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Archive for June, 2009

Time to Reveal The Ark of the Covenant

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 20, 2009

libro_arca_1--400x300The Patriarch of the Orthodox Tewahedo Church of Ethiopia, his Holiness, Abuna Pauolos, said in an exclusive interview to the Italian News Paper, “ADNKRONOS”, that “The Ark of the Covenant, has been in Ethiopia for many centuries. As Patriarch I have seen it with my own eyes, and only a very few qualified people have been able to do this, so far.” Now the time is ripe to tell the truth. I will describe all of the entire situation regarding the Ark of the Covenant, and soon a museum for the sacred symbol will be built in Axum, Ethiopia”


The Patriarch is in Italy, in these days, for preparations to the Summit ‘G-8 of Religions’, which will be held, in L’Aquila, Italy, a city devastated by the powerful Earthquake last April.


The official announcement, in which Ethiopia will give Keys to the millennial secret of the Ark to the world will be made next Friday, 06/26/09, at 2:00 p.m, during a press conference at the Hotel Aldrovandi in Rome.


So, if it is true, the countdown has just begun to finally unveil The Mother of all Mysteries — of the sacred Ark of the Covenant, which, according to legend, is capable of releasing bursts of divine light and lightning that can incinerate anyone who was hit, as was so effectively portrayed in the cult movie, “Raiders of the Lost Ark.” This means, to those who have never believed, and would prefer to see in order to believe, the fiction of the film will now be transferred to reality.


We will wait and see…


SOURCE



Posted in Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , , | 7 Comments »

People In a Zoo

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 19, 2009

GirlsWomenEthiopia

Hamburg, Germany 1874-1931_______________________________________________________


Just less than 100 years ago, one  could visit a Zoo near Hamburg, Germany, where, alongside the animals, were displayed Lapps and Nubians, Ethiopians and Indians.


During the times of Emperor Wilhelm ll when Zoos were keen to show, not only wild animals, but, men, women and children from exotic countries – displayed like cattle. Africans and Asians were exhibited as human figures with kinship to specific animal species, thus literalizing the colonialist zeugma yoking “native” and were less than human.

People came in droves to watch the controversial spectacle

“You could not exactly call our guests beautiful”, jokes the animal dealer Carl Hagenbeck in the summer of 1874 on the extension of the park to the latest delivery from Lapland “Their skin color is a dirty yellow, the skull is round with firm black hair overgrown, they have slant-eyes, the nose is small and flat.”


The idea was a resounding success, and Hagenbeck was proud of his Human-Zoo/Menagerie project: “It was granted to me, The first exhibits in the civilized world of this sort were granted to me,” said the entrepreneur in his own memoirs. Though, people from other continents have been presented since the Middle Ages at fairs and Prince farms, but, Carl Hagenbeck was the first animal-dealer and subsequent Zoo-founder who made the idea a commercially success – and the first organizer of large-scale “anthropological-zoological exhibits,” as he himself called his spectacles.

“Hottentots” for Science

The concept of Hagenbeck’s ethnic-event in the Menagerie was something completely new: For the first time in human history, a complete group of people, including animals, housing and equipment was shown together. The intention of such an exhibition was to let the European observers make for themselves a realistic picture of the daily life of each ethnic group. After the sensational success with the Northern Lapps, Hagenbeck’s agents advertised all over the world more exotic “guests” to the white audience: Nubians from Sudan, Inuits from Greenland and Canada, Ethiopians, Somalis, Indians and Sinhalese, even “Hottentots” from the German colony of Southwest Africa. Hagenbeck and his peoples-show will soon be on tour throughout Europe with a pleasant shiver in front of the “savages” to admire.


The famous doctor from Berlin, Rudolf Virchow, through his ethnological studies, gave an academic coating or application to these commercial performances. Virchow, now considered as one of the founding fathers of modern medicine, was also chairman of the German Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and prehistorical Studies. He examined many of the participants of the peoples-shows, surveyed their body and head shapes, and made assumptions about the intelligence of the various specimens of exotic people.


Thus, he was in line with the science of his time, which tried to define the human “races” and to examine them in a hierarchical order. In one article, Virchow praises the scientific importance of Hagenbeck’s exhibitions: “This sort of imagination about people is very interesting for anyone who wants to be convinced about the position, human in Nature ever takes in, and on the development, which the human race has traversed.


Such expositions gave Utopian form to White supremacist ideology, legitimizing racial hierarchies abroad and muting class and gender divisions among Whites at home by stressing national agency in a global project of domination.


This successful Peoples-Exposition took place at the peak of European colonialism, just before the beginning of the First World War. This was an era in which Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany demanded a “Place in the Sun” for Colonial Germany. Most contemporaries, as well as Hagenbeck himself, did sense the issue of exhibiting exotic people parallel to exotic animals not as offensive – after all, they were firmly convinced of the superiority of the “white man”. Carl Hagenbeck’s sons continued displaying the Exposition even up until 1931, visitors were forced to look away from the famous exhibition, when Cinema, in the late 1930s, had replaced the productions as a venue for exotic.

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Check out my Photo File…

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Posted in Ethiopia, Ethnicity, Genetics & Anthropology | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

African Sun for Europe

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 17, 2009


In the beginning, human hands were made to dig the ground for Gold, Oil and Diamond, and a little while later, these hands were transformed into something special – into being stretched out far, faraway – up SaharaSolarunto the Sun – the abundant Sun that threw long shadows on Africans for a long, long time.


Every year 630.000 terawatthours of unused Sunbeam-energy come down in the African Sahara, whereas, the whole of Europe consumes only 4000 terawatthours per year.


The vision as attractive as opalescent – one of the greatest projects ever, a project has the potential to become the next world-wonder.


A consortium of 20 German companies, including major energy and financial groups, is planning to invest €400bn in developing projects to supply solar powered electricity from North Africa to Europe. The companies including renewable giant RWE and energy major Siemens plus Deutsche bank and world’s biggest reinsurance group Munich Re will unveil the consortium in mid-July, according to a report by Sueddeutsche Zeitung.

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The construction of huge solar power plants in the North African deserts will take ten years before they can supply their first power supply, the report adds.


The DESERTEC project is expected to be one of the largest private green initiatives ever. The German industrial group is pledging to put the required funds behind plans so far only proposed as scientifically feasible.


Solar power could be developed at several locations in Northern Africa, with the most important criterion being that plants be based in politically stable countries. The project is technically feasible.


The plants are likely to be thermal facilities which use solar power to driver steam turbines.


A first power station with a capacity of 2 gigawatts in Tunisia with power lines to Italy would take five years to build once it gets regulatory approval.


A possible long-term project could be a 100 gigawatt solar thermal power station in northern Africa and the Middle East. It could be finalized by 2050 with power lines connecting it to central Europe and would cost an estimated 400 billion euros ($555.8 billion), he said.


A solar power station with 100 gigawatt in western Europe — where the sun shines for fewer hours and far less intensely than in the Sahara — would be able to supply some 28 million homes or 15% of Europe’s power.


The Cologne-based German Aerospace Center, which researches power generation using renewable energy, estimates that North Africa could generate power to ship it to Europe as early as 2025.

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Posted in Curiosity | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

C40 Large Cities – Climate

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 14, 2009

C40 Climate Summit

C40_Cities

SEOUL Declaration 18-21 May 2009

Source: http://www.c40cities.org/

Having met at the third Summit of the C40 Climate Leadership Group (hereinafter “Group”) in Seoul,

Sharing the view that the earth and human beings are facing serious threats caused by climate change and that it is necessary to address these challenges by taking immediate and collective actions based on the principles of co-existence, mutual benefit, and common but differentiated responsibilities.

Recognising that at present over 50% of the world’s population lives in cities, which now account for 75% of global energy consumption and 80% of global greenhouse gas emissions and at this rate, by 2030, two thirds of the world’s population is predicted to live in urban areas,

Further recognising that densely populated cities and their citizens are facing fundamental lifestyle changes in the areas of housing, transportation, and other services, and, at the same time, are exposed to numerous threats, including extreme weather events, natural disasters and newly emerging diseases,

Reaffirming that cities must take responsibility for their contribution to climate change, and establish and implement immediate and practical measures for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the threats caused by climate change at the individual city level,

Further reaffirming that it is important for C40 cities to cooperate with all cities around the world and share best practice and technologies, and that cities in developed countries need to assist the efforts of cities in developing countries in taking actions as they are more vulnerable to climate change and have lower capacity to cope with environmental hazards,

Proclaim that:

C40 cities hereby set a common goal of transforming themselves into low-carbon cities, by cutting greenhouse gas emissions to the largest extent possible, by adapting themselves to the unavoidable climate change consequences, by making cities less vulnerable to climate change, and by enhancing cities’ capacity for remediation.

C40 cities identify their current level of carbon emissions from all city operations and stages of community development including urban planning, design and infrastructure building. Cities reduce emissions wherever possible through policies, programmes and projects and taking steps to negate the impact of remaining emissions.

C40 cities continue to catalogue and monitor their greenhouse gas emissions and implement Climate Change Action Plans. C40 cities include measures or targets for greenhouse gas reductions and specific policies, projects and programmes with a schedule for implementation wherever possible. The majority of C40 cities have already completed Climate Change Action Plans. C40 cities that are reviewing existing plans or developing new Climate Change Action Plans are asked to consider the measures presented in the attached Annex: Policies and Measures to Address Climate Change. The 2011 C40 Summit will include a review of progress on the implementation of Climate Change Action Plans.

C40 cities actively work together to accelerate delivery of low-carbon technologies, programmes and financing, including through active coordination in procurement of specific technologies through the C40 Secretariat.

C40 cities work collaboratively with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and other international bodies, national governments, non-governmental organisations, and eco-friendly businesses, including sharing goals and experiences and, in some instances, engaging in joint projects, and providing resources. We are committed to delivering common awareness and measures outlined in the UNFCCC to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and tackle climate change

In the run up to the COP15 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, the leading role of cities in the global effort against climate change must be recognised. C40 cities and all cities with shared goals, must be engaged, empowered and resourced, so that cities can work together to deliver on greenhouse gas reduction targets and stop climate change.

Cities will notify the C40 Secretariat of the names of staff in charge of climate change policies and programmes to enhance implementation of various action items set forth in this Declaration, as well as report on their established measures, targets and achievements at the 4th C40 Summit and subsequent summits

The C40 Climate Leadership Group calls upon cities and their citizens to exert their efforts to address the threats caused by climate change for the benefit of all the people and future generations.

Annex Policies and Measures to Address Climate Change in Cities

To tackle climate change, cities shall adopt and implement policies and measures most suitable to their circumstances. It is important that C40 cities cooperate with all cities around the world and share best practices and technologies. The Clinton Climate Initiative has developed a Measurement Tool that each C40 city can use to calculate a baseline inventory of current emissions. The tool will also allow cities to track progress on their climate change goals.

In establishing their own Climate Change Action Plans, cities will give preferential consideration to the following measures proven to be effective in many cities.

  1. To take a systematic and secure approach, take institutional measures such as enacting city ordinances based on technical studies, engaging in long-term planning, and establishing Climate Change Funds.

  2. To avoid, mitigate, or delay the impact of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions:

      • adopt eco-friendly architectural design guidelines for construction, lighting, and insulation, etc., introduce a new and renewable energy certification, prescribed ratio of new and renewable energy for new and renovated buildings, and promote eco-friendly buildings and rationalise energy consumption by providing incentives for energy-efficient designs;

      • establish a sustainable transport system through policies that favour public transit and encourage the use of bicycles, promote sustainable land-use and urban design, including preserving natural landscape, continuous expansion of green areas and other eco-spaces and conduct urban planning with focus on low-energy consumption;

      • expand citywide resource reclamation and reuse facilities and promote recycling programmes, and

      • raise the share of new and renewable energy in the total energy mix.

  1. To adapt cities to the unavoidable climate change consequences, providing citizens with a secure environment and higher quality of life by conducting forecasting analysis and thus minimising the damages caused by climate change:
      • prepare for disasters by building infrastructure and establishing management plans that will protect citizens against extreme weather events;

      • ensure networks such as disaster information systems and weather observation facilities are in place ;

      • prepare measures to protect population groups most vulnerable to intense heat waves and improve the monitoring and control systems for communicable and other diseases;

      • strengthen ability to anticipate changes in the urban eco-system, improve monitoring of air and other types of pollution, and enhance early warning systems;

      • improve energy demand management, such as ability to forecast and respond to fluctuations in seasonal energy demands;

      • reflect climate change impacts, such as heat island effects, in the urban planning process; and

        improve water resource management.

  1. To promote the engagement of city residents to address climate change effectively:
      • provide tools for measuring individual carbon footprints and the amount of emission generated by normal, daily activities of citizens;

      • develop and promote practical ways for a low-carbon lifestyle,

      • support activities of civic organisations to tackle climate change.

      • Promote environmental educational policies to prepare next generations for climate change and to think on what citizens can do to develop a sustainable lifestyle and mitigate greenhouse gas emission

  • ________________________________________________________

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – view on map

Leader: Mayor Kuma Demeksa
Population: 3,146,999
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.addisababacity.gov.et

Athens, Greece – view on map

Leader: Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis
Population: 3,072,992
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cityofathens.gr

Bangkok, Thailand – view on map

Leader: Governor Apirak Kosayodhin
Population: 8,160,552
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.bangkoktourist.com

Beijing, China – view on map

Leader: Mayor Guo Jinlong
Population: 15,380,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn

Berlin, Germany – view on map

Leader: Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit
Population: 3,387,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.berlin.de/english

Bogotá, Colombia – view on map

Leader: Alcalde Mayor de Bogotá Samuel Mareno
Population: 8,550,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.bogotaturismo.gov.co

Buenos Aires, Argentina – view on map

Leader: Mayor Mauricio Macri
Population: 3,034,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.buenosaires.gov.ar

Cairo, Egypt – view on map

Leader: Governor Abdel Azim Wazir
Population: 6,800,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cairo.gov.eg

Caracas, Venezuela – view on map

Leader: Mayor Antonio Ledezma
Population: 3,140,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.alcaldiamayor.gob.ve

Chicago, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Richard M. Daley
Population: 2,833,000
Chicago Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/home.do

Delhi NCT, India – view on map

Leader: Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit
Population: 17,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: delhigovt.nic.in

Dhaka, Bangladesh – view on map

Leader: Mayor Sadeque Hossain Khoka
Population: 6,700,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.dhakacity.org

Hanoi, Vietnam – view on map

Leader: Chairman of the Hanoi Municipal People’s Committee Nguyen The Thao
Population: 3,399,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.hanoi.gov.vn/hanoien

Houston, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Bill White
Population: 2,200,000
Houston Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.houstontx.gov

Hong Kong, China – view on map

Leader: Chief Executive Donald Tsang
Population: 6,985,000
Hong Kong Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.gov.hk

Istanbul, Turkey – view on map

Leader: Mayor Kadir Topbas
Population: 11,373,000
City status: Participating city
Website: english.istanbul.gov.tr

Jakarta, Indonesia – view on map

Leader: Governor Fauzi Bowo
Population: 8,389,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.jakarta.go.id/v21/home/default.asp?lg=2

Johannesburg, South Africa – view on map

Leader: Mayor Amos Masondo
Population: 3,888,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.joburg.org.za

Karachi, Pakistan – view on map

Leader: Nazim Syed Mustafa Kamal
Population: 16,500,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.karachicity.gov.pk

Lagos, Nigeria – view on map

Leader: Governor of Lagos State Babatunde Raji Fashola
Population: 7,938,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.lagosstate.gov.ng

Lima, Peru – view on map

Leader: Mayor of Metropolitan Lima Luís Castañeda Lossio

Population: 7,800,000

City status: Participating cityWebsite: http://www.munlima.gob.pe

London, United Kingdom – view on map

Leader: Mayor Boris Johnson
Population: 7,500,000
London Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.london.gov.uk

Los Angeles, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa
Population: 3,800,000
Los Angeles Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.ci.la.ca.us

Madrid, Spain – view on map

Leader: Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón
Population: 3,200,000
Madrid Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.munimadrid.es

Melbourne, Australia – view on map

Leader: Lord Mayor Robert Doyle
Population: 3,800,000
Melbourne Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au

Mexico City, Mexico – view on map

Leader: Mayor Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon
Population: 8,700,000
Mexico City Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.df.gob.mx/

Moscow, Russia – view on map

Leader: Mayor Yuri Mikhailovich Luzhkov
Population: 10,300,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.mos.ru/

Mumbai, India – view on map

Leader: Mayor Shubha Raul
Population: 13,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.mcgm.gov.in/

New York, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Population: 8,200,000
New York Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.nyc.gov

Paris, France – view on map

Leader: Mayor Bertrand Delanoë
Population: 2,200,000
Paris Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.paris.fr

Philadelphia, USA – view on map

Leader: Mayor Michael Nutter
Population: 5,800,000
Philadelphia Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.phila.gov

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – view on map

Leader: Prefeito Eduardo Paes
Population: 6,100,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.rio.rj.gov.br

Rome, Italy – view on map

Leader: Mayor Gianni Alemanno
Population: 4,000,000
Rome Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.comune.roma.it

Sao Paulo, Brazil – view on map

Leader: Mayor Gilberto Kassab
Population: 10,000,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.capital.sp.gov.br

Seoul, South Korea – view on map

Leader: Mayor Oh Se-hoon
Population: 10,300,000
City status: Participating city
Website: english.seoul.go.kr

Shanghai, China – view on map

Leader: Mayor Han Zheng
Population: 18,450,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.shanghai.gov.cn/shanghai/node8059/index.html

Sydney, Australia – view on map

Leader: Lord Mayor Clover More
Population: 4,280,000
Sydney Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au

Tokyo, Japan – view on map

Leader: Governor Shintaro Ishihara
Population: 12,800,000
Tokyo Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/

Toronto, Canada – view on map

Leader: Mayor David Miller
Population: 5,500,000
Toronto Climate Change Action Plan
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.toronto.ca

Warsaw, Poland – view on map

Leader: Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz Waltz
Population: 3,350,000
City status: Participating city
Website: http://www.e-warsaw.pl

Posted in Ethiopia | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »

Oil-Streaked Icon Miracle – St. George

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 12, 2009


STGiorgisAt the Israeli town of Ramla, Christians have been flocking to see what locals are calling a miracle: streaks of what looks like oil mysteriously dripping down an icon of St. George at a Greek Orthodox church named for the legendary third century dragon slayer.


Continue reading...


The most famous Church in the world of St. George is located at Lalibela, Ethiopia , which was built about 1200 AD.


St. George is one of the 11 rock-hewn monolithic churches which imitates a built- up structure but is cut in one piece from the rock and separated from it all round by a trench. Nowhere else in the world are constructions of this particular kind found.


Lalibela, previously known as Roha, is named after the king. The word itself, which translates to mean the bees, recognizes his sovereignty and the people of the region still recount the legend that explains why.


Lalibela was born in Roha in the second half of the twelfth century, the youngest son of the royal line of the Zagwe dynasty, which then ruled over much of northern Ethiopia. Despite several elder brothers he was destined for greatness from his earliest days. Not long after his birth, his mother found a swarm of bees around his crib and recalled an old belief that the animal world foretold important futures. She cried out: -The bees know that this child will become king.


But trials and tribulations followed. The ruling king feared for his throne and tried to have Lalibela murdered and persecutions continued for several years – culminating in a deadly potion that left the young prince in mortal sleep. During the three-day stupor, Lalibela was transported by angels to the first, second and third heavens where God told him not to worry but to return to Roha and build churches – the like of which the world had never seen before. God also told Lalibela how to design the churches, where to build them and how to decorate them.


Once he was crowned, he gathered masons, carpenters, tools, set down a scale of wages and purchased the land needed for the building. The churches are said to have been built with great speed because angels continued the work at night.


It’s quite interesting that the Lalibela legend describes him entering the heavens and then getting a commission by God, when in fact the same was true of Enoch in his legend. The stories differ but they both have fantastic details. Many of the church fathers made sure the ‘Book of Enoch’ was destroyed, but the civilization in Ethiopia made sure to preserve the text.


There are also numerous legends, myths, stories related to the construction of the 11 temple complex’s in Lalibela, including the Bet Giorgis (Church of St. George):

  • They were built by St. George with the help of angels.

  • St. Geroge “appeared” to King Lalibela and asked the king to provide him a “perfect” home.

  • King Lalbela was instructed by God to build churches for which the world had never seen. God instructed Lalibela where to build them. The King was said to have carved out one meter a day, during the day, and angels, along with St. Gabriel, carved out three meters at night.

LalibelaBeteGiorgis

This is a topside view of the rock-hewn Church of St. George at Lilabela Ethiopia. You can clearly see the Ethiopian style Cross.

TombDarius

This cross is exactly the same as the cross found on the ceramic piece at Susa, Assyria. Susa, in present day Iran, is thought to be one of the oldest cities in the world. The Tomb of Daniel, The Prophet was found here. The Susa Stratum was dated around 3200 B.C. The ceramic disc contains the famous Ethiopian/Greek Cross surrounded by three triple triangles surrounded by triple combs. This dual cross symbol has also been found in caves near Cuba (The Isle of Youth) to where, thousands of Ethiopian orphaned-children were sent during the 1980s.

400px-Chalcatzingo_Monument_1_El_Rey.svg

Another early- preclassic Olmec bas-relief found at Chalcatzingo, south of Puebla, Mexico, which is named “El Rey”, may have been founded around 1500 B.C. At the top of the image are three comb-like clouds with feet prints headed for them. The third element of similarity seems to be the fire cross seated on top of the cave. The fire depicts a bright illumination such as would a multiple cross symbol.


Were these civilizations in contact with each other in ancient times or was there one civilization ruling over all three?


Could King Lalibela be the returned Enoch, the first man to have never died, but went to heaven?


Some people speculate about the similarity between the Mayan and Enoch Calendars. Ethiopians still have a calendar system which was designed by The first ever Prophet, Enoch.

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Posted in Ethiopia, Faith | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

ETHIOPIC GOSPELS

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 7, 2009


Ethiopic Gospels: Christ in Glory

EthioGospel

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This striking manuscript comes from one of the oldest countries in the World. It was commissioned in the last years of the 17th century by Emperor Iyasu I Yohannes of Ethiopia for use in his royal city of Gondar. Generously illuminated with distinctive miniature paintings and highly decorative coloured borders, this is one of the most beautiful of the Library’s Ethiopian manuscripts. Its many illustrations include Moses, Aaron, Ruth, Eusebius, John and Carpanius, scenes from the life of Christ and portraits of the Evangelists.


What’s a gospel?

A gospel recounts the life of Jesus of Nazareth and his teachings, which form the foundations of the Christian faith. Jesus lived in Israel during the Roman occupation of the country. His claim that he was the Messiah caused the conflict which led to his crucifixion by the Roman authorities.


After his death by crucifixion and subsequent reports of his rising from the dead, followers of Christ – meaning ‘the anointed one’ – developed his teachings into a new faith, independent of Judaism but keeping much of its scriptures. Several gospels had been written by disciples of Jesus during the centuries following his death, but only four were authorised by the Council of Nicaea in 325 for inclusion in the Christian Bible. These four were attributed to St Matthew, St Mark, St Luke and St John, who are known as the Four Evangelists.


Christianity took root slowly in Ethiopia from the third decade of the 4th century. The Islamic conquest of neighbouring Egypt in 640-641 isolated Ethiopia from other Christian countries for the best part of a millennium. The Ethiopic Church was able to maintain only tenuous links with the rest of Christianity through the Coptic Church in Egypt, which managed to survive under its country’s Islamic rulers.


Why are the Ethiopic Gospels important?

Besides the Four Gospels, this manuscript also contains the first eight books of the Old Testament – scriptures inherited from Judaism – and other religious texts. The Bible of the Ethiopic Church preserved some writings that were rejected or lost by other Churches, such as the ‘Book of Jubilees’, the ‘Third Book of Ezra’ and the ‘Apocalypse of St Peter’. The Ethiopic Bible has a total of 84 books, compared to the 66 books of the King James, or Authorised, Version of the Bible. Some of these are translations from Greek, Syriac and Coptic texts no longer known in their original languages, some like the “Book of Enoch” could have been originally written in the Ethiopic language of Ge’ez.


Who made this manuscript?

Neither the scribe who copied the text nor the artist who painted the miniatures is named. However, historical notes added to the manuscript suggest it was made for a church of the Emperor Iyasu I Yohannes, who reigned from 1682 to 1706. Iyasu did much to unite Ethiopia’s competing regions, both by military strength and by diplomacy. During his reign, Christian art and learning flourished in the city of Gondar, which had been established as the royal capital in the first half of the 17th century.


Iyasu commissioned the building of several churches in Gondar. This manuscript was probably intended for the most beautiful of them, Dabra Birham Selasse, meaning ‘Mount of the Light of the Trinity’. The church was dedicated in 1694 and stands on high ground just outside the city, enclosed by tall walls. Its interior is spectacularly painted with biblical subjects in distinctive Gondaran style.


This copy of the Ethiopic Gospels is a replica of a precious illuminated manuscript from the early 15th century. It was written and decorated in Gondar, or perhaps at the mountain monastery of Ambra Geshen. The text is in Classical Ethiopic, or Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Church. Together with Assyrian and Babylonian, it differs from all other Semitic languages in being written from left to right, rather than right to left as in Arabic and Hebrew. The scribe’s small elegant script is typical of the late 17th century.


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Source: The British Library, London

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Posted in Ethiopia, Faith | Tagged: , , , | 3 Comments »

Generation E

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on June 7, 2009

Pentecost

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በእኛ በኢትዮጵያውያን ላይ ደርሶ የሚታየው የመንፈሥ ቀውስ፡ በአብዛኛው ፡ ማንነታችንን አጠንቅቀን ባለማወቅ፡ ለራሳችን አሰፈላጊውን ትኩረትና ክብር ለመስጠት ካለመቻላችን የተነሳ የመጣ ቀውስ ነው። ይህ ሁኔታ ሰብዓዊ ድክመት በውስጣችን ስለሚፈጥርብን፡ እንኳን ያገራችንን ድብቅ ሚስጥራት ገልጠን ለማየት ይቅርና፡ በአካባቢያችንና በውጩ ዓለማችን የሚታዩንን ክስተቶች በግለጽ ለይተን ለማገናዘብ ከባድ ይሆንብናል። ጥሩውን ከመጥፎ ለይተን ለማወቅ ይከብደናል።


ለዚህም ነው ብዙ ጊዜ ለባእድና ለሩቁ ነገር ሁሉ ለመማረክ የምንበቃው። ለዚህም ነው የባዕዱን ሆነ የራሳችንን ጥሩ ጎን ይዘን በመጓዝ ፈንታ የባዕዳኑን መጥፎ ባህልና አምልኮቶች ሁሉ ቶሎ ለመቀበል የሚቃጣን። ገና የራሳችንን ደካማ ጎን ለመፈወስ ሳንበቃ ለባዕዱ አደገኛ መርዝ እራሳችንን አሳልፈን እንሰጣለን።


ፈጣሪአችንን በጣም ከሚያሳዝኑት ሌሎች ኃጢአታት ይልቅ እርሱን እጅግ የሚያሳዝነውና የሚያሰቆጣው ይህ አምልኮ ባዕድ የሚባለው ነገር ነው። በአገራችን ላይ፡ ድሮም ሆነ አሁን፡ በሰፊው ተንሰራፍቶ የሚታየው የመከራና የመቅሠፍት ሁኔታ ከዚሁ ከአምልኮ ባዕድ የተነሳ የሚከሰት መሆኑ አያጠራጥርም። በአሁኑ ጊዜም ቢሆን፡ እዚሁ ባጠገባችን፡ አምልኮ ባዕድ ካለባቸው ወገኖቻችን ዘንድ፡ ጥልቅ የሆነ የመንፈሥ ጉዳት እየደረሰባቸው እንደሆነ፡ በእርሱም ምክኒያት ወንዱ፡ ሴቱና ልጁ ሁላ ለኑሮና ለጤና ቀውስ እየተጋለጠ እንደሆነ ሁላችንም የምናየው ነው።


አምላካችን ሳንጠይቀው በማትረፍረፍ የሰጠንን ጸጋ እንዴት በከንቱ እናባክነዋለን? ይህ ጸጋ እኮ ከገንዘብና ከዓለማዊ ኃብት ሁሉ የበለጠ ውድ ነው! ገንዘቡን አሳልፈን ብንሰጥ ቤታችንን ብናስወርስ፡ ምንጊዜም እንደገና ለማግኘት እድሉ አለን። ነገር ግን እግዚአብሔር የሰጠንን መንፈሣዊ የኢትዮጵያዊነት ጸጋ አንዴ አስረክበን ከሰጠን እንደገና ለማግኘት እጅግ በጣም ከባድ ነው የሚሆነው።


ስለዚህም፡ በአብ፥ ወልድ ፥ መንፈስ ቅዱስ ስም የተጠመቅን ኢትዮጵያውያን፥ ወንዶችም፡ ሴቶችም፡ ሁላችንም የእግዚአብሔር ልጆችና የመንግሥቱ ወራሾች፡ የሥርዓቱም አገልጋዮች ስለሆንን ዲያብሎስ በወገኖቻችን ላይ አድሮ በተለያየ መልክ እያካሄደ ያለውን ባዕደ ልማድና አምልኮት እናሰወግድ ዘንድ ጠንክረን፡ ነቅተን መዋጋት ይኖርብናል።


ሁልጊዜ እየተንከባከብን ልንጠብቀው የሚገባን የኑሮና የአምልኮ ሥርዓት ከእግዚአብሔር አምላክ በቃል ኪዳን የተቀበልነው እንጂ ሰዎች፡ ወይም ዲያብሎስ የፈለሰፉትን አይደለምና፡ በግል፡ በቤተሰብ ብሎም በማኅበረሰባዊ ኑሯችንና አምልኳችን ውስጥ እንከን እንዳይገኝ፡ እንዲሁም፡ በቸልተኝነትና በስንፍና ለዲያብሎስ ተልዕኮ እየተጋለጥን እንዳንሸነፍ ብርቱ ጥንቅቄ ልናደርግ ይገባናል።


በመንፈሥ ቅዱስ ተመርቶ ዘላለማዊ መልዕክቶችን ያስተላለፈለን ሐዋርያው ቅዱስ ጳውሎስ የሚከተሉትን እጅግ ጠቃሚ ትምሕርቶች ያስተምረናል፡

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የእግዚአብሔር ታቦቱ፡ ቤተ መቅደሱ አንደሆናችሁ፡ የእግዚአብሔርም መንፈሥ እንዲኖርባችሁ አታውቁምን? ማንም የእግዚአብሔርን ቤተ መቅደስ ቢያፈርስ፡ እግዚአብሔር፡ እርሱን ያፈርሰዋል። የእግዚአብሔር ቤተ መቅደስ፡ ቅዱስ ነውና፡ ያውም እናንተ ናችሁ።

{1ኛ ቆሮ. 36-7}

ሰውነታችሁ ከእግዚአብሔር የተቀበላችሁት፡ በእናንተ የሚኖረው፡ የመንፈሥ ቅዱስ ቤተ መቅደስ እንደሆንን አታውቁምን?”

{1ኛ ቆሮ. 69}

ሰዎች ሁሉ የሚያውቁትና የሚያነብቡት፡ በልባችን የተጻፈ መጽሐፋችን እናንተ ናችሁ። እናንተም፡ በሕያው እግዚአብሔር መንፈስ እንጂ፡ በቀለም የተጻፋችሁ አይደለም፡ ሥጋ በሆነ በልብ ጽላት እንጂ በድንጋይ ጽላት ላይ ያልተጻፈ፡ በእኛም የተገለገለ የክርስቶስ መልዕክት እንደሆናችሁ የተገለጠ ነው።ፊደል ይገድላል፡ መንፈሥ ግን ሕይወትን ይሰጣልና፡ በመንፈሥ አንጂ በፊደል ለማይሆን፡ ለአዲስ ኪዳን አገልጋዮች እንሆን ዘንድ ያበቃን እግዚአብሔር ኃይላችን ነው።

{2ኛ ቆሮ. 32-3}

ተጣራጣሪዎች አትሁኑ! ከማያምኑ ጋር በማይመች አካሄድ አትጠመዱ! ጽድቅ፡ ከኃጢአት (እውነት፡ ከሐሰት) ጋር ምን መሳተፍ አለው? ብርሃን፡ ከጨለማ ጋር ምን ኅብረት አለው? ክርስቶስስ፡ ቤልሆር ከተባለው የአጋንንት አምልኮ ጋር ምን መስማማት አለው? ወይስ የሚያምኑ፡ ከማያምኑ ጋር ምን ክፍል አላቸው? ለእግዚአብሔር ቤተ መቅደስም፡ ከጣዖት ቤት ጋር ምን መጋጠም አለው? እኛ የሕያው እግዚአብሔር ማደሪያዎቹ አይደለንምን? እንዲሁም እግዚአብሔር እንዲህ ሲል ተናገረ፦ በእነርሱ አድሬባቸው እኖራለሁ፡ በመካከላቸውም እመላለሳለሁ፡ አምላካቸውም እሆናለሁ፡ እነርሱም ሕዝቤ ይሆናሉ።ስለዚህም፡ እግዚአብሔር ከመካከላቸው ዉጡና የተለያችሁ ሁኑ! ርኵስንም አትንኩ!” ይላል። ደግሞ ሁሉን የሚገዛ እግዚአብሔር እንዲህ ይላል፦ እኔም እቀበላችኋለሁ፡ ለእናንተም አባት እሆናችኋለሁ፡ እናንተም ለእኔ ወንዶች ልጆችና ሴቶች ልጆች ትሆናላችሁ።

{2ኛ ቆሮ.64-8}

ብሩክ ጰራቅሊጦስ!

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Posted in Ethiopia, Faith | 3 Comments »

 
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