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Archive for March, 2012

The Constrained Capabilities Of Overseas Domestic Workers In Lebanon (Report)

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 30, 2012

Kate Denman is a British born researcher who has spent large periods of her career working in Lebanon and Syria, focusing on issues of human rights, social justice and equality. She co-founded an NGO, Refocus, and is finalising her MA in Education, Gender and International Development at the Institute of Education, London. Kate continues to research social injustice and designs artistic educational programmes to help raise awareness, understanding, and to facilitate social change.

Kate has compiled a remarkably thorough, original paper which analyses the conditions for Overseas Domestic Workers (ODW) in Lebanon as vast global disparities create a modern slave-trade where post-industrialised economies opt for cheap imported labour. ODW come from some of the poorest countries to work in Lebanon where they are excluded from national labour laws. This results in limited available protection and increased risk of exploitation and loss of freedom and dignity.

The paper uses the Capabilities Approach, with specific focus on Nussbaum’s list of capabilities, as a framework to explore the constraints that ODW face. This includes their access to recourses and their possibilities to convert their capabilities to valued functionings and agency. An analysis is made of how national and international policy is responding to these concerns in the Lebanese context. The international analysis focuses on the UN anti-trafficking protocol, CEDAW, authentic commitments made by Lebanon to the International Labour Organization’s convention, and how the MDG’s and EFA goals are failing to commit to adult education and equality.

The paper exposes the lack of legal protection available, how public attitude is emulates national policy, the physical and psychological violence experienced by ODW, forms of debt-bondage slavery and contract-slavery, education and how the ethnic hierarchy has developed.

The main findings were as follows:

  • ODW in Lebanon are frequently being denied basic rights and capabilities which highly restrict valued functionings and agency.

  • Structural barriers and non-inclusion in labour laws reinforce the demeaning socio-political landscape for ODWs.

  • Attitudinal change needs to occur to reduce symbolic and physical violence that ODWs sustain.

In response the following courses of action are recommended:

  • Education for the ODW should be provided, not only to help them understand their rights, but also give access to capabilities and opportunities previously denied.

  • Pre-departure seminars in home countries need to be investigated.

  • The education of Lebanese children about ODW should be implemented.

  • To guarantee the implementation of international labour laws public awareness needs to be raised regarding ODWs circumstances. Key constituencies such as national labour officials, trade unions, employers, media must join together to create governmental pressure.

Read Kate’s full paper here (PDF)

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ርግቢቱ ዓለም – The Scared Pigeon

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 19, 2012

 

ዓለምእህታችን እ. . አ በማርች 14 2012 .ም ከንጋቱ 1200 ሰዓት ላይ ነው ያረፈችው ተብሏል። ወገኖቻችንና አንዳንድ ብሩክ የሆኑትን የዓለማችን ነዋሪዎችን ያሳዘነው የዓለም አሟሟት እጅግ በጣም ልዪ የሆነ ነገር በሁላችን ዘንድ ሊፈጥር ችሏል። ከሁለት ወራት በፊት ወደ ቤይሩት ከተማ ብቅ ያለችው እህታችን ኃይለኛ የሆነ መልዕክት ይዛልን ነበር ወደዚያኛው ዓለም ያለፈችው። በዓለማችን በመከራ ማዕበል የማይንገላታ ሰው የለም፤ አረመኔ በሆኑት የአረብ ሕዝቦች እጅ የተያዘ ደግሞ ከየተኛውም የዓለም ክፍል በይበልጥ በሥጋም ሆነ በነፍስ እየተቀጠቀጠ ነው ለመኖር የሚበቃው። መከራ የምንቀበለው ነገ በገሃነም እሳት ሳይሆን ዛሬ በምድር ሳለን መሆኑ ትንሽ ሊያጽናናን ይገባል። ለዚህም ነው እህታችን ዓለም በዚህች ምድራዊ ሲኦል በእግረ አጋንንት ተረገጠው ለሚኖሩት እህቶቻችን ሁሉ አሁን መልዕክተኛ ሆና የቀረብችልን። መቼም በመከራና ችግር ጊዜ ድንቅ ነገር ይመጣልና እምብዛም መደነቅ የለብንም። የፈጣሪ ክብር ሲገለጥ ሐሴት በማድረግ ደስ ሊለን ይገባል፡ መንፈሱ በኛ ላይ አርፏልና።

ላይ ቪዲዮው ላይ የምትታየውን ርግብ ያነሳኋት ባለፈው ሣምንት፡ በማርች 14፡ ልክ ከቀኑ 1200 ሰዓት ላይ ነበር። ርግቢቱ በመኖሪያ ቤቴ በመስኮት በኩል ገብታ ጋራጅ መውረጃ ላይ ቁጭ ብላ ነበር ያገኘኋት። እኔን ስታይ እየተንደፋደፈች ወደላይ በመብረር ከቤቱ ለመውጣት መስኮቱ ጋር ትጋጭ ነበር። እኔም ቆም ብየ ለ10 ደቂቃ ያህል ከታዘብኳት በኋላ ልረዳት ጠጋ አልኩኝ። መጀመሪያ ላይ ለመሸሽ ብትሞክርም በመጨረሻ ይዣት በመስኮቱ ላወጣት ችያለሁ።

የርግቢቱ ሁኔታ፡ በዚያ ቀን በጣም ስታሳስበኝ የነበረችውን የእህታችንን፡ የዓለምን ሁኔታ ያሳየኝ መስሎ ነበር የታየኝ። ርግቢቱ ከአካባቢዋ አምልጣ የሆነ ነገር ለማግኘት ወደ ቤቱ ገባች፡ ግን ቤቱ ውስጥ ምንም ነገር ስላላገኘች ወደ መጣችበት ለመመለስ ፈለገች፡ ሆኖም የገባችበት መስኮት ዘንበል ብሎ በጠባቡ የተከፈተ ስለነበር በቀላሉ ከቤቱ መውጣት አልቻለችም። ቆም ብዬ በታዘብኳት ወቅት ርግቢቱ ስታሳየው የነበረው የጭንቀትና የመረበሽ ሁኔታ እጅግ በጣም ያሳዝን ነበር፣ ከታች ጠብጠብ ታደርጋለች፣ በቂ አየር ስላልነበረም ክንፎቿን ዘርግታ እንደልቧ መብረር አልቻለችም፣ ስለደከመችም አፎቿን በጣም ከፍታ አየር ትስብ ነበር። መስኮቱ ላይ ሆና ከውጭ ሌሎች እርግቦችን ሲበሩ ስታይ ከነርሱ ጋር ለመሆን በመንደፋደፍ ከመስተዋቱ ጋር ትጋጫለች። በመጨረሻም ምንም ማድረግ እንደማትችል ስለተገነዘበች ጠጋ ብዬ እንድይዛት ፈቀደችልኝ። በመስኮቱ በኩል እጄን አውጥቼ ስለቃት ከመቅጽበት ነበር ነፃ ሆና እየበረረች ወደሰማይ ለመውጣት የበቃቸው።

እንደ ሪፖርተር ጋዜጣ ዘገባ ፤ ማክሰኞ ማርች 14ለረቡዕ አጥቢያ እህት ዓለምን የምትከታተላት ነርስ ከሌሊቱ 10 ሰዓት ተኝታ አየቻት፡፡ 11 ሰዓት ላይም ተኝታ ነበር፡፡ ለሦስተኛ ጊዜ በ12 ሰዓት ስትጎበኛት ለአየር ማስገቢያ በተከፈተ ኮሪደር ላይ አንሶላ ቀዳ ራሷን አጥፍታ ተገኘች፡ ስለዚህ የሞተቸው ረቡዕ ማርች 14 ከንጋቱ 12 ሰዓት ላይ እንደሆነ ተገልጧል።

ይህን ዜና ካገኘሁ በኋላ ርግቢቱን ያገኘኋት በ12 ሰዓት ላይ መሆኑ ባጋጣሚ እንዳልሆነ አሁን ገባኝ። ርግብ የ መንፈስ ቅዱስ፥ የሰላምና የነፃነት ምልክት ናት። 12 ቁጥርም ቅዱስ ቁጥር ነው። እህት ዓለም ከእርጉሞች እጅ ነፃ ወጥታለች የእግዚአብሔርን ሰላም አግኝታለች። የበደሏት እርጉም ሕዝቦች ግን የሚቀጡበት ጊዜ ደርሷል፣ አምላክ የሰጣቸውን ዕድል ባለመጠቀማቸውም ተፈርዶባቸዋል ፤ የዘሯትን የጥላቻ ሰብል በቅርቡ ያጭዷታል።

መዝሙር 12

5 ስለ ድሆች መከራ፥ ስለ ችግረኞች ጩኸት እግዚአብሔር፤ አሁን እነሣለሁ ይላል፤ መድኃኒትን አደርጋለሁ፥ በላዩም እገልጣለሁ።

6 በምድር ላይ እንደ ተፈተነ ሰባት ጊዜ እንደ ተጣራ ብር። የእግዚአብሔር ቃላት የነጹ ቃላት ናቸው።

7 አቤቱ፥ አንተ ጠብቀን፥ ከዚህችም ትውልድ ለዘላለም ታደገን።

8 በሰው ልጆች ዘንድ ምናምንቴ ከፍ ከፍ ባለ ጊዜ ክፉዎች በዙሪያው ሁሉ ይመላለሳሉ።

 

A well-written song by David, when he was in the cave; a prayer.

Psalm 142

1 To the LORD I cry out; to the LORD I plead for mercy.

2 I pour out my lament before him; I tell him about my troubles.

3 Even when my strength leaves me, you watch my footsteps. In the path where I walk they have hidden a trap for me.

4 Look to the right and see! No one cares about me. I have nowhere to run; no one is concerned about my life.

5 I cry out to you, O LORD; I say, “You are my shelter, my security in the land of the living.”

6 Listen to my cry for help, for I am in serious trouble! Rescue me from those who chase me, for they are stronger than I am.

7 Free me from prison, that I may give thanks to your name. Because of me the godly will assemble, for you will vindicate me.

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The Departure of His Holiness Pope Shenouda III

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 19, 2012

From St-Takla.org

H. H. Pope Shenouda III, the Coptic Pope of Alexandria and the See of St. Mark #117,

has passed away on March 17, 2012 (Baramhat 8, 1728).  We, at St-Takla.org, bid Him farewell to Heaven with the Saints.. We ask the Lord to comfort His pure soul.  Condolences to the Church and to everyone who loved Him. We are sure that He is interceding to God on our behalf.

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Ethiopia – Lebanon Conspiracy Timeline

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 16, 2012


  • 2008: The Ethiopian government banned maids going to Lebanon and many have stopped going anyway after hearing many horrifying stories

  • January 2010: An Ethiopian Airline plane was shot down near Beirut Interantional Airport killing 90 people. This airport is controlled by the terrorist organization Hizbollah. Hezbollah has installed dozens of its own run cameras all over the airport and closely monitors around the clock offices, corridors, waiting halls, runways, control tower, entrances, exits, stores etc

  • January 18, 2012: Lebanon blamed pilot error for Ethiopian Airlines crash

  • February 16, 2012: The Lebanese authorities have revealed that the source of the jamming of Arabsat satellite is Ethiopia

  • March 7, 2012: The Lebanese Help

    The film and the book, The Help, had caught its fair share of public accolade and criticism for dealing with race and domestic workers. Merely a day before the video of Alem Dechasa’s beating came out, I read a comment from a Lebanese, Eelie on abuse and racism against domestic workers and making parallels with the famous book

  • March 8, 2012 – International Women’s Day: Incredibly disturbing video footage of Lebanese men beating Alem Dechasa in broad daylight surfaced, eliciting shocked condemnations from around the world

  • March 14, 2012: They killed our poor sister, Alem Dechasa, at a Beirut hospital

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They Killed Our Sister!

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 15, 2012

They beat her in broad daylight, in front of the camera, on the very day when the International Women’s Day was supposed to be celebrated — and nobody was there to stop them, they took her, wherever they took her, but no one was there to look after her, to take care of her, to comfort her. We alarmed the so-called human ‘rights’ agents , we send the videos to many news organizations, they all turned a blind eye to the horrific brutality our dear sister, Alem had to experience. Now, a week later, she is dead!

You murdered her, Lebanon!

You murdered her, Ethiopian Consulate!

You murdered her, the Main Stream Media!

You murdered her, Amnesty International!

You murdered her, Human Rights Watch!

You murdered her, The Feminist Movement!

Shame on you all — you prefer to protect animals to humans, you give more attention to a woman who dumps her cat in trash than an innocent human soul.

You all will be judged, Alem will judge you!

R.I.P my sister — The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, The Lord of Ethiopia will comfort you now!

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Posted in Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , , , , | 9 Comments »

Alice Von Hildebrand on Feminism and Femininity

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 11, 2012

The great Catholic philosopher and theologian and former professor, Alice Von Hidebrand says:

Women Can Escape a Trap by Imitating Mary’s Strength and Humility“

Women in the secularized world need to be reminded that fulfilling their maternal role is infinitely valuable in God’s sight, says the wife of philosopher Dietrich Von Hildebrand.

Alice Von Hildebrand, author of “The Privilege of Being a Woman” and a philosopher in her own right, shared with ZENIT how every woman can find supernatural strength in what feminism perceives as her weakness and look to Mary as a model of perfect femininity.

Von Hildebrand earned her doctorate in philosophy at Fordham University and is professor emeritus of Hunter College of the City University of New York.

Q: What inspired you to write this book?

Von Hildebrand: The poison of secularism has penetrated deeply into our society. It did so by stages. Men were its first victims: They became more and more convinced that in order to be someone they had to succeed in the world. Success means money, power, fame, recognition, creativity, inventiveness, etc.

Many of them sacrificed their family life in order to achieve this goal: They came home just to relax or have fun. Work was the serious part of their life.

Innumerable marriages have been ruined by this attitude. Wives rightly felt that they were mere appendixes — a necessary relaxation. Husbands had little time for loving exchanges, as they were too busy. The children saw very little of their fathers. That wives suffered was not only understandable, but also legitimate.

Q: Why do women need to be convinced that it is good to be a woman?

Von Hildebrand: The amazing thing is that feminism, instead of making women more profoundly aware of the beauty and dignity of their role as wives as mothers, and of the spiritual power that they can exercise over their husbands, convinced them that they, too, had to adopt a secularist mentality: They, too, should enter the work force; they, too, should prove to themselves that they were someone by getting diplomas, competing with men in the work market, showing that they were their equals and — when given opportunities — could outsmart them.

They let themselves become convinced that femininity meant weakness. They started to look down upon virtues — such as patience, selflessness, self-giving, tenderness — and aimed at becoming like men in all things. Some of them even convinced themselves that they had to use coarse language in order to show the “strong” sex that they were not the fragile, delicate, insignificant dolls that men believed them to be.

The war of the sexes was on. Those who fell into the traps of feminism wanted to become like men in all things and sold their birthright for a mess of pottage. They became blind to the fact that men and women, though equal in ontological dignity, were made different by God’s choice: Male and female he made them. Different and complementary.

Each sex has its strengths; each sex has its weaknesses. According to God’s admirable plan, the husband is to help his wife overcome these weaknesses so that all the treasures of her femininity will come to full bloom, and vice versa.

How many men truly become “themselves” thanks to the love of their wives. How may wives are transformed by their husband’s strength and courage.

The tragedy of the world in which we live is that we have become apostates. Many have abandoned the treasures given to us by revelation — the supernatural.

Original sin was essentially an attack on the hierarchy of values: Man wanted to become like God, without God. The punishment was terrible: Man’s body revolted against his soul. Today, this reversal of the hierarchy of values goes so far that Peter Singer denies man’s superiority over animals, and that baby whales are saved while human babies are murdered.

The whole is topsy-turvy: Marriages break down; many do not even consider getting married; partnership lasts only as long as it satisfies one. Unnatural relationships so severely condemned by Plato are fashionable and claim their rights to be put on the same level as those that God has ordered.

Q: How can women’s purported weakness be seen as a source strength?

Von Hildebrand: Granted that from a naturalistic point of view, men are stronger: not only because they are physically stronger, but also because they are more creative, more inventive and more productive — most great works in theology, philosophy and fine arts have been made by men. They are the great engineers, the great architects.

But the Christian message is that, valuable as all these inventions are, they are dust and ashes compared to every act of virtue. Because a woman by her very nature is maternal — for every woman, whether married or unmarried, is called upon to be a biological, psychological or spiritual mother — she knows intuitively that to give, to nurture, to care for others, to suffer with and for them — for maternity implies suffering — is infinitely more valuable in God’s sight than to conquer nations and fly to the moon.

When one reads the life of St. Teresa of Avila or St. Thérèse of Lisieux, one is struck by the fact that they constantly refer to their “weakness.” The lives of these heroic women — and there are many — teach us that an awareness and acceptance of one’s weakness, coupled with a boundless confidence in God’s love and power, grant these privileged souls a strength that is so great because it is supernatural.

Natural strength cannot compete with supernatural strength. This is why Mary, the blessed one, is “strong as an army ready for battle.” And yet, she is called “clemens, pia, dulcis Virgo Maria.”

This supernatural strength explains — as mentioned by Dom Prosper Gueranger in “The Liturgical Year” — that the devil fears this humble virgin more than God because her supernatural strength that crushes his head is more humiliating for him than God’s strength.

This is why the Evil One is today launching the worst attack on femininity that has ever taken place in the history of the world. For coming closer to the end of time, and knowing that his final defeat is coming, he redoubles his efforts to attack his one great enemy: the woman. It says in Genesis 3:15: “I will put enmity between you and the woman.” The final victory is hers, as seen in the woman crowned with the sun.

Q: Why do you think women have moral power?

Von Hildebrand: The mission of women today is of crucial importance. In some way, they have the key to sanity — the first step toward a conversion. For supernature is based on nature, and unless we go back to a natural soundness, the sublimity of the supernatural message will be lost to most of us.

Why do they have the key? Because their influence on men is enormous when they truly understand their role and mission. Again and again I hear priests say that they owe their vocation to their grandmother or mother.

St. Monica, in collaboration with God, brought back her wayward son to God. St. Bernard’s mother, St. Francis de Sales’ mother — who was only 15 years older than he — and St. John Bosco’s mother were key factors in their spiritual way to holiness.

Q: How is Mary a model of femininity?

Von Hildebrand: Women have the key because they are the guardians of purity. This is already clearly indicated by the structure of their bodies, which chastely hides their intimate organs. Because their organs are “veiled,” indicating their mystery and sacredness, women have the immense privilege of sharing the sex of the blessed one: Mary, the most holy of all creatures.

Feminism began in Protestant countries, for the plain reason that they had turned their backs on Christ’s mother, as if the Savior of the world would feel deprived of the honor given to his beloved Mother.

Mary — so gloriously referred to in the Apocalypse — is the model of women. It is by turning to her, praying to her and contemplating her virtues that women will find their way back to the beauty and dignity of their mission.

Q: How did writing this book help you grow in appreciation of being a woman?

Von Hildebrand: Writing this book has been a privilege. It gave me a unique opportunity to meditate on the greatness of the woman’s mission, following in the steps of the Holy Virgin.

Mary taught us two rules leading to holiness. One is: “I am the handmaid of the Lord. Be it done to me according to thy word.” This indicates that the woman’s mission is to let herself be fecundated by grace — holy receptivity. The second is: “Do whatever he tells you.”

This is the holy program that the Church offers us. No doubt, if women understood this message, marriage, the family and the Church would overcome the terrible crisis affecting us. As the liturgy says, “God has put salvation in the hands of a woman.”

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British Government: Christians Have No Right To Wear Cross At Work

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 11, 2012

In a highly significant move, ministers will fight a case at the European Court of Human Rights in which two British women will seek to establish their right to display the cross.

It is the first time that the Government has been forced to state whether it backs the right of Christians to wear the symbol at work.

A document seen by The Sunday Telegraph discloses that ministers will argue that because it is not a “requirement” of the Christian faith, employers can ban the wearing of the cross and sack workers who insist on doing so.

Continue reading…

 

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March 2012 Guide To The Five Visible Planets

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 11, 2012

March 2012 is about as good as it gets for planet watching! Mercury, the innermost planet, makes its best evening appearance for the year in the Northern Hemisphere. All over the world, Mars shines at its greatest brilliance for the year – and moreover, the red planet stays out all night long. Plus, the brightest and second-brightest planets – Venus and Jupiter, respectively – come together for a stunning conjunction in mid-March. Saturn, the farthest and faintest visible planet, is nonetheless as bright as the brightest stars, and its glorious rings are surprisingly easy to view through a backyard telescope.

All five visible planets in the March 2012 evening sky: Mercury (early March), Venus, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn (mid to late evening)

Follow your guide…

 

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Modern Love

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 10, 2012

From Romeo and Juliet to the one-night stand— modern societies are torn between the ideal of fidelity and the thirst for freedom.

Most civilizations have been based on some comprehensive idea of justice, but ours alone is based on love, both in its religion and in the principles that guide its relations between the sexes. Christianity and chivalry, from which our practices in part descend, recognized clearly that love (like freedom) must be disciplined and may require sacrifice. Today both of these moral commitments—indeed, all forms of commitment among us—are rather vestigial, and the whole idea of love is in danger of sinking to the level of sentimental tosh.

Modern Western states have, of course, always been graded into various kinds of class and status, but they have also been notably individualistic. The result has been a freedom of association, an exploration of the passions, that could not generally happen where a society conformed to comprehensive rules of justice, such as a caste system or a tribal hierarchy. Little wonder that the packaging of our Western morals as “rights” has been found so disruptive in other cultures.

The most common form of society has always been one in which social status tells people where they stand in relation to one another. Seniority, sex or just brute force located everyone in a hierarchy. As bad as the ranking might be, people knew where they stood. Human beings often prefer such knowledge to the hazards of a free society, for freedom leaves us at the mercy of the likes and dislikes of others and also (no less fickle) our own likes and dislikes.

We in the West, then, have opened ourselves up to the risks of both love and freedom. That means that our societies are (as Tocqueville noted) vastly more vulnerable to changing manners and mores. As we have lost a sense of the rigors that love requires, and the discipline that freedom needs, we have evolved, over little more than two generations, from the consuming passion of “Romeo and Juliet” to the fleeting encounter of the one-night stand. Falling in love has given way to endless testing and experiment. Now two French academics offer to make sense of our new situation.

The novelist and philosopher Pascal Bruckner’s “The Paradox of Love” is a brilliant account of the sexual muddles of our time. Paradox abounds in a time like our own, when the didactic impulse chases after wisdom in every possible direction. “We have to find in the interminable nonresolution of [love’s] problems,” he writes, “the charm of a possible solution.” We should be so lucky!

Paradox piles on paradox, but soon Mr. Bruckner gets down to realities. Adultery is a symptom, he says, of an individualist society torn between the ideal of fidelity and a thirst for freedom. But not everything fits into this tension between desire and restraint. “The vertiginous increase of divorce rates in Europe,” he tells us, “is not the result, as is often said, of our selfishness, but rather of our idealism: the impossibility of living together combined with the difficulty of remaining alone.”

In short, our sense of the “impossibility of living together” is directly related to the freedom we pursue so heedlessly—at the expense, too often, of happiness (“the difficulty of remaining alone”). Mr. Bruckner points to “a new conformism that waves the flag of transgression in order to sing the praises of the status quo.” In the end, he wants to synthesize the stability of the past with some of the liberations of our own time, and he ends with wise if familiar words: “Don’t allow yourself to be intimidated! There is more than one road to joy.”

The sociologist Jean-Claude Kaufmann in “The Curious History of Love” has, by contrast, a plot to explain our travails. What we call “love,” he says, comes to us in the contrasting forms of “agape” (or universal) love, which derives from Christianity, and passion, which emerges from medieval cults and various versions of chivalry. Passion, being focused on a single object, does not consort happily with agape. The reason of the Greek philosophers in some degree could make these two drives lie down together, but the modern world has been dominated by economics, alias capitalism.

Mr. Kaufman thinks that it is self-interest that makes capitalism tick, but he identifies self-interest with the vice of greed. Putting bad things down to human greed is, of course, the fashion of the moment. Modern Western societies no doubt have their share of this particular vice, but greed is certainly not lacking in other cultures. Mr. Kaufman’s view—that a society based on love is at war with the calculating individualism of modern reason—is distinctly theoretical. Take away greed, and we would all love one another? Unlikely!

Mr. Kaufmann wants to replace individualism—and greed and other bad things—with a proper community, and he speaks of “love’s revolution” as if this abstraction might take over the role of the proletariat in Marxism. As he sees it, love is defeated by the calculating habits of market economics—but “it also lives to fight another day.” The way we respond to our emotions, he believes, has major repercussions for society at large. The conclusion Mr. Kaufmann draws is that “knowing how to surrender to our emotions is political.” Everything personal, these days, is political. The habit of seeing politics under every bush, one might rather say, constitutes the predicament from which we suffer.

Neither Mr. Bruckner nor Mr. Kaufmann tangles with the problem of feminism, but feminism is central to the state of love today because it rejects the complementary character of men and women—an idea that is central to our cultural tradition. As different as we are, we need one another, and any theory that does not understand that pattern will be destructive.

When the 1960s idea of liberation needed content, the only thing the unimaginative feminists of those days could think to do with their new free time and expensive education was to plunge into the labor force. Mr. Kaufmann is certainly right to believe that there is no room for chivalry in an economy. Indeed, that is one of the reasons why feminists hate chivalry. It doesn’t fit in with women as labor units.

Feminism, as it is too often defined, makes women essentially economic agents, and children and family life are marginalized in ways that may suit some female graduates but certainly not lots of other women. The whole outlook presumes an end to complementarity—the destruction of the feminine. An ever-increasing scaffolding of politically correct regulation, bureaucracy and law has been needed to sustain the illusion that men and women are indistinguishable agents.

In the chivalric practices of our history, women depended for protection upon the concern of men who respected them as women. The feminist project was to equip women with rights and transfer the job of protection to the state. The results have been mixed, to say the least. To take but one vexed area of social custom and legal practice: Laws about sexual harassment impose penalties on luckless employers who fail to protect female employees from their co-workers. But the presumption that women are so weak as to need protecting from rude male behavior was something that feminism, with its emphasis on empowerment and equal status, seemed eager to attack. It is all marvelously absurd. The zones of love and desire are now invaded by statutes and committees of inquisition.

Mr. Bruckner’s central paradox is that of persecution in the name of love, but that has been an attribute of “loving” relations from time immemorial. He cites, in evidence, both Christianity and communism, in the name of which harm has come to those who were to be loved or saved. He appears to believe that communism is nothing more than a Christian heresy that “allows us to see magnified Christianity’s defects.” Marxism, it seems, “imagined a future society as the terrestrial fulfillment of the promises made by the Gospels.” This claim makes Marx and Jesus prophets in the same line of business, but you do not have to be a Christian to see that Marx is way out of his league here. It is clear that Mr. Bruckner is better at paradoxes than at affinities.

Can love lead to persecution? As a passion, it can lead to anything at all, including death, but the point about both Christianity and the Soviet state is that they were institutions, and institutions have drives of their own. Marriage is an institution, too, and the point of institutions is to discipline us. Love, by contrast, is a spontaneity, always rather intermittent. Neither can be a substitute for the other.

Both Mr. Bruckner and Mr. Kaufmann deplore love as a market. The consumer’s greed in this new condition of love is to accumulate not only material objects but people as well. Men and women sink to the level of mere commodities, giving and receiving satisfactions of an ever-fluctuating kind. Mr. Bruckner thinks that the state of commodified love is worse in America: “Whereas in the United States the co-existence of the sexes always seems on the verge of exploding, Europe is better protected against this plague by the age-old culture of gallantry.”

And that claim perhaps suggests the ultimate mistake of our time: Manners have been erased by doctrine. Individualists—men and women alike—may pursue any enterprise that fits their desires and their talents, but doctrine traps some people into the masquerade of trying to be what they are not. It drains reality from them. Those who live by doctrine rather than passion are diminished by it.

Mr. Minogue is the author, most recently, of “The Servile Mind: How Democracy Erodes the Moral Life.”

 

Source: Washington Post, March 10, 2012

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የሴቶች ቀን፡ ሊቅ እማሆይ ገላነሽ አዲስ

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 8, 2012


፲፰፻፹፱᎗፲፱፻፸፰

ለ አንዲት ስመጥሩ ኢትዮጵያዊት መምህርትና ባለ ቅኔ ታሪክና ማንነት ስናስታውስ ጽላሎ ይበልጣል አንቺ ያለሽበቱየተባለላቸውንና ሣር ቅጠሉ አድናቆቱ የቸራቸውን እማሆይ ገላነሽ አዲስን ከጽላሎ አማኑኤል ሳናነሳ አናልፍም።

ከቄስ ገበዝ ሐዲስ ኪዳናትና ከወ/ሮ ወርቅነሽ እንግዳ በምዕራብ ጎጃም ሀገረ ስብከት በይልማና ዴንሳ ወረዳ በሚገኘው ደብረ ጽላሎ አማኑኤል በ፲፰፻፹፱ ዓ.ም ተወለዱ። በእናት አባታቸው ቤትም በንክብካቤ አደጉ። አባታቸው የሚያስተምሩትንም ቅኔ ሥራዬ ብለው ይከታተሉ ነበር።

የስምንት ዓመት ልጅ እያሉ አንድ ቀን ከእናታቸው ጋር ወደ ቤተ ክርስቲያን ይሄዳሉ። በሴቶች መቆሚያ ከእናታቸው ፊት ተቀምጠው እንዳሉ በዚያው ቤተ ክርስቲያን የሚያገለግሉት ከሥርዓተ ቅዳሴው በኋላ ቅኔ ይዘርፋሉ።

በታቦርሂ አመ ቀነጸ መለኮትከ ፈረስማለትም መለኮትህ ፈረሰ በደብረ ታቦር ተራራ በዘለለ ጊዜ ብለው ቄስ ገበዝ ለዓለሙን ሲጀምሩ፡ ገላነሽ ሐዲስ ባልታሰበና ባልተጠበቀ ሁኔታ ከተቀመጡበት ተነሥተው ኢክሀሉ ስሂቦቶ ሙሴ ወኤልያስአሉና ነጥቀው እርፍ። ትርጉሙም ሙሴና ኤልያስ ሊስቡት አልቻሉም ብለው አባታቸውን በጉባኤ መካከል ነጥቀዋቸው መወድሱን ጨርሰውታል። አባታቸውም እዚያው ጉባኤ መካከል አዚምላት በማለት ተናግረዋል ይባላል። በኋላም መልሰው እንዲህ አሏቸው፡ ወእንዘ ትትናገሪ ዘንተ በአድንኖ ክሳድ ወርእስ በከመ አነ ስማዕኩክ ኢይሰማዕኪ ጳውሎስ።

ይህ ጳውሎስ በመልእክቱ ሴቶች በጉባኤ መካከል ገብተው እንዳያስተምሩ የተናገረውን ቃል በማስታወስ እኔ እንደ ሰማሁሽ ይህንን ስትናገሪ ጳውሎስ እንዳይሰማሽ ለማለት ነው።

ከዚህ በኋላ ቤተ ክርስቲያኑ ውስጥ የተሰባሰቡት ሊቃውንትና ሕዝብ ይህ ምስጢር እንደተገለጸላቸው ባዩ ጊዜ፤ በሁኔታው በመገረምና በመደነቅ ካህናቱ በወረብ፥ ጎበዛዝቱ በሆታ ሴቱ በእልልታ ገላነሽን እያመሰገኑ መንገድ ጀመሩ። እንደ ንግሥት ጉዞ በአልጋ ሆነው መጋረጃ ተጋርዶላቸው እቤታቸው ደረሱ። ሕዝቡም ከፍ ያለ የደስታ ግብዣ አድርጎ ሰነበተ።

ይህ ደስታ ብዙም ሳይቆይና ስሜቱ ሳይደበዝዝ ገላነሽ ሕይወት ላይ አስደንጋጭ ክስተት ተፈጠረ። በለጋ ዕድሜያቸው ኩፍኝ በተባለ በሽታ ይያዙና ዓይኖቻቸው የማየት ብርሃናቸውን ያጣሉ። ይሄን ጊዜ አባታቸው የቤተ ክህነት ትምህርት እንዲጀምሩ በማድረግ ዳዊትን፣ ውዳሴ ማርያምን፣ ቅዳሴ ማርያምን፣ የብሉይና የሐዲስ ኪዳን ትርጓሜን እንዲሁም ለዘመናት ሲያስተምሩት / ከሃምሳ ዓመታት በላይ የኖሩትን ቅኔን ከነአገባቡ በሚገባ እንዲያጠናቅቁ ያደርጋሉ። ለካ የዚያን ጊዜዋ ገላነሽ ሐዲስ ዐይናቸው እንጂ ልባቸው ብርሃን ነበረ።

ገላነሽ አባታቸው ካስተማሯቸው በኋላ በመምህርነት ይመርቋቸውና በአባታቸው ጉባኤ ውስጥ ተቀምጠው በየተራ ሲያስተምሩ ቆይተዋል። ለአካለመጠን ሲደርሱ ወላጆቻቸው እኛ ከሞትን ማን አላት? ባል ታግባና ልጅ ትውለድልንብለው በማሰብ በዚሁ ገዳም ጽላሎ አማኑኤል አካባቢ ተወልደው ያደጉ ነገር ግን የቤተ ክህነት ትምህርት ያልተማሩ አቶ ጥሩነህ በላይ የተባሉትን ሰው አጋቧቸው። ባል ያግቡ እንጂ ከወላጆቻቸው ቤት ሳይወጡ አብረው እየኖሩ ሲያስተምሩና አባታቸውን ሲረዱ በማኅበራዊ ክንዋኔዎችም ሲሳተፉ ኖረዋል። በዚህ ትዳራቸው አዳም ጥሩነህና መሠረት ጥሩነህ የተባሉ ወንድና ሴት ልጆች አፍርተዋል። ሦስተኛ ልጃቸው ግን በሕፃንነቱ ሞቶባቸዋል።

ገላነሽ በዚህ ሁኔታ ኑሯቸውን እየገፉ ባሉበት ጊዜ ፲፱፻፳፰ ዓ.ም የጣልያን ፋሽስት መንግሥት ሀገራችንን ኢትዮጵያን ወረረ። የጽላሎ ሕዝብ ገዳሙን ትቶ በመሸሽ ጫካ ገባ። ቄስ ገበዝ ሐዲስ፣ ባለቤታቸው፣ ልጃቸው ገላነሽ ከሊቃውንቱም ከመነኰሳቱም የተወሰኑት ቤተ ክርስቲያናችንን እንዴት ትተን እንሄዳለንበማለት በዚያው በገዳም ቀሩ። የጣልያን ጦርም በሚያሳዝን ሁኔታ እዚያ ያገኛቸውን ሊቃውንትና መነኰሳት የገላነሽን ወላጆች ጨምሮ በግፍ ገደላቸው። ገላነሽ ዐይነ ሥውር ሰለ ነበሩ ሳይገድሏቸው ከሞት አመለጡ። ወላጆቻቸውን በሞት በመነጠቃቸው ግን ሕይወታቸው ጎደሎ ሆኖ ነበር።

ገላነሽ የገጠማቸውን መከራ ተቀብለው በመመንኮስ ሀገር ሰላም ሲሆን ከዚያው ከአባታቸው ቦታ ላይ ጉባኤያቸውን አጠናክረውና አስፍተው የተጠሩበትን የቅኔ መምህርነት በመቀጠል ማስተማሩን ተያያዙት። ተማሪው ዝናቸውን ከየሀገሩ እየሰማ በእርሳቸው እየተደነቀ ለመማር ይጎርፍ ነበር። በቅኔ መምህርነት በቆዩባቸው ኅምሳ ዓመታት ውስጥ ከጎጃም፣ ከጎንደር፣ ከትግራይ፣ ከኤርትራና ከሸዋ ክፍላተ ሀገራት እንዲሁም ከላስታና ከላሊበላ የተሰበሰቡበትን አንድ ሺ ሰባት መቶ ሃምሳ ተማሪዎች አስተምረዋል። ከኢትዮጵያ የተለያዩ ክፍላተሀገር የመጡ ሠላሳ ስድስት መሪጌቶችን በቅኔ መምህርነት አስተምረው ብቁ መሆናቸውን በመመስከር አረጋግጠዋል።

እማሆይ በመማር ማስተማር ሥራ ላይ ሴቶች ከወንዶች እኩል መሆናቸውን ሁልጊዜ ይናገሩ ነበር። ይህንንም ቀሲስ ከፍያለው መራሒ ሴቶች በኢትዮጵያበሚለው መጽሐፋቸው ገልጸውት ይገኛል። እማሆይ መማርም ሆነ ማስተማር ብርታትን እንጂ ጾታን አይመለከትም። ሴቶች ከወንዶች ጋር እኩል ተሰልፈው መሥራት የኖረ እንጂ እንደ እንግዳ ደራሽ አይደለምይሉ ነበር። ለዚህም ማስረጃ ሲጠቅሱ መምህራችን ክርስቶስ ሴቶች ደቀመዛሙርቱን ሂዱና ትንሣኤዬን ንገሩ ብሏቸውላና ልዩነት የለም ይላሉ።

እማሆይ ገላነሽ አዲስ በጠባያቸው አስተዋይ ብልህና ንቁ እንዲሁም ቅን አሳቢ ሰው እንደነበሩ የሚያውቋቸው ሰዎች ይናገራሉ። ችኩልነትንና ሽንፈትን የማይወዱ የማስተማር ፍቅር የተሰጣቸው የዘመናችን ታላቅ ሴት ናቸው። እማሆይ ዐይነሥውር ይሁን እንጂ ዐይነሥውርነታቸው ሴቶች ከሚያከናውኗቸው ድርጊቶች አልገታቸውም። ልጅ ወልደው ያሳደጉ፣ በቀለም ያጌጡና የተሸለሙ ስፌቶችን ይሰፉ፡ ከዐይናማዎች እኩልም ፈትል ይፈትሉ ነበር። ሐዋርያው ቅዱስ ጳውሎስ እንዳለው ለሌሎች ከብደው እንዳይገኙ በዚህ ሞያቸው በሚያገኙት ገቢ ራሳቸውን ያስተዳድሩ ነበር።

ለብዙ ሰዎች ዐይነሥውር መሆን ድቅድቅ ጨለማን ያህል ከባድ ነው። እንደ እማሆይ ያሉ መንፈሰጽኑ ሰዎች የዐይን ብርሃን የላቸውም ግን ያያሉ፣ ጆሮአቸውም ላይሰማ ይችላል ግን ያዳምጣሉ፣ አንደበታቸውም ተዘግቶ ሊሆን ይችላላ ግን ዲዳ አይደሉም። እማሆይ ገላነሽ ዐይነሥውርነታቸው ከማየት ከመመራመር ከማስተማር አልከለከላቸውም።

እማሆይ ገላነሽ ለብዙ ዘመናት ሊቃውንት በማፍራትና በጥሩ ሥነምግባር ያሳለፉ፣ በአካባቢያቸው ሕዝብ ዘንድም ዝናን ያተረፉ ሊቅ እናት እንደሆኑ ታሪካቸው ምስክር ነው።

እማሆይ ገላነሽ በኢትዮጵያ ብቻ ሳይሆን በባሕር ማዶ ሣይቀር ዝናቸው የታወቀ በመሆኑ ከውጭ ድረስ እየመጡ የተለያዩ ግለሰቦች ይጠይቋቸው እንደነበር ይነገራል።

የእማሆይ ገላነሽ ሐዲስ ሥራዎች ለግእዝና ለአማርኛ ቅኔዎች ዕድገት አስተዋጽዖ በርክተዋል። ለምሳሌ ያህል የአማርኛና የግእዝ ሁለት ቅኔዎቻቸውን ወስደን ብንመለከት የእማሆይ ገላነሽ ቅኔዎችን የምሥጢር ጥልቀትና ርቀት የቋንቋ ምጥቀት መገንዘብ ያስችለናል።

. ተርቢኖስ በኩር

እመ ኢበልዐ በልዐ

ምግበ ገድል ጸገብኩ

ኢይቤ ቤተ ሃይማኖት ጽኑህ

ትርጉም፡

ተርቢኖስ በኩር የተባለ አለቃ ጽኑ ከሆነ የሃይማኖት ቤት የተጋድሎን ምግብ ቢበላም ባይበላም በቃኝ ጠገብኩ አይልም።

ሰም፡

ሥት ያለበት አለቃ ሰው እንጀራን ቢበላም ባይበላም ጠገብኩ አይልም።

ምስጢር፡

ተርቢኖስ ማለት ጊዮርጊስ ነው። እሲም ሰማዕት ነው፡ የሰማዕታት አለቃ ነው። ስለዚህ ከሰባ ነገሥታት ጋር ሰባት ዓመት ተጋድሎ ሲያደርግ ከሃይማኖቱ ጽናት የተነሣ ደከመኝ ሰለቸኝ፣ ጠገብኩ ሳይል መከራን ስቃይን ተቀብሏል ሲሉ ነው።

. የአማርኛ መወድስ ቅኔ

የአንተ ስጦታ ዓባይ

ዲካ የሌለው

ስለማይደርስበት ይብስት

ሞልቶ ፈሰሰ በዓለም

የልብህ ጥበብ ፈለግ

እየፈለቀ ከጎጃም

ማዕከለ ባሕር አልቆመ

ድልድይ ስመ እንቲአከ

ዘበየማን ወጸጋም

ይሻገሩ ዘንድ ወዳጆችህ

ሊቃውንተ ሥርዓት ወሕግ

የመረጥካቸው ቀደም

ለዓለም ወለዓለም

ጥበብስ እመ ተከልኮ

በማይናወጽ ገዳም

የፍሬ ምስጋናን አፈራልን ሁሉን የሚጠቅም

ቀርበን ብናየው በዓይን

እስከ ሥሩ ነው ለምለም

በቅዱስ እጅህ ተባርኳልና የእርሱ ልምላሜ አይጠወልግም።

ለአብነት ያህል ይህንን ጠቀስን እንጂ መምህርቷ በቅኔዎቻቸው ውስጥ ብዙ ጉዳዮችን አመስጥረው ይገኛሉ። በተቀኟቸው ቅኔዎች ሃይማኖታዊ ይዘት ያላቸውን ቅኔዎች አመስጥረዋል። ከዚህ በመነሳት እማሆይ ሃይማኖተኛና መንፈሳዊነትን የተላበሱ እንደነበሩ እንዲሁም ሃይማኖታቸውን ጠንቅቀው በጥልቀት የተረዱ እናት እነደነበሩ ለማየት ይቻላል።

እማሆይ ገላነሽ እርጅና እየተጫናቸው ሲመጣ ቀድሞ የሚሠሩትን የእጅ ሥራ ለመሥራት ባለመቻላቸውን የምትረዳቸው ሴት ልጃቸው ትዳር በመያዟ የደረሰባቸውን ችግር በመስማት የካቲት ፴ ቀን ፲፱፻፷፫ ዓ.ም በባላምበርስ ዘገየ ገብረ ወልድ አሳሳቢነት በሕግ መወሰኛ ምክር ቤት ሕንፃ በአንድ ጽ/ቤት ውስጥ ጊዜያዊ የርዳታ አሰባሳቢ ኮሚቴ ተቋቁሞ የበኩሉን ወገናዊ አስተዋጽዖ ተወጥቷል። እርሳቸውም በአንድ ወቅት ከቤተ ክህነት ወይም ከሌላ የሚሰፈርልኝ ቀለብ የለም። በሥጋ የሚዛመዱኝ ጉልማ ያርሱልኛል። ተማሪዎቼም ተቀኝተው ለመምህርነት በቅተው ሲሄዱ የሰሌን ጥላና ምንጣፍ ሠርተው ያን ሸጠው ለበረከት ይሰጡኛል። የኔ ሕይወት ቅኔ ነው የቅኔ ዓይነት መዝረፍ፣ ሌላ ሕይወት የለኝም። ከተማሪዎቼ የተለየ ምቾት አላገኘሁም። በዚህም አላዝንምበማለት በህልውናቸው በኑሯቸው በኩል ያለውን ጉዳይ በማቃለል ዘወትር ይናገሩ ነበር።

በዚህ ሁኔታ ከኖሩ በኋላ በተወለዱ በሰማንያ ዓመታቸው ባደረባቸው ሕመም ምክንያት የቅኔዋ ምንጭ እማሆይ ገላነሽ አዲስ ከነማይጠገብ ለዛቸው ሐምሌ ፲፪ ቀን ፲፱፫፸፰ ዓ.ም ከዚህ ዓለም በሞት ተለዩ። የቀብር ሥነ ሥርዓታቸውም ባደጉበትና ባስተማሩበት በደብረ ጽላሎ አማኑኤል ገዳም ተፈጽሟል።

እማሆይ ገላነሽ ሐዲስ ቤተ ክርስቲያንና ታሪክ ሊዘክራቸው የሚገቡ የዘመናችን የአጥቢያ ኮከብ ናቸው ቢባል ማጋነን አይሆንም። ሴቶች ቦታ ባላገኙበት በገጠሪቱ ኢትዮጵያ በቅለው ለዚያውም ዐይነሥውርነት ተጨምሮበት ነጥረው የወጡ ስመጥሩ ሴት ናቸው። ለዚህም ነው ዓለም የሃያኛው ክፍለ ዘመን አስገራሚ ከሆኑት ሴቶች መካከል አንዷ መሆን የሚገባቸው።

በአሁኑ ሰዓት በባሕር ዳር ከተማ በእኅት ልጃቸው በአቶ ተሾመ አዲስ አማካይነት መታሰቢያ ሙዝየም ተዘጋጅቶላቸው ሥዕላቸው በትልቁ ተስሎና አንዳንድ ቅኔዎቻቸው ተሰብስበው ተቀምጠዋል። ሙዝየሙን የምዕራብ ጎጃም ሀገረ ስብከት ሊቀ ጳጳስ የሆኑት ብፁዕ አቡነ በርናባስ ጥር ፳፫ ቀን ፲፱፻፺ ዓ.ም መርቀው ከፍተውታል።

እማሆይ ገላነሽ አዲስ ሕይወታቸውና ቅኔዎቻቸው / ሥራዎቻቸው ሊጠኑ ከሚገባቸው የቤተ ክርስቲያን ሊቃውንት አንዷ መሆናቸውን ማስታወሱ ተገቢ ይሆናል።

ምንጭ፡

ሰሎሞን ሐዲስ ፤ የእማሆይ ገላነሽ ሐዲስ ዘጽላሎ አማኑኤል የሕይወት ታሪክና ሥራዎቻቸው፥ ለመጀመሪያ ዲግሪ ከፊል ማሟያ የቀረበ፣ የኢትዮጵያ ቋንቋዎችና ሥነ ጽሑፍ ክፍል፤ እ.ኢዮ ፲፱፻፺ ዓ.

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