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Influential Ethiopian Social Media Accounts Stoke Violence Along Ethnic Lines

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on December 18, 2021

Proliferation of hate speech on social media has the capacity to cause real-world harm amidst an increasingly violent civil war.

Disclaimer: this article contains examples of hate speech.

In response to a recent proliferation of hate speech on social media platforms, Twitter announced on November 5, 2021 that it had disabled its trends list for Ethiopia to “reduce the risks of coordination that could incite violence or cause harm.” Facebook, meanwhile, published an update of its security protocols for protecting people in-country and curbing the spread of hate speech on November 9. This came in the wake of Facebook removing a post by Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed for violating the platform’s policies against inciting violence. The post called on citizens to take up arms and “organise and march through [any] legal manner with every weapon and power… to prevent, reverse and bury the terrorist TPLF.”

According to Facebook’s current policies regarding violence and incitement, the platform removes content containing language that “incites or facilitates serious violence.” Additionally, users are not permitted to post “threats that could lead to death (and other forms of high-severity violence) targeting people or places.” This includes “aspirational or conditional statements to commit high-severity violence.”

Despite these policies, Facebook has received repeated criticism for failing to take down violent posts in local Ethiopian languages, including Tigrinya and Amharic, as noted in Washington Post coverage of internal Facebook documents leaked by whistleblower Frances Haugen. Information from the leaked document suggested that Facebook teams had flagged a network of accounts promoting disinformation about the conflict and inciting people to take up arms. The network was linked with the Amhara militia Fano group, which has been accused of human rights abuses during the current conflict.

Facebook ultimately de-platformed Fano-linked assets in early December for violating its Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) policy. According to a spokesperson for Meta, Facebook’s parent company:

The designation of any organization as a VNSA will result in a removal of content that supports or represents the organization or its members as well as the removal of their presence from our family of apps. Under this policy, praise for the group will be allowed except for content that praises violence, which will be considered violating.

Meanwhile, on December 14, the Oversight Board ruled on a post that was automatically flagged by Facebook’s Amharic language systems. The post, which made unverified claims that the TPLF and Tigrayan citizens committed atrocities in an Amhara village, was restored despite being labeled as hate speech by two of the company’s Amharic-language content moderators. The Board ruled that Facebook should remove the post again, saying “rumors alleging that an ethnic group is complicit in mass atrocities, as found in this post, are dangerous and significantly increase the risk of imminent violence.” According to the ruling, the user who created the post did not “even provide circumstantial evidence to support his allegations.”

This is not the first time Facebook in particular has come under fire for allowing hate speech to fester; in 2020, a dedicated disinformation campaign was used to vilify prominent Ethiopian musician Hachalu Hundessa, who was later assassinated. Following his death, rampant hate speech and incitement to violence sparked mobs that led to hundreds of deaths. Since then, Facebook has released community standards guidelines in both Oromo and Amharic.

The DFRLab identified 27 examples of possible hate speech and incitement to violence and shared them with Facebook. After an internal assessment, Facebook removed 15 of them for violating policies on inciting violence. According to a statement released to the DFRLab by Meta:

A number of the posts that were flagged by DFRLab and included as examples in the article had already been actioned, and removed by Meta over the last few months. We have taken additional steps and will continue to leverage our proactive tools to find any duplicates of violating content which we will remove. Of the separate 27 pieces of content shared by DFRLab and reviewed by Meta, 15 were actioned and deleted for Violence & Incitement violations. The remaining 12 were found to be non violating as some were shared in condemnation or in an awareness raising context, whilst others either targeted institutions and/or had no obvious threat. Our Community Standards make clear what is and isn’t allowed on Facebook, and as soon as we become aware of violating content, we will remove it.

Additionally, Meta noted some of the actions it has recently taken in response to the ongoing conflict in Ethiopia and in the lead-up to the general election last June. These include expanding its capacity to review content in Amharic, Oromo, Somali, and Tigrinya; developing technology to automatically identify hate speech and ethnic slurs, resulting in more than 92,000 pieces of content being taken down between May and October 2021; removing coordinated inauthentic behavior in Ethiopia; releasing political transparency tools; and running a media literacy billboard campaign across 43 locations in Addis Ababa, “the first of its kind for Facebook across Africa.”

Online violence in Ethiopia

In March 2020, Ethiopia enacted the Hate Speech and Disinformation Prevention and Suppression Proclamation, which gave the government recourse to fine and imprison citizens for comments made on social media. Civil society groups, including Human Rights Watch, criticized the proclamation for its violation of the freedom of speech and its broad-sweeping definition of hate speech. Under the legislation, if the offense of hate speech or disinformation offense has been committed through a social media account having more than 5,000 followers or through a broadcast service or print media, the person responsible for the act could be punished with imprisonment not exceeding three years or a fine up to 100,000 birr (approximately USD $2,120).

However, the DFRLab has identified multiple accounts on both Twitter and Facebook with over 5,000 followers that recently posted hate speech without repercussion from the government. Some of these accounts are themselves operated by government employees or are government-aligned organizations. It is unknown whether the lack of prosecution of these accounts is a sign of selective enforcement or a general lack of resources to pursue those in violation.

A post that received severe backlash online was created by pro-government activist Dejene Assefa, whose Facebook account has over 121,000 followers and whose posts regularly receive thousands of likes and hundreds of shares. In late October 2021, Dejene published a Facebook post stating, “the war is with those you grew up with, your neighbor,” and calling on people to act against the “traitors” even if they do not want to do it.

The post was called out by social media users, including by algorithmic bias expert Timnit Gebru, and subsequently removed by Facebook. However, the DFRLab identified an additional ten pages, with a combined following of over 382,000 followers, that had reposted copied version of the text. According to Facebook, the company is working to remove duplicates and prevent further sharing.

Example of tweet demanding that Facebook remove a post by Dejene Assefa. The post was subsequently removed. (Source: sirarwa/archive)

In another post that was shared nearly 1,400 times, Dejene stated there was still time to cut the necks of the “traitors” and sing victory songs on their graves. The post was flagged by the DFRLab and removed by Facebook for inciting violence.

Violent rhetoric has also been documented from TPLF leaders and supporters. On November 12, Getachew Reda, advisor to TPLF leader Debretsion Gebremichael, tweeted an official press statement from the Tigray regional government on “nefarious foreign actors.” The post referred to Abiy’s government as “parasitic” and “predatory,” language similar to Abiy’s July 2021 claims that the TPLF were a “cancer” and an invasive “weed.” The press release also said, “The Government of Tigray and Tigray Armed Forces are not liable for any harm that foreign citizens knee-deep in Abiy Ahmed’s criminal enterprise suffer as we exercise our legitimate right of self-defense by taking proportional measures to ensure our people’s safety and security.” At the time of writing, the original tweet remained active on the platform.

On Facebook, Getachew, who has almost 174,000 followers, regularly posts updates corresponding to the Tigray defense forces capturing of different cities. These posts often contain demands for opposing forces to give up or face retribution.

Calls to arms

Posts similar to Prime Minister Abiy’s November 2021 call to arms, which Facebook removed for inciting violence, have appeared on the platform. Many of these posts, however, were less overtly violent. While Abiy called for citizens to arm themselves in order to “bury” the TPLF, other prominent users were more subtle in their calls to arms.

On September 15, 2021, Taye Bogale Arega, an historian who has been vocal in his support of the Ethiopian government, called for the TPLF and supporters to be “eradicated.” The following day, he posted two images of himself holding a rifle. While his post on eradicating TPLF supporters has been removed, the images of him posing with a rifle remain on Facebook at the time of publishing. Taye has over 263,000 followers on the platform.

Screencap of photos posted by historian Taye Bogale Arega of himself holding a rifle a day after calling for the “eradication” of the TPLF. (Source: Taye Bogale Arega/archive)

Another profile posted a blurry image of Amhara militants on November 2 asking for supporters from abroad to donate weapons, saying “give us at least one weapon.” The post, which Facebook has now deleted, was created the same day Abiy announced a six-month state of emergency and authorities in Addis Ababa called on citizens to ready themselves to defend the capital by registering their own firearms. The state of emergency requires citizens to carry identification at all times, allows for random raids by security forces, and gives police the ability to detain without a warrant anyone suspected to have connections to the “terrorist group” — i.e., the TPLF.

A post flagged by the DFRLab and deleted by Facebook called for foreign nationals to donate weapons to Amhara fighters. (Source: Facebook)

Following the implementation of the state of emergency, Addis Ababa Mayor Adanech Abiebie congratulated residents of the capital for taking the initiative to patrol the streets. She said the “Junta” would be buried as a result and encouraged citizens to continue acting as police and peace guards.”

Screencap of photos posted by the mayor of Addis Ababa alongside text encouraging citizens to patrol the streets after the implementation of a state of emergency that allows for arrests without warrants. (Source: Adanech Abiebie- አዳነች አቤቤ/archive)

Since the state of emergency was announced, the BBC reported that thousands of Tigrayans in Addis Ababa have been arrested under “suspicion” of supporting the TPLF, raising concerns among human rights groups.

Influence from abroad

The DFRLab also found significant amounts of online hate speech originating in diaspora communities located outside of Ethiopia.

Zehabesha, an influential Minnesota-based broadcasting company with over 1.5 million Facebook followers, posted an image of a devil and the Tigray flag alongside text calling the TPLF derogatory names. The post remained active at the time of publishing. In early November, Zehabesha also published a video interview with a Fano leader that called for all Tigrayans to be placed in concentration camps. Facebook removed the videos, though copies of it shared in the context of condemning the remarks remain on the platform.

Tweet referencing concentration camp remarks by a Fano militia leader as hate speech. (Source: TranslateET/archive)

Ethiopian Satellite Television (ESAT), based in Washington, DC, has also been accused of spreading hate speech against Tigrayans as far back as 2016. In late October, digital rights activist Berhan Taye reported a Facebook post by ESAT broadcaster Mesay Mekonen that also called for all Tigrayans to be placed in concentration camps. Facebook initially told Taye that the content did not violate its community standards policy. The post was eventually taken down, although it had been shared over 6,000 times and the same text has been copy and pasted elsewhere on the platform. (Source: btayeg/archive)

Multiple videos posted by Mekonnen Kebede, a US citizen with 69,000 followers on Facebook, were removed for hate speech and inciting violence after being flagged by the DFRLab. In one video, Mekonnen, who has close links with the Fano militia and has posted photos and videos from the front lines, called for the death of 7 million Tigrayans. Before being removed, the video had received over 182,000 views. Another now-deleted video promoting the removal of the Oromia region from Ethiopia’s map and inciting violence against members of the Oromo ethnic group was viewed more than 91,000 times. A video used to raise funds prior to Mekonnen joining the war effort was also removed, although it is unknown whether the requested funds were directed specifically to the Fano militia.

On November 2, the verified Twitter account for Kenyan writer Dikembe Disembe, which has over 330,000 followers, tweeted in English, “Ethiopia must annihilate Tigray just like Rwanda humbled the Hutus.” The post was reported and quickly removed, to which Disembe tweeted the response, “TPLF bots. TPLF is a terror group Ethiopia must rid.”

According to the BBC, posts written in local languages other than Amharic, the most widely spoken language in Ethiopia, “are less vulnerable to being reported and blocked.” This has allowed social media users across the board to demonize war refugees and call for genocide against ethnic minorities. Although recent media attention has focused on Amharic content, violent rhetoric has persisted on social media since the war broke out in 2020, and continues to spread across multiple platforms.



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Ethiopian Journalist Wins Award for Tigray Reporting | ኢትዮጵያዊው ጋዜጠኛ ለትግራይ ዘገባው ሽልማት አሸነፈ

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on November 17, 2021


ጋዜጠኛው (የካሜራ ሰው)እንደ ‘አሶሲየትድ ፕሬስ’ ላሉ የተለያዩ ዓለም ዓቀፋዊ የዜና አውታሮችና ሜዲያዎች የሚሠራው ሶላን ኮሊ ነው። እንኳን ደስ ያለህ፤ ወንድማችን! በርታ!

💭 የሮሪ ፔክ ሽልማት ህይወታቸውን አደጋ ላይ ጥለው ዜናዊ በሆኑ ክስተቶች ላይ ለዘገቡ ነፃ የካሜራ ኦፕሬተሮች የሚሰጥ ሽልማት ነው።

💭 Ethiopian journalist Solan Kolli on Tuesday won the Rory Peck prize for his coverage of the devastating conflict in the Tigray region of his home country.

💭The Rory Peck Award is an award given to freelance camera operators who have risked their lives to report on newsworthy events.


Posted in Curiosity, Ethiopia, Media & Journalism, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

በትግራይ ሕዝብ ላይ የዘር ማጥፋት ቅስቀሳ | ኢሳት፣ ኢትዮ360 ወዘተ ኢትዮጵያውያን አይደሉም

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 12, 2021

😈 ኦሮማራ 1.0

ESAT /ኢሳት ትናንትና

ትግሬዎችን የማስጨፍጨፊያ ጥሪ

😈 ኦሮማራ 2.0

Ethio360/ኢትዮ360 ዛሬ

በትግሬዎች ላይ የሚካሄደው ጭፍጨፋ ሕጋዊ ነው

እንደው ጉድ ነው! ያውም “ዲያቆን”? በዚህ አስከፊ ግዜ? አቤት ጭካኔ! አቤት አረመኔነት! ፋሽታዊ ገጸ ባሕርያቸው ነው እኮ በእነዚህ ግብዞች እየተንጸባረቀባቸው ያለው።

💭 በትላንትናው ዕለት ጌዜየን መስዋዕት አድርጌና፤ እስኪ ልያቸው ብዬ፤ በተለያዩ የፋሺስት ኦሮማራ የሜዲያ ጃንኮች የሚከተሉትን ጽሑፎች በቀጥታ ስርጭታቸው ወቅት አቅርቤላቸው ነበር።

👉 በ ‘ጽዋዕ ቲውብ’የላኩት፤

ለሚጨፈጨፉት የትግራይ ተዋሕዷውያን ድምጽ ለመሆን አሁን ጊዜ የለኝም!” ዘማሪ ይልማ(‘ሊቀ መዘምራንይልማ ሀይሉ) ከአራት ወራት በፊት በቀጥታ ስርጭት።

ግብዙ ዘማሪ ይልማ ስለ ሰንደቃዓላማ እና ቀለማቱ ትርጉም ሲቀበጣጥር፤ እንዲህ አልኩት፤

ከአምስት መቶ ዓመታት በፊት የክርስቶስ ተቃዋሚ ቱርኮች ቁስጥንጥንያ ከተማን (ኢስታንቡልን) ለመያዝ ሰራዊታቸው የከተማዋን በር ሰባብሮ ለመግባት በመዘጋጀት ላይ ሳለ፤ የኦርቶዶክስ ልሂቃን ስለ መላዕክት ዓይን ቀለማት እርስበርስ ይጨቃጨቁ ነበር።

እነ ጀኔራል ብርሃኑ ጁላ ያሉ ጀግና የጦር መሪዎች የእግዚአብሔርን ስም ሲጠሩ መስማት በጣም ያስደስታል፤ ተመስገን!” አቶ አባይነህ ካሴ ከስድስት ወራት በፊት በቀጥታ ሥርጭት።

ከትግራይ ተዋሕዶ ካህን የመሀመድ ሽህ ይበልጥብኛል፤ አስተዋዮችና የተሻሉ ጨዋዎች ናቸውና” አቶ አባይነህ ካሴ፤ መቀሌ ከፋሺስቱ የኦሮሞ አገዛዝ ነፃ በወጣች ማግስት። ገብታችሁ አዳምጡ!

የብጹእነታቸውን (አቡነ ማትያስ) ንግግር የቆረጡት አረመኔው ግራኝ እና ረዳቱ ጋንኤል ክስረት ናቸው። አቶ አባይነህ ካሴ ደግሞ የጋንኤል ክስረት ጠበቃ ነዎት! የተገለባበጠባት ዓለም! የፍርድ ቀን ተቃርቧል! ወዮላችሁ!”

“ወገኖቼ ወገኖቼን በረሃብ ከምድረ ገጽ ለማጥፋት ለአንድ ዓመት ያህል ተሰማርተዋል፤ የተቃውሞና የአንድነት ሰልፍ እንኳን ለማድረግ አይሹም” ስላቸው የስራ ባልደረቦቼ በመገረም ተመስጠው ነበር ያለቀሱት።“

እስኪ ይታየን፤ በኦሮሚያ ሲዖል በአማራውና ተዋሕዷውያን ላይ ለሦስት ዓመታት ያህል እየተፈጸመ ያለውን ጭካኔ ተጋሩ ፈጽመውት ቢሆን ኖሮ አቤት አማራው ያሰማው የነበረው ጩኸት”

አማራ ሆይ፤ ጽዮናውያንን ከድተህ የት የምትደርስ ይመስለሃል? የሚከላከልልህን ከጠላትህ ጋር ሆነህ እያጠቃህ ምን የሚጠብቅህ ይመስልሃል? ገበሬዎችህን እያፈንቀልክና ለገዳዮችህ ኦሮሞዎች ትተውላቸው ወደ ትግራይ እንዲዘምቱ እያደረግክ እኮ ነው፤ ምን ዓይነት መርገምት ቢሰጥህ ነው!”

ይህ ከሃዲ ትውልድ፣ ተዋሕዶ ክርስቲያንም ኢትዮጵያዊም አይደለም፤ ከክርስቶስ ፍቅር ይልቅ ዋቄዮአላህዲያብሎስ የሰጠው ጥላቻ በልጦበታል፤ ከብርሃን ይልቅ ጨለማን፣ ከሕይወት ይልቅ ሞትን መርጧልና ነው። ስለዚህ ከአህዛብ ወገን ነው የሚቆጠረው። ፍሬው ይህን ያሳያልና!”

👉 በ’ኢትዮቤተሰብ ቲውብ’ የላኩት፤

እንግዲህ የግራኝ ኦሮሞዎች ከእስማኤላውያን እና ኤዶማውያን ጋር አብረው አማራውን ጨፈጨፉ፥ አማራው ደግሞ ከግራኝ ኦሮሞዎች ፣ እስማኤላውያኑ እና ኤዶማውያኑ ባዕዳውያን ጋር ሳይቀር አብሮ ተዋሕዶ ተጋሩን በወኔ ለመጨፍጨፍ ዘመተ። የተገለባበጠባት ክንቱ ዓለም!”

ጎረቤቴ ምግብ አጥቶ ቢጠይቀኝ እንዴት እምቢ ልለው እችላለሁ? በጭራሽ የማይታሰብ ነው፤ ጠላቴም እንኳን ቢሆን! ኦሮሞ እና አማራ እግዚአብሔር ይፍረድባችሁ! እጅግ በጣም አረመኔዎች ናችሁ!”

ሁለት መቶ ሺህ ተጋሩ ተዋሕዷውያንን አስጨፈጨፋችሁ የተቀሩትንም በርሃብ ለማጥፋት እየተዘጋቻችሁ ነው። ይህ በዓለም ታይቶ ተሰምቶ የማይታወቅ አረመኔነት ነው፤ እናንተ ክርስቲያንም ኢትዮጵያውያንም በጭራሽ ልትሆኑ አትችሉም። ለማንኛውም የፍርድ ቀን ተቃርባለች። ወዮላችሁ! “

እናንተ አህዛብ እንጂ በጭራሽ ኢትዮጵያውያንም ተዋሕዶ ክርስቲያኖችም ልትሆኑ አትችሉም፤ በፍሬዎቻችሁ አይተናችኋል!”

በጣም አሰቃቂ ግፍና ወንጀል የፈጸሙት ከሃዲዎች የኤዶማውያንና እስማኤላውያን ወኪሎች ሁሉ በመለኮታዊ ሰይፍ ይጨፍጨፉ! ነበልባላዊ በሚሆን በሥላሴ ቃልና ሥልጣን ይንደዱ! ይቃጠሉ! በሲኦል የጨለማ አዘቅት ውስጥ ይዝቀጡ ወይም ይስጠሙ! ኃዘን ከላያቸው አይራቅ ትካዜም ከልባቸው አይጥፋ! እንደ ቃየልና ይሁዳ በዱርና በበርሃ ተበታትነው ሲቅበዘበዙ ይኑሩ! አሜን! አሜን! አሜን!”

👉 በ’ኢትዮ360’የላኩት፤

ሁለት መቶ ሺህ ተጋሩ ተዋሕዷውያንን አስጨፈጨፋችሁ የተቀሩትንም በርሃብ ለማጥፋት እየተዘጋቻችሁ ነው። ይህ በዓለም ታይቶ ተሰምቶ የማይታወቅ አረመኔነት ነው፤ እናንተ ክርስቲያንም ኢትዮጵያውያንም በጭራሽ ልትሆኑ አትችሉም። ለማንኛውም የፍርድ ቀን ተቃርባለች። ወዮላችሁ!

እንኳን አንድን የራስህን ሕዝብ ቀርቶ፣ እንስሳቱን እንኳን ምግብ ነፍጎ ለማጥፋት መሻት እጅግ በጣም የከፋ ጭካኔ ነው። ይህ እኮ በዓለም ታይቶና ተሰምቶ የማይታወቅ አረመኔነት ነው! ይህ የኦሮሞን እና አማራን አውሬነት የሚያሳይ ሆኖ ነው የሚሰማኝ።”

ተስፋፊዎቹ ኦሮሞዎች እኮ ፳፯/27 ጥንታውያን የኢትዮጵያን ብሔሮችን/ነገዶችን ያጠፉ የዘመኑ አማሌቃውያን ናቸው። ዛሬ ሞኞቹ ተጋሩና አማራዎች የሰጧቸውን ወርቃማ አጋጣሚ ተጠቅመውና ተዋሕዶ ተጋሩን ከምድረ ገጽ አጥፍተው ሙሉዋን ኢትዮጵያን ለመጠቅለል በመሥራት ላይ ናቸው!”

አይ አማራ፤ ከቅዱሳን ተጋሩ አርመኔ ኦሮሞ በልጦባችሁ መነኩሴውን ሳይቀር ለጦርነት ወደ ትግራይ ትልካላችሁ!? ምነው ወደ ወለጋ ታጣቂዎችን የመላክ ወኔ ቢኖራችሁ!”

ከዓመት በፊት ወደ ትግራይ የዘመተው የፋሺስቱ ኦሮሞ አገዛዝ ሰአራዊት ወደ አማራ ክልል ቢሆን ኖር ለመዝመት ያቀደው፤ 100% እርግጠኛ መሆን ይቻላል ለአማራው የሚደርስለት ትግራዋይ ነበር! ይህችን እናስታውሳት!”

ለመሆኑ ባለፈው ሳምንት ላይ በሰይጣናዊው የኤሬቻ በዓል ላይ “ፀረ ግራኝ” መፈክሮችን ሲያሰሙ የነበሩት “ቄሮ ኦሮሞዎች” የት ገቡ? ጋዙ አለቀ እንዴ? ወይንስ እንደጠበቅነው ሁሉም ወደ አራት ኪሎው ቤተ ፒኮክ ተመለሰው ተኙ?! አይይይ!”

👉 በ ‘TMH’ የላኩት፤

ይህ እኮ ከውጭ ጠላት፤ ያውም ከታሪካዊ ጠላት ቱርክ + አረብ ጋር አብሮ ገዳማትን እየጨፈጨፈ ያለ ፋሺስት ኦሮሞ አገዛዝ ነው፤ ለእኔ የዛሬው የኢትዮጵያ ቀንደኛ ጠላት ይህ ፋሺስት የኦሮሞ አገዛዝ ነው። ይህን አገዛዝ በመቃውመና፣ በትግራይ ሕዝብ ላይ የሚካሄደው ጭፍጨፋ እንዲቆም አባቶች የአንድ ዓመት/የሦስት ዓመት እድል ነበራቸው፤ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ እንኳን መጥራት አልቻሉም እኮ፤ ይህ ትልቅ ቅሌት ነው።

አባታችን (አቡነ ሙሴ)፤ አላማውማ አዲሱን የዋቄዮአላህዲያብሎስን ሥርዓት በኢትዮጵያ ማስፈን ነው! ባለፈው ሣምንት እኮ በመስቀል አደባባይ በዚህ የአውሬው 666ቱ የአዲስ ምዕራፍ በዓልላይ የዋቄዮአላህ ጭፍሮች ጨፈሩ፤ ኦሮማራ ባሪያዎቻቸውም አጨበጨቡ፤ አላየናቸውም እንዴ?“

ከክርስቲያን ወንድሞቻችሁ ጎን ተሰልፋችሁ መዋጋት እንኳን ባትፈልጉ፤ ለምንድን ነው ቤተ ክህነት ለአንድ ዓመት ያህል “ወገኖቻችንን አትጨፍጭፉ፣ አታስርቧቸው፣ መንገዱን ክፈቱ፣ እርዳታ አቅርቡ!” ለማለት ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ እንኳን መጥራት ያልቻለችው/ያልፈለገችው?


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Facebook is Under New Scrutiny For it’s Role in Ethiopia’s Conflict

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 11, 2021

👉 Courtesy: NPR

በክርስቲያን ኢትዮጵያ ላይ ጦርነቱ የተከፈተው ከሁሉም አቅጣጫና በሁሉም በዘረጓቸው መንገዶች ነው። ማሕበራዊ ሜዲያ አንዱ ነው!

💭 A whistleblower says Facebook’s algorithms could be stoking tensions and fanning ethnic violence in Ethiopia.

💭 ፌስቡክ በኢትዮጵያ ግጭት ውስጥ ስላለው ሚና አዲስ ምርመራ እየተደረገበት ነው።

የፌስቡክ ስልተ ቀመሮች በኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ውጥረትን ሊያቀጣጥሉ እና የብሄር ግጭቶችን ሊቀሰቅሱ ይችላሉ ይላል አንድ አጋላጭ ግለሰብ።


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Ethiopia & Myanmar: a Terrifying Story | Facebook Will Only Become More Dangerous to The World

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on October 6, 2021

For years, Facebook has been serving as one of the main platforms the fascist Oromo regime in Ethiopia & its followers used it incite hate and demonize Tigrayans, resulting in the ongoing 11-month-old #TigrayGenocide.

💭 “What we saw in Myanmar and are now seeing in Ethiopia are only the opening chapters of a story so terrifying, no one wants to read the end of it” Frances Haugen ends her remarks with a warning that without further action, Facebook will only become more dangerous to the world.

Facebook ‘operates in shadows’ – and Instagram is worse than other social sites, whistleblower tells Congress

“Mark holds a very unique role in the tech industry in that he holds over 55% of all the voting shares for Facebook. There are no similarly powerful companies that are as unilaterally controlled,” said Ms Haugen.

Facebook’s products “harm children, stoke division and weaken our democracy”, a whistleblower has claimed.

Frances Haugen – who used to work as a product manager at the tech giant – has given damning evidence to US politicians in the Senate, days after leaking internal documents to the Wall Street Journal.

Her testimony also came after Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp suffered an unprecedented outage for almost six hours on Monday – leaving its 3.5 billion users struggling to access services.

Ms Haugen warned: “Left alone, Facebook will continue to make choices that go against the common good. Our common good.

“When we realised Big Tobacco was hiding the harms, that caused the government to take action. When we figured out cars were safer with seatbelts, the government took action.

“And when our government learned that opioids were taking lives, the government took action.”

Following the hearing Facebook said that Ms Haugen had worked with the company for less than two years and it didn’t “agree with her characterisation of the many issues she testified about”.

The whistleblower implored politicians in the hearing to take similar action against Facebook – and alleged that the company’s leadership knows how to make its platforms safer but won’t make the necessary changes “because they have put their astronomical profits before people”.

She later warned that there was nobody at the company who could hold Mark Zuckerberg accountable other than himself.

“Mark holds a very unique role in the tech industry in that he holds over 55% of all the voting shares for Facebook. There are no similarly powerful companies that are as unilaterally controlled,” she said.

And she added: “As long as Facebook is operating in the shadows, hiding its research from public scrutiny, it is unaccountable.”

Addressing Monday’s outage, Ms Haugen said: “For more than five hours, Facebook wasn’t used to deepen divides, destabilise democracies and make young girls and women feel bad about their bodies.”

Explaining why she drew parallels between Facebook, Instagram and Big Tobacco, she said such platforms give young people “little dopamine hits” every time they receive a like – and many children fear being “ostracised” and disconnected from their peers if they stop using it.

Ms Haugen also said she believes Instagram is “worse” than other apps such as TikTok, Reddit and Snapchat because of how it is “about bodies and comparing lifestyles”.

Facebook has said “a number of inaccurate claims” were made during her testimony.

Senator Richard Blumenthal, a Democrat, said Facebook knew that its products were addictive like cigarettes – adding: “Tech now faces that Big Tobacco jaw-dropping moment of truth.”

Criticising Zuckerberg, he added: “Our children are the ones who are victims. Teens today looking in the mirror feel doubt and insecurity. Mark Zuckerberg ought to be looking at himself in the mirror.”

He also assured Ms Haugen that politicians will do “anything and everything to protect and stop any retaliation against you, and any legal action that the company may bring to bear”.

And in a direct message to Zuckerberg, Senator Ed Markey said: “Your time of invading privacy, promoting toxic content and preying on children and teens is over.”

Vowing that Congress will take action against the company, he added: “You can work with us or not work with us.”

Some senators personally extended an invitation for Zuckerberg to testify in front of the committee and put forward Facebook’s side of the story, while others accused him of going sailing instead of facing his responsibilities.


Posted in Ethiopia, Infos, Media & Journalism, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

CNN: From Nobel Laureate to Global Pariah: How The World Got Abiy Ahmed And Ethiopia So Wrong

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on September 7, 2021

By Eliza Mackintosh, CNN, September 7, 2021

TDF = ELA (ኢነሠ) = ‘የኢትዮጵያ ነፃ አውጪ ሠራዊት’ ባፋጣኝ ግራኝን መያዝ አለበት፤ ጦርነት አያስፈልግም፤ ዓለምን የሚያስጮህ የጀግነንት ተግባር ሳይፈጸም አንድም ቀን ማለፍ የለበትም፤ ልዩ ኮማንዶ ወደ አዲስ አበባ ልካችሁ ጽዮናውያንን በረሃብ ጨርሶ እስላማዊት ኦሮሚያ ኤሚራትን ለመመስረት ያለመውን አረመኔ የኦሮሞ አገዛዝ 😈 ሙሉ በሙል በእሳት ጠራርጓችሁ አጥፉት። ከዓመት በፊት አስጠንቅቀናል፤ WEP/USAID ወዘተ ሁሉም ጽዮናውያንን በስልት ለመጨረስ ተናብበው የሚሠሩ የሉሲፈራውያኑ ተቋማት ናቸው። “የ2019 + 2020 የኖቤል ሰላም ሽልማት ለግራኝ እና ለተባበሩት መንግስታት የምግብ ፕሮግራም ተቋም መሰጠቱ ጽዮናውያንን በእሳት እና በረሃብ የመፍጂያ ቀብድ ነው” ያልነው ያው ደረሰ፤ እያየነው ነው። ሁሉም የትግራይን ሕዝብ በድራማቸው እየጨረሱት ነው። ፍጠኑ! እውነት ለሕዝባችሁ የቆማችሁ ከሆ፤ በኦሮሚያ የቱርኮችን የመጨፍጨፊያ ድሮኖቹን በመገጣጠም ላይ ያለው የኦሮሞዎቹ የእነ ሽመልስ አብዲሳ እና ለማ መገርሳ ቡድን ‘OLA’ በሞኝነት ”ይረዳናል” ብላችሁ በጭራሽ አትጠብቁ፤ ግራኝ አብዮት አህመድን እራሳችሁ ባፋጣኝ ድፉት!

When Kidanemariam, who is from Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region, approached the dais to introduce his longtime friend and colleague to the crowd, he said he was greeted with heckles from members of the audience: “Get out of the podium Tigrayan, get out of the podium Woyane,” and other ethnic slurs. He expected Abiy, who preached a political philosophy of inclusion, to chide the crowd, but he said nothing. Later, over lunch, when Kidanemariam asked why, he said Abiy told him: “There was nothing to correct.“”

Abiy’s early advocates and supporters say he not only misled the world, but his own people — and they are now paying a steep price.

In his open letter announcing he was leaving his post, Kidanemariam wrote of Abiy: “Instead of fulfilling his initial promise, he has led Ethiopia down a dark path toward destruction and disintegration.””

“Abiy, Abiy,” the crowd chanted, waving Ethiopia’s tricolor flag and cheering as the country’s new prime minister, dressed in a white blazer with gold trim and smiling broadly, waved to a packed basketball arena at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, part of a whirlwind three-city tour of the United States to woo the diaspora.

It was July 2018, just three months after Abiy Ahmed had been appointed leader of Africa’s second-most populous country, and his star was rising both at home and abroad. Excitement was surging into an almost religious fervor around the young politician, who promised to bring peace, prosperity and reconciliation to a troubled corner of Africa and a nation on the brink of crisis.

But even in those early, optimistic days of Abiy’s premiership, as he kickstarted a flurry of ambitious reforms — freeing thousands of political prisoners, lifting restrictions on the press, welcoming back exiles and banned opposition parties, appointing women to positions in his cabinet, opening up the country’s tightly-controlled economy to new investment and negotiating peace with neighboring Eritrea — Berhane Kidanemariam had his doubts.

The Ethiopian diplomat has known the prime minister for almost 20 years, forging a friendship when he worked for the governing coalition’s communications team and, later, as CEO of two state-run news organizations, while Abiy was in military intelligence and then heading Ethiopia’s cybersecurity agency, INSA. Before working for Ethiopia’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kidanemariam ran the country’s national broadcaster, the EBC, and he said Abiy sat on its board of directors.

In a recent phone interview, Kidanemariam said he, like many Ethiopians, had hoped Abiy could transform the nation’s fractious politics and usher in genuine democratic change. But he struggled to square his understanding of the man he’d first met in 2004 — who he described as power-hungry intelligence officer obsessed by fame and fortune — with the portrait emerging of a visionary peacemaker from humble beginnings.

In 2018, Kidanemariam was serving as Ethiopia’s consul general in Los Angeles and said he helped organize Abiy’s visit.

When Kidanemariam, who is from Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region, approached the dais to introduce his longtime friend and colleague to the crowd, he said he was greeted with heckles from members of the audience: “Get out of the podium Tigrayan, get out of the podium Woyane,” and other ethnic slurs. He expected Abiy, who preached a political philosophy of inclusion, to chide the crowd, but he said nothing. Later, over lunch, when Kidanemariam asked why, he said Abiy told him: “There was nothing to correct.”

“One of the ironies of a prime minister who came to office promising unity is that he has deliberately exacerbated hatred between different groups,” Kidanemariam wrote in an open letter in March, announcing that he was quitting his post as the deputy chief of mission at the Ethiopian embassy in Washington, DC, in protest over Abiy’s monthslong war in Tigray, which has spurred a refugee crisis, atrocities and famine.

Kidanemariam said to CNN he believed Abiy’s focus had never been about “reform or democracy or human rights or freedom of the press. It is simply consolidating power for himself, and getting money out of it … We may call it authoritarianism or dictatorship, but he is really getting to be a king.”

“By the way,” he added, “the problem is not only for Tigrayans. It’s for all Ethiopians. Everybody is suffering everywhere.”

In an email to CNN, Abiy’s spokeswoman, Billene Seyoum, described Kidanemariam’s characterization of the prime minister as “baseless” and a “reflection.”

‘The epitome of hell’

Much has changed since Abiy accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in November 2019, telling an audience in Oslo, Norway, that “war is the epitome of hell.”

In less than two years, Abiy has gone from darling of the international community to pariah, condemned for his role in presiding over a protracted civil war that, by many accounts, bears the hallmarks of genocide and has the potential to destabilize the wider Horn of Africa region.

The 45-year-old’s fall from grace has confounded many observers, who wonder how they could have gotten him so wrong. But diplomats, analysts, independent Ethiopian journalists, acquaintances and others who have followed his career closely say that even at the height of “Abiymania,” there were warning signs.

Critics say that by blessing Abiy with an array of international endorsements, the West not only failed to see — or willfully ignored — those signals, but gave him a blank check and then turned a blind eye.

“Soon after Abiy was crowned with that Nobel Peace Prize, he lost an appetite in pursuing domestic reform,” Tsedale Lemma, founder and editor-in-chief of Addis Standard, an independent monthly news magazine based in Ethiopia, told CNN on a Skype call. “He considered it a blanket pass to do as he wishes.”

The war in Tigray is not the first time he’s used that pass, she said, adding that since Abiy came to power on the platform of unifying Ethiopia’s people and in its state, he has ruthlessly consolidated control and alienated critical regional players.

Lemma has covered Abiy’s rise for the Addis Standard — which was briefly suspended by Ethiopia’s media regulator in July — and was an early critic of his government when few were sounding the alarm. Days after Abiy was awarded the Nobel Prize, she wrote an editorial warning that the initiatives he had been recognized for — the peace process with Eritrea and political reforms in Ethiopia — had sidelined a key stakeholder, the Tigray People’s Liberation Front, and were in serious jeopardy.

The TPLF had governed Ethiopia with an iron grip for decades, overseeing a period of stability and economic growth at the cost of basic civil and political rights. The party’s authoritarian rule provoked a popular uprising that ultimately forced Abiy’s predecessor, Hailemariam Desalegn, to resign. Abiy was appointed by the ruling class to bring change, without upending the old political order. But almost as soon as he came to power, Abiy announced the rearrangement of the ruling coalition that the TPLF had founded — the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Front, or EPRDF, which was composed of four parties — into a single, new Prosperity Party, ostracizing the TPLF in the process.

Abiy’s appointment had been intended to quell tensions. Instead, his drive for a new pan-Ethiopian political party sparked fears in some regions that the country’s federal system, which guarantees significant autonomy to ethnically-defined states, such as Tigray, was under threat.

The Tigrayans weren’t the only ones who were worried. In Abiy’s home region, Oromia, and other administrative zones, people began to demand self-rule. Soon, the government began backsliding into the authoritarian practices Abiy had once renounced: Violent crackdowns on protesters, the jailing of journalists and opposition politicians, and twice postponing elections.

Ahmed Soliman, a research fellow at Chatham House and an expert on the Horn of Africa, said Abiy’s reform plan also increased expectations among constituencies with conflicting agendas, further heightening tensions.

“Abiy and his government have rightly been blamed for implementing uneven reforms and for insecurity increasing throughout the country, but to an extent, some of that was inherited. These simmering ethnic and political divisions that exist in the country have very deep roots,” he said.

Tensions reached a boiling point last September, when the Tigrayans defied Abiy by holding a vote which had been delayed due to the pandemic, setting off a tit-for-tat series of recriminations that spilled into open conflict in November 2020.

This July, in the midst of the war, Abiy and his party won a landslide victory in a general election that was boycotted by opposition parties, marred by logistical issues and excluded many voters, including all those in Tigray — a crushing disappointment to many who had high hopes that the democratic transition Abiy promised three years ago would be realized.

“He sees himself as a Messiah, as chosen, as someone who’s destined to ‘Make Ethiopia Great Again,’ but this country is collapsing,” Lemma said, adding that the international community’s folly was falling for the picture Abiy painted of himself — “a post-ethnic, contemporary capitalist” — in their desperation for a dazzling success story.

‘A monumental failure of analysis’

Still, many Ethiopians are reluctant to lay the blame for the country’s unravelling at Abiy’s feet. Ahead of the election in June, residents in Addis Ababa told CNN they felt Abiy had inherited a mess from the previous regime and had always faced an uphill battle pushing reforms forward — an assessment shared by some regional experts.

“Lots of people were hopeful that the liberalizing changes, after those years of anti-government protests and all of the state violence in response, […] marked a moment where Ethiopia would start to conduct its politics more peacefully. But that thinking glossed over some of the major problems and contradictions in Ethiopia,” said William Davidson, senior Ethiopia analyst with the International Crisis Group.

“There was always a massive challenge ahead for Abiy, and for everyone. Just the promise of a more pluralistic political system did nothing necessarily to resolve the clashing nationalisms, opposing visions, and bitter political rivalries.”

In recent months, Abiy has tried to dodge international condemnation by pledging to protect civilians, open up humanitarian access to stave off famine and kick out Eritrean troops, who have supported Ethiopian forces in the conflict and stand accused of some of the most horrifying of the many atrocities in Tigray — pledges that American officials say he has not delivered on. After the United States issued sanctions in May, Ethiopia’s foreign ministry accused it of meddling in the country’s internal affairs and misunderstanding the significant challenges on the ground.

As the tide of international opinion has turned against Abiy, the prime minister’s office has maintained he is not concerned about his deteriorating reputation; his supporters have increasingly blamed the West for the crisis unfolding in the country. “The prime minister need not be a darling of the west, east, south or north,” Abiy’s spokeswoman Billene Seyoum told reporters in June. “It is sufficient that he stands for the people of Ethiopia and the development of the nation.”

But it is difficult to reconcile the government’s narrative with reality. Setting to one side the staggering loss of life and destruction inside Tigray, the war has eroded Abiy’s aggressive development plans and derailed the country’s economic trajectory, experts say. Ethiopia’s economy had grown at nearly 10% for the last decade, before slowing in 2020, dragged down by a combination of the Covid-19 pandemic, debt and conflict. The war has also drained national coffers, decimated a large slice of the country’s industry and eroded its reputation among foreign investors and financial institutions.

“From where I sit, I think there was a monumental failure of analysis, internationally,” Rashid Abdi, a Kenya-based analyst and researcher who specializes in the Horn of Africa, said, including himself in that group. “I think people failed to apprehend the complex nature of Ethiopia’s transition, especially they failed to appreciate also the complex side of Abiy, that he was not all this sunny, smiling guy. That beneath was a much more calculating, and even Machiavellian figure, who eventually will I think push the country towards a much more dangerous path.”

“We should have begun to take notice of some of the red flags quite quickly. A lot of complacency is what got us here,” he added.

The seventh king of Ethiopia

During his inaugural address to parliament in 2018, Abiy made a point of thanking his mother, a Christian from the Amhara region, who he said had told him at the age of seven that, despite his modest background, he would one day be the seventh king of Ethiopia. The remark was met with a round of laughter from his cabinet members, but Abiy’s belief in his mother’s prophecy was no joke.

“In the initial stages of the war, actually, he spoke openly about how this was God’s plan, and that this was a kind of divine mission for him. This is a man who early in the morning, instead of meeting his top advisors, would meet with some of his spiritual advisers, these are pastors who are very powerful now in a sort of ‘kitchen cabinet,'” Abdi said.

But the most glaring of warning signs, by many accounts, was Abiy’s surprise allegiance with Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki, for which he ultimately won the Nobel Prize.

Abiy’s critics say that what cemented his status as a peacemaker on the world stage was based on a farce, and that the alignment with Eritrea was yet another effort to consolidate his power, paving the way for the two sides to wage war against their mutual enemy, the TPLF. Soon after the Eritrea-Ethiopia border reopened in 2018, reuniting families after 20 years, it closed again. Three years on, Eritrean troops are operating with impunity in Tigray, and there is little sign of a durable peace.

In response, Abiy’s spokeswoman rejected this assertion, calling it a “toxic narrative.”

Mehari Taddele Maru, a professor of governance and migration at the European University Institute, who was skeptical of the peace deal early on — a deeply unpopular view at the time — believes the Nobel Committee’s endorsement of Abiy has contributed to the current conflict.

“I am of the strongest opinion that the Nobel Prize Committee is responsible for what is happening in Ethiopia, at least partially. They had reliable information; many experts sounded their early warning,” Mehari, who is from Tigray, told CNN.

“The Committee was basing its decision on a peace deal that we flagged for a false start, a peace that is not only achieved but perhaps unachievable and an agreement that was not meant for peace but actually for war. What he [Abiy] did with Isaias was not meant to bring peace. He knew that, Isaias knew that. They were working, basically, to execute a war, to sandwich Tigray from South and North carefully by ostracizing one political party first.”

The most palpable and lasting impact of the award, according to several analysts and observers, was a chilling effect on any criticism of Abiy.

The persona he cultivated, cemented in part through his many early accolades — being named African of the Year in 2018, one of Time’s 100 Most Influential People, and one of Foreign Policy’s 100 Global Thinkers in 2019 — captivated the imagination of Ethiopians, the country’s large diaspora and the world. Many now feel betrayed, having lost any optimism about the future of the country, but others are still intent on retaining that glittering image of Abiy, reluctant to see the writing on the wall.

“By the time the war started in November, the international community was extremely committed to the idea of Abiy Ahmed as a reformer still, and they didn’t want to give up on that,” said Goitom Gebreluel, a Horn of Africa researcher from Tigray, who was in Addis Ababa at the start of the conflict.

“I had meetings with various diplomats before the war and it was obvious that the war was coming, and what they were saying was, ‘you know, he still has this project, we have to let him realize his political vision,'” he said. “To this day, I think not everyone is convinced that this is an autocrat.”

Now, with Ethiopia facing a “man-made” famine and a war apparently without end, Abiy stands alone, largely isolated from the international community and with a shrinking cadre of allies.

Abiy’s early advocates and supporters say he not only misled the world, but his own people — and they are now paying a steep price.

In his open letter announcing he was leaving his post, Kidanemariam wrote of Abiy: “Instead of fulfilling his initial promise, he has led Ethiopia down a dark path toward destruction and disintegration.”

“Like so many others who thought the prime minister had the potential to lead Ethiopia to a bright future, I am filled with despair and anguish at the direction he is taking our country.”



Posted in Ethiopia, Media & Journalism, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

German Radio | War Crimes in Ethiopia | So Cruel That One’s Words Are Missing

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on September 3, 2021

💭 Kriegsverbrechen in Äthiopien | So Grausam, Dass Einem Die Worte Fehlen

💭 የጦር ወንጀሎች በኢትዮጵያ | በጣም ጨካኝ ከመሆኑ የተነሳ ቃላት ያጣሉ

💭 War Crimes in Ethiopia | So Cruel That One’s Words Are Missing

በሰሜን ኢትዮጵያ በትግራይ ክልል ጦርነት አለ። ሴቶች በጭካኔ ይደፈራሉ ፣ ወንዶችም ይጨፈጨፋሉ ሲል አምነስቲ ኢንተርናሽናል ዘግቧል። እንደ ጀርመን ያሉ አገሮች በመንግሥት ላይ ጫና ማሳደር አለባቸው በማለት ፣ የሰብዓዊ መብት ድርጅቱ ይጠይቃል።

በሰሜን በኩል በማዕከላዊው መንግሥት እና በትግራይ ክልል መካከል ያለው ትግል በኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ከጊዜ ወደ ጊዜ እየተባባሰ መጥቷል። አምነስቲ ኢንተርናሽናል የሴቶች ሕይወት ምን ያህል እንደተበላሸና በሴቶች ላይ የሚደርሰው ጥቃት ሥርዓትዊ/መንግስታዊ መሆኑንን በሰነድ ዘርዝሯል።

የጥቃት መጠኑም ሆነ የአፈፃፀሙ መጠን በጣም አስፈሪ እና ጨካኝ በመሆኑ በትግራዋያን ላይ እየደረሰ ያለውን ግፍ ለመግለጽ ምንም ቃላት የሉም ሲሉ የአምነስቲ ኢንተርናሽናል ፍራንዚስካ ኡልምዱስተርሆፍ ተናግረዋል። የጥቃቱ ተዋናዮች ማንኛውንም ተመጣጣኝነትን አጥተዋል.”

ተጎጂዎች ጥቃት ብቻ ሳይሆን የደረሰባቸው እነርሱን ሰብአዊነትአልባ ለማድረግና እና ለማዋረድ ሞክረዋል። “ወንዶች ይደበደባሉ ፣ በትንኮሳ ይቸገራሉ ፣ እንዲሁም በሰልፍ በመደዳ ይጨፈጨፋሉ። ሴቶች በአስከፊ ሁኔታ ይደፈራሉ።” ይህን ሁሉ ጉድ ልጆች ማየት የነበረባቸው። ባጠቃላይ ብዙ የቡድን መድፈሮች አሉ።

የሕክምና መሠረተ ልማት ፣ የውሃ እና የምግብ አቅርቦት ሙሉ በሙሉ ማለት ይቻላል ወድሟል። ሆኖም ውጊያው ያለማቋረጥ ቀጥሏል እና ቤተሰቦች እና ማህበረሰቦች እየወደሙ ነው።

➡ አምነስቲ የኢትዮጵያ መንግስትን ስትራቴጂካዊ አካሄድ ይጠራጠራሉ

በዓመፁ ከባድነትና ሥርዓታዊነት የተነሳ አምነስቲ ኢንተርናሽናል የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት የሚከተለውን ስትራቴጂካዊ አካሄድ ይጠራጠራል። የሰብዓዊ መብት ተሟጋች ድርጅቱ ይህ ከባድ ጥቃት በአስቸኳይ እንዲቆም እና አጥፊዎቹ እንዲቀጡ ይጠይቃል።

የተባበሩት መንግስታት እና በአፍሪካ ህብረት ውስጥ ያሉ ባለሙያዎች ገለልተኛ ምርመራዎችን ለማድረግ ወደ ጦርነቱ ቀጠና መድረስ ይኖርባቸዋል። እና ግፊት ከአለም አቀፉ ማህበረሰብ ማለትም ከኢትዮጵያ ጋር የጠበቀ ግንኙነት ካላቸው እንደ ጀርመን ያሉ አገራት ያስፈልጋል ይላሉ ፍራንዚስካ ኡልምዱስተርሆፍት።

➡ መሠረተ ልማቱ ከሞላ ጎደል ተደምስሷል

እንደ ኡልምዱስተርሆፍት ገለፃ ፣ የክልሉ ሁኔታ ከውጭው ዓለም በመቋረጡ አሁንም ከፍተኛ መጠን ያለው ነው። እንደ በይነመረብ እና ስልክ ያሉ ሁሉም የግንኙነት ሰርጦች አይሰሩም። ጋዜጠኞች ፣ የሰብአዊ መብት ታዛቢዎች እና ግብረ ሰናይ ድርጅቶች ወደ ክልሉ እንዳይገቡ ተደርገዋል። ይህ ጥናቱን ያወሳስበዋል ፣ ስለዚህ በቦታው ላይ ያለውን ሁኔታ ተጨባጭ ምስል ማግኘት ከባድ ነው።

መረጃን ለማግኘት አምነስቲ ቪዲዮዎችን ፣ ፎቶዎችን እና የሳተላይት ቀረጻዎችን ያረጋግጥ እና ይገመግማል። ለምሳሌ የጅምላ መቃብሮችን መለየት ይቻላል። በተጨማሪም ፣ የሰብአዊ መብት ድርጅቱ ከህክምና ሰራተኞች ፣ በክልሉ ውስጥ ባሉ የስደተኞች ካምፖች ውስጥ ካሉ ተጎጂዎች ጋር ቃለምልልስ ያደርጋል።

💭 War Crimes in Ethiopia | So Cruel That One’s Words Are Missing

There is war in the Tigray region of northern Ethiopia. Women are brutally raped and men massacred, reports Amnesty International. Countries such as Germany must exert pressure on the government, the human rights organization demands.

The struggle between the central government and the Tigray region in the north has been escalating in Ethiopia for some time. Amnesty International has documented how much the lives of women have been and are being systematically destroyed.

Both the extent of the violence and the manner are so frightening and cruel that there are hardly any words to describe what is happening to the people there, says Franziska Ulm-Düsterhöft of Amnesty International. The actors “lost all proportionality.”

Victims would not only be attacked, but also tried to dehumanize and humiliate them. “Men are beaten up, harassed, lined up and massacred. Women are raped in the worst way. ” There have been many group rapes in which children should have watched.

The medical infrastructure, water and food supply are almost completely destroyed. However, the fighting would continue unabated and families and communities would be destroyed.

Amnesty suspects Ethiopian government’s strategic approach

Due to the seriousness and systematics of violence, Amnesty International suspects a strategic approach that the Ethiopian Government tolerates. The human rights organization calls for an immediate end to this drastic violence and for the perpetrators to be punished.

The UN and experts in the African Union would also have to gain access to the war zone in order to conduct independent investigations. And pressure is needed from the international community, i.e. countries like Germany, which have close relations with Ethiopia, says Franziska Ulm-Düsterhöft.

The infrastructure is almost completely destroyed

According to Ulm-Düsterhöft, the situation in the region is still dramatic because it is cut off from the outside world. All communication channels such as Internet and telephone would not work. Also journalist: inside, human rights observer: inside and humanitarian organizations should not enter the region. This complicates the research, so it is difficult to get a concrete picture of the situation on site.

In order to gain information, Amnesty would verify and evaluate videos, photos and satellite recordings. For example, mass graves can be identified. In addition, the human rights organization conducts interviews with medical personnel, those affected and stuff: inside refugee camps in the region.

💭 Kriegsverbrechen in Äthiopien | so Grausam, Dass Einem Die Worte Fehlen

In der Region Tigray im Norden Äthiopiens herrscht Krieg. Frauen würden brutal vergewaltigt und Männer massakriert, berichtet Amnesty International. Länder wie Deutschland müssten Druck auf die Regierung ausüben, fordert die Menschenrechtsorganisation.

Schon länger eskaliert in Äthiopien der Kampf zwischen Zentralregierung und der Region Tigray im Norden. Wie sehr dabei die Leben von Frauen systematisch zerstört wurden und werden hat Amnesty International dokumentiert.

Sowohl das Ausmaß der Gewalt als auch die Art und Weise seien so erschreckend und grausam, dass sich dafür kaum Worte finden lassen würden, um zu beschreiben, was den Menschen dort passiere, sagt Franziska Ulm-Düsterhöft von Amnesty International. Bei den Akteuren sei „jede Verhältnismäßigkeit verloren gegangen“.

Opfer würden nicht nur angegriffen, sondern es werde auch versucht, sie zu entmenschlichen und zu demütigen. „Männer werden zusammengeschlagen, drangsaliert, aufgereiht und massakriert. Frauen werden vergewaltigt, und das in schlimmster Art und Weise.“ Es habe viele Gruppenvergewaltigungen gegeben, bei denen auch Kinder hätten zusehen müssen.

Die medizinische Infrastruktur, die Wasser- und Nahrungsmittelversorgung seien fast komplett zerstört. Die Kampfhandlungen würden aber unvermindert weitergehen und Familien und Gemeinden würden zerstört.

Amnesty vermutet strategisches Vorgehen der Äthiopischen Regierung

Aufgrund der Schwere und der Systematik der Gewalt vermutet Amnesty International ein strategisches Vorgehen, das von der äthiopischen Regierung geduldet werde. Die Menschenrechtsorganisation fordert ein sofortiges Ende dieser drastischen Gewalt und dass die Täter bestraft werden.

Dafür müssten auch die UN und Expert:innen der Afrikanischen Union Zugang in das Kriegsgebiet erhalten, um unabhängige Untersuchungen durchführen zu können. Und es sei Druck von der Internationalen Gemeinschaft, also Ländern wie Deutschland nötig, die eine enge Beziehungen zu Äthiopien haben, sagt Franziska Ulm-Düsterhöft.

Die Infrastruktur ist fast komplett zerstört

Nach wie vor sei die Lage in der Region dramatisch, weil sie von der Außenwelt abgeschnitten sei, so Ulm-Düsterhöft. Alle Kommunikationskanäle wie Internet und Telefon würden nicht funktionieren. Auch Journalist:innen, Menschenrechtsbeobachter:innen und humanitäre Organisationen dürften nicht in die Region. Dies erschwere die Recherchen, entsprechend schwierig sei es, sich ein konkretes Bild von der Lage vor Ort zu machen.

Um dennoch an Informationen zu gelangen, würde Amnesty Videos, Fotos und Satellitenaufnahmen verifizieren und auswerten. So könne man beispielsweise Massengräber ermitteln. Außerdem führe die Menschenrechtsorganisation Interviews mit medizinischem Personal, Betroffenen und Zeug:innen in Flüchtlingslagern in der Region.


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የኢትዮጵያ እና የጽዮናውያን ጠላት የሆኑ ፳/20 ፋሺስት ‘ሜዲያዎች’

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on August 30, 2021

ከታወቁት መንግስታዊ፣ አህዛባዊ፣ መናፍቃዊ ከሆኑት ሜዲያዎች ጎን እና ከእነዚህ ‘ሜዲያ’ ተብየዎች በተጨማሪ የሚከተሉት የኢትዮጵያ ጠላት “ልሂቃን” የሚመጣባቸውን መቅሰፍት ይቀበሉት ዘንድ ግድ ነው። በቃ! በቃ! በቃ! ብለናል።

ሁሉም በትግራይ ኢትዮጵያውያን ላይ ለተካሄደው የዘር ማጥፋት ዘመቻ በመቀስቀሳቸውና ምንም የማያውቁትን ምስኪን አማራ ገበሬዎችን የእሳት እራት እንዲሆኑ በማድረጋቸው በዘር ማጥፋት በጽኑ ተጠያቂዎች ከሆኑት የታሪካዊቷ ኢትዮጵያ ጠላቶች መካከል ናቸው። እነዚህ “ልሂቃን”፣ ‘ሜዲያዎች’፣ ሠሪዎቻቸውና ተከታዮቻቸው ሁሉ ፀረ-ትግራይ፣ ፀረ-ኢትዮጵያ እና ፀረ-ተዋሕዶ አጀንዳ ያላቸውን የዋቄዮ-አላህ ባሪያዎችን በመደገፍ፣ በዘር ማጥፋት ወንጀል በመተባበር ብሎም የንጹሐን ደም ሲፈስ ባለማውገዛቸውና ለተጨማሪ ግድያ ገዳዮቹን በማበረታታቸው እንዲሁም እስከዚህች ዕለት ድረሰ ከአረመኔው ከእባቡ ግራኝ አህመድ ጎን ተሰልፈው “ያዘው! በለው! ግደለው!” እያሉ የሉሲፈራውያኑን ኦሮሙማ አጀንዳን በማራመዳቸው በጻድቁ አባታችን በአቡነ ተክለ ሐይማኖት ጸሎት የሚከተለውን ባጭሩ ለማለት እወዳለሁ፤

ለፅንስትከ ተክለ ሐይማኖት ሆይ አስቀድሞ በማኅፀን ለተፀነስከው ፅንስትህና በታኅሣስ ፳፬/24 ቀን ለተውለድከው መወለድም ሰላም እላለሁ።

ለዝክረ ስምከ ተክለ ሐይማኖት ሆይ የስምህ የመነሻ ፌደሉ ትዕምርተ መስቀል ለሆነው ስም አጠራርህ ሰላም እላለሁ። እሱም ገናና የከበረ ስም ነው።

ቅዱሱ አባት ተክለ ሐይማኖት ሆይ፤ ከአረጋዊ ተክል የተገኘህ አዲስ የተክል አበባ ነህ። የሌዊና የይሑዳ ካህናት ይህ ሰማያዊ መልአክ ነውን ወይስ ምድራዊ ሰው እያሉ ስለ አንተ ይደነቃሉ።

ቅዱሱ አባት ተክለ ሐይማኖት ሆይ፤ ስግደትህ በማዕረገ መላእክት ደረጃ ነውና አከናውነህ የሠራሃት ጸሎትህ ባለ ዘመናችን ሁሉ ከጦርነትና ከጽኑ መከራ ሁሉ ጠባቂ ትሁነን።

ቅዱሱ አባት ተክለ ሐይማኖት ሆይ፤ መሥዋዕትን የምታሣርግ ታላቅ ካህን የእግዚአብሔር ባለሟል ነህና ቀንዶቹ ዓሥር ከሆኑ ከእባብ መተናኮልና አንደበቱ ሁለት ከሆነ ሰው ፀብ በክንፈ ረድኤትህ ሠውረህ አድነኝ።

ቅዱሱ አባት ተክለ ሐይማኖት ሆይ፤ ልጆችህ በዚህ ዓለም ብዙ መከራ ቢያገኛቸውም በአንተ ዘንድ ፍጹም ሰላምና እረፍትን እንደሚያገኙ አንተን ተስፋ ያደርጋሉ።

ቅዱሱ አባት ተክለ ሐይማኖት ሆይ፤ ከሐዲዎችን የምትበቀል ቄርሎስ የተባልክ አንተ ተክለ ሐይማኖት ነህ እኮን።

ቅዱሱ አባት ተክለ ሐይማኖት ሆይ፤ የሥላሴን አንድነት ሦስትነት በማስተማር ዓዋጅ ነጋሪነትህ ፍጹም ድንቅ ነው። እባቡን በእርግጫ አንበሳውን በጡጫ ብለው የሚያልፉ የሴትና የወንድ ደቀ መዛሙርት በጸጋ ወልድሃልና።

ያለምንም ተድኅሮ በሥላሴ ስም ይህን ሦስትነት አምናለሁ፤ በተንኮል ወንድማማቾችን እርስ በርስ የሚያባሉትን፣ ደንፍተው የሚያጠቁንን፣ ወዳጅ መስለው ሊያጠፉን የፈለጉትን የሚከተሉትን የጽዮንን ጠላቶች የእግዚአብሔር ቃል ይቅሰፋቸው፣ በተሣለ የመለኮት ሠይፍ አንገታቸውን ይቍረጣቸው፤ አሜን!!!

አብዮት አህመድ አሊ (ሙስሊም መናፍቅ)

ዝናሽ አቴቴ አህመድ አሊ (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)

ሳህለ ወርቅ ዘውዴ (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)

ደመቀ መኮንን ሀሰን (ሙስሊም)

ሳሞራ አሞራ ዩኑስ (ሙስሊም)

ሙስጠፌ መሀመድ ዑመር (ሙስሊም)

ብርሃኑ ጂኒ ጁላ (ዋቀፌታ-መናፍቅ)

ዲና ሙፍቲ (ሙስሊም)

መሀመድ ተሰማ (ሙስሊም)

ሀሰን ኢብራሂም (ሙስሊም)

ሬድዋን ሁሴን (ሙሊም)

ሞፈርያት ካሚል (ሙስሊም)

ኬሪያ ኢብራሂም (ሙስሊም ፥ ለስለላ ነበር ወደ መቀሌ ተልካ የነበረችው)

አህመድ ሺዴ (ሙስሊም)

ጃዋር መሀመድ (ሙስሊም)(“የታሰረው” ለስልት ነው)

ፊልሳን አብዱላሂ (ሙስሊም)

ለማ መገርሳ (ዋቀፌታመናፍቅ)

ታከለ ኡማ (ዋቀፌታመናፍቅ)

ሽመልስ አብዲሳ (ዋቀፌታመናፍቅ)

በቀለ ገርባ (ዋቀፌታ-መናፍቅ)

ህዝቄል ገቢሳ (ዋቀፌታ-መናፍቅ)

ዳውድ ኢብሳ (ዋቀፌታ-መናፍቅ)

አምቦ አርጌ (ዋቀፌታመናፍቅ)

ፀጋዬ አራርሳ (ዋቀፌታ-መናፍቅ)

አደነች አቤቤ (ዋቀፌታ-መናፍቅ)

መአዛ አሸናፊ (ዋቀፌታመናፍቅ)

ሳህለወርቅ ዘውዴ (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)

ብርቱካን ሚደቅሳ (ዋቀፌታመናፍቅ)

ታዬ ደንደአ (ዋቀፌታ-መናፍቅ)

ሌንጮ ባቲ (ዋቀፌታመናፍቅ)

አገኘው ተሻገር (ኦሮማራ መናፍቅ)

ዳንኤል ክብረት (ኦሮማራአርዮስ)

ዘመድኩን በቀለ (ኦሮማራአርዮስ)

ኢሬቻ ጂኒ በላይ (ዋቀፌታአርዮስ)

አለማየሁ ገብረ ማርያም (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)

ብርሀኑ ነጋ (ኦሮጉራጌመናፍቅ)

ገዱ አንዳርጋቸው (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)

አንዳርጋቸው ፅጌ (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)

አንዱዓለም አንዳርጌ (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)

ታማኝ በየነ (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)

አበበ ገላው (ኦሮማራመናፍቅ)



Posted in Ethiopia, Media & Journalism, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

BBC HARDtalk on Abiy Ahmed’s Tigray War P. 2 – The Perpetrator | Destroy, Exterminate, Rape, Steal, Annex

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on August 23, 2021

💭 BBC HARDtalk With Gedeon Timotios

👉 Part 1 + Part 2 =

ThesisAntithesisSynthesis / ተሲስ ፣ ፀረ-ፀረስታ እና ውህደት/መደመር ☆

💭 Finland FM Haavisto | Ethiopian Leadership Have a Plan to Wipe out Tigrayans

👉 When I asked the EU Envoy, Finland Foreign Minster Pekka Haavisto about Abiy AhmedAli + IsaiasAfewerki committing War Crimes in Tigray, he replied:

The Oromo fascist Junta lead by a war criminal who have a dream of wiping out 7 million Tigrayans.

..when I met the Ethiopian Leadership😈 in February they used this kind of language, that they are going to destroy the Tigrayans, they are going to wipe out..” Finland FM Haavisto

Wow!. It looks as though Hitler is back!

💭 በትግራይ ሴቶች ላይ የተፈጸመው እጅግ በጣም ትልቅ ግፍ ተስፋፊዎቹ ፋሺስቶች ኦሮሞዎች እና አማራዎች በተለያዩ የኢትዮጵያ ግዛቶች ላለፉት አምስት መቶ ዓመታት ሲፈጽሙት የነበረ ነው። በሉሲፈራዊው የዋቄዮ-አላህ ኢ-ስበ ዓዊውና የክርስቶስ ተቃዋሚው ዓለም ክርስቲያኖችን አዳቅሎ ለማዳክምና ለመጨረስ ሆን ብለው ግጭቶችንና ጦርነቶችን እይቀሰቀሱ የሚጠቀሙበት የወሲባዊ ጂሃድ ዋና አካል ነው። ከፖለቲከኞች ብዙም አልጠብቅም፤ ግን በተለይ የተዋሕዶ አባቶች ወደኋላ ሳይሉ ከይሉኝታ ባርነት እራሳቸውን ነፃ አድርገው ስለዚህ በቸልታ ለማይታለፍ ጉዳይ ትምህርት መስጠት ይኖርባቸዋል።

💭 Today, girls + women in Tigray experience Ashenda amidst ~10 months of #TigrayGenocide. We humbly ask that you advocate for them, that you believe their stories + that you never forget them and, specially the men must never, ever again allow atrocities like the genocide against our mothers, sisters and daughters to happen.


Posted in Ethiopia, Media & Journalism, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

#TigrayGenocide | Ethiopian Teenagers Become Pawns in Propaganda War

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on August 20, 2021

The fog of war is a term usually used to describe confusion on the battlefield, but when it comes to Ethiopia, it could just as easily be applied to the bitterly fought information war surrounding the escalating conflict between Tigrayan rebels and government forces.

When the BBC was recently offered an interview with teenagers allegedly caught fighting for the rebels, we cautiously accepted.

“I was playing football with friends when I was forcefully recruited by Tigrayan fighters to join their ranks,” one 17-year-old told us, on the phone from Afar, a state which borders Tigray.

The conflict began in Tigray in northern Ethiopia in November, but has since spread to the regions of Afar and Amhara, where the TPLF rebels recently captured Lalibela, a town famous for its rock-hewn churches.

“I was taken by force to the war front,” said another teenager, who told us he was in Year 10 at school in Tigray. “My family couldn’t say anything because they feared for their life.”

A 19-year-old woman said: “We didn’t get any military training. They took us to Afar. They threatened to kill our family if we didn’t join the fight.”

The teenagers told us that around 50 adolescent boys and girls were rounded up near Tigray’s capital Mekelle and forced to fight, before being captured by Afar’s regional forces, who are allied to the federal government.

The first sign something wasn’t right was when the Afar authorities, who offered us the interviews, insisted we conduct them in Amharic – Ethiopia’s lingua franca – and not their native language, Tigrinya.

Then, when we listened back carefully to the recordings, our suspicions were confirmed – at times, we could hear the regional authority spokesman telling the teenagers what to say.

Similar interviews were broadcast on local Ethiopian television channels, with teenagers paraded slowly past the cameras looking like bored senior high school students, some with injuries apparently incurred in the fighting.

Catalogue of horrors’

The Tigray conflict began after months of feuding between Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), once the dominant party in the federal government, over the prime minister’s reform programme.

Troops from Eritrea also entered the conflict on the side of Mr Abiy.

The prime minister accuses the TPLF of becoming a terrorist organisation, while it insists that it is the legitimate government in its home region of Tigray.

The Ethiopian government has been accusing the Tigrayan fighters of using child soldiers ever since they recaptured Mekelle in June, eight months after government troops took control of it.

The New York Times published a story on this key turning-point in the war including photos of Tigrayan fighters, some of whom appeared to be underage.

The paper described them as “highly motivated young recruits” inspired by the “catalogue of horrors that has defined the war – massacres, ethnic cleansing and extensive sexual violence”.

Since then, Prime Minister Abiy and his army of social media supporters have accused the Tigrayan rebels of forcibly recruiting child soldiers, doping them with drugs, and pushing them to the front lines.

TPLF spokesman Getachew Reda denied that teenagers were forced to join the group’s ranks.

“If there is a problem with regard to teenagers – 17, 18, 19-year-olds, although 18 is the legal age to join the army – these are children whose parents have been subjected to untold suffering by the Eritreans, by Abiy’s forces, by Amharic expansionists,” he told the BBC.

“We don’t have to force people. We have hundreds of thousands lining up to fight.”

Government officials and rights groups have also accused Tigrayan fighters of committing atrocities, including killing hundreds of people from the Amhara ethnic group in western Tigray at the start of the conflict.

Amhara militias have taken control of parts of western Tigray

Earlier this month, a heavy artillery attack was reported on a health centre in Afar.

Social media was soon ablaze with claims that more than 100 people had been killed by the Tigrayan fighters and the hashtag #AfarMassacre quickly began trending.

The BBC spoke to a local hospital doctor, who said 12 people brought there had died from their injuries, but no-one could give us an official death toll at the scene.

The rebels denied the attack and said they’d welcome an investigation.

Murky war

Claims and counter-claims about every twist in the war are traded all day long on Twitter and Facebook – from the government, the TPLF, and their respective armies of supporters in Ethiopia and the diaspora.

With phone and internet lines down across Tigray for nearly two months now, obtaining information from the region has been almost impossible.

The federal government says communication lines won’t be restored until the rebels accept a ceasefire.

The Tigrayan fighters say they won’t accept a ceasefire until the blockade is lifted and all enemy forces leave the region.

“The federal government is intent on controlling information and the Tigrayan leaders are by no means averse to using propaganda,” says Will Davison, senior Ethiopia analyst at the International Crisis Group think-tank.

“In addition, Ethiopia’s media and civil society are relatively weak when it comes to exposing who is doing what. So there is a cocktail of factors contributing to the murkiness of this war.”

A soldier of Tigray Defence Force (TDF) poses as he walks towards another field at Tigray Martyr’s Memorial Monument Center in Mekele, the capital of Tigray region, Ethiopia, on June 30, 2021

The delivery of aid to Tigray – where experts say hundreds of thousands of people are facing catastrophic levels of hunger – has been another key information battleground.

When the Tekeze Bridge was blown up on 1 July, eliminating a key aid route into the region and one of the few ways of reaching western Tigray, the federal government blamed the TPLF.

But Mr Davison says that argument doesn’t add up.

“Tigrayan forces were on the offensive after the federal retreat, they wanted to reclaim western Tigray and regain access to aid, trade and vital services. Why would they destroy a critical river crossing?” he asks.

“Amhara and federal forces, however, were trying to cut off Tigray after retreating, and they wanted to hold on to western Tigray, so they had every reason to destroy the bridge.”

Thousands of people have been killed since the war began, and millions more have been displaced. Both sides have been accused of human rights abuses.

Following the recent TPLF gains, Mr Abiy called for “all capable Ethiopians of age” to join the fight against the rebels.

Political dialogue appears to be a long way off. The information wars show no sign of dialling down either.



Posted in Ethiopia, Media & Journalism, News/ዜና, War & Crisis | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

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