Pact of War

🔥 2020 Nobel Peace Prize for a Pacte de Famine?

😈 The demon possessed traitor & anti-Ethiopia PM Abiy Ahmed Ali has been been able to make a lot of embarrassing, awkward and bad luck stories – and to bring trouble on many – this involve or lead to acts that damaged the reputation and interests of of the following entities:

❖ Ethiopia / Tigray

❖ The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

❖ Relationships between Tigrayans & Amahra; between Tigray & Eritrea

❖ Ethiopia’s ethnic groups & tribes

❖ The Horn of Africa: Kenya + South Sudan

❖ The sane & humane International Community

❖ The African Union

❖ The United Nations

❖ The Nobel Prize Committee

😈 While this cruel monster helped the following entities to substantially push their satanic agendas at every turn:

☆ The Oromos

☆ The Muslims

☆ The Arabs

☆ Egypt

☆ North Sudan

☆ Somalia

☆ Djibouti

☆ The Protestants

☆ The Sodomites

👉 Do I’ve anything else to say? Traitor, Antichrist! 😈

✞✞✞[Isaiah 33:1]✞✞✞
“Woe to you, O destroyer, While you were not destroyed; And he who is treacherous, while others did not deal treacherously with him.
As soon as you finish destroying, you will be destroyed; As soon as you cease to deal treacherously, others will deal treacherously with you.”

✞✞✞[ትንቢተ ኢሳይያስ ምዕራፍ ፴፫፥፩]✞✞✞

“አንተ ሳትጠፋ የምታጠፋ፥ በአንተም ላይ ወንጀል ሳይደረግ ወንጀል የምታደርግ ወዮልህ! ማጥፋትን በተውህ ጊዜ ትጠፋለህ፤ መወንጀልንም በተውህ ጊዜ ይወነጅሉሃል።”

___________________________________

Posted in Ethiopia, Faith, Infos, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

 
%d bloggers like this: