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Archive for March, 2009

The 10 Most Dangerous Animals In The World

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 22, 2009

How many of us would think that hyenas, alligators, Rhinos or bats could be the most devastating human predators? Almost all of us, right! But it’s wrong! Though an attack by one of these beasts would surely mean bad news, they’re statistically least likely to kill a human. Check out the most deadly animals in the world, discover how they mete out their punishment and, most importantly, find out how to avoid them!


No 10: The bear


Forget gentle Ben – when a bear rears on its hind legs you know you’re in trouble. Although bears have a fearsome reputation, you are statistically more likely to survive a bear attack than to perish, but that’s small consolation to those who are faced with a bristling bear. With five attacks in Canada in 2005 alone, it seems that they’re on the increase due to human destruction of, and encroachment on, bears’ natural habitat.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 5-10 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: North America, Canada, North Pole, Russia and isolated pockets around the world.

  • Method of dispatch: There are many different sub-species of bear and not all of them are vicious. However, the polar, black and grizzly varieties are deadliest. Bears will trample, maul and generally savage their prey until they’re frightened off or finish the job; and will attack for a variety of reasons, hunger being one. You should always keep food well away from your camp.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: If you are faced with an angry bear (categorised by snorting, false bluffs, ground beating, etc), slowly back away from the bear, watching it all the while. DO NOT turn and run. If it continues to act aggressively, you should respond in kind by shouting and throwing sticks and stones while continuing to back away. If a bear is upon you, fight back as you will stand a better chance of survival than if you play dead.


No 9: The shark


Sharks have a terrible reputation thanks to films such as Jaws and Deep Blue Sea, but it’s one not entirely without cause. It seems that although great whites are often blamed for unprovoked attacks on humans, it is more likely to be down to those snappy bull sharks, who are very aggressive. Out of 360 species, only four are known killers: tiger, great white, oceanic whitetip and bull sharks. However, as we’ve seen with bears, although there are a high number of shark attacks, actual fatalities are fairly low.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 100 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Florida, Australia, Hawaii and South Africa.

  • Method of dispatch: Sharks attack the only way they can – by lunging with fearsome teeth. Sharks can grip their prey easily in their powerful jaws and are capable of biting through almost anything.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: Don’t wear yellow or orange, as sharks have good eyesight and these colours in particular seem to irritate them. If you are cut, get out of the water as they will smell blood from miles away. Engage in your aquatic recreation in groups – sharks are more likely to attack solitary prey. If you are attacked, punch the shark on the nose and claw the eyes and gills as these are sensitive spots.


No 8: Jellyfish


The sting-masters of the sea, Jellyfish are usually passive drifters who use their tentacles to dredge up small prey. However, anyone who becomes entangled with a jellyfish will experience degrees of pain from a nasty nip to excruciating pain, depending on the species. The box jellyfish is one of the most venomous marine creatures in the world; a sting can kill a man within minutes and most fatalities occur following a brush with a toxic jelly like this.

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  • Responsible for: An estimated 100 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

  • Method of dispatch: The jellyfish unwinds its coiled stinging tentacles, fires them at the victim and then pumps their venom to paralyse the unfortunate recipient, usually manifesting itself as cardiac arrest in humans.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: If swimming in an area where there are known jellyfish, wear a sting-suit. However, if you are stung, get out of the water pronto and apply vinegar to any stings remaining embedded in the flesh to remove the venom, then brush or lift off using a credit card, stick or similar.


No 7: The hippopotamus


At first glance, these wallowing river-horses appear to be bulky, lazy beasts and not the fearsome predators you would expect to have a habit of mauling humans. However, with gaping mouths that can open four feet wide and swinging sledgehammer heads, as well as the fact that they can outrun us on land, these highly aggressive animals have plenty of scope for destruction and are considered one of the most dangerous of African animals.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 100-150 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Lakes, rivers, wallows – in fact any water – in Africa.

  • Method of dispatch: Hippos will charge, trample and gore victims with alarming ferocity, often when they are blocked from deep water or someone is standing between the hippo and their calf. They have also been known to upturn boats and canoes without provocation and feast on the victim within, despite being herbivores. Nasty.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: Surprising hippos is a big no-no. If canoeing in hippo waters, rap on the side of the boat with your paddle to warn any wallowing occupants that you are close by, therefore giving them a chance to move to deeper waters. If you surprise them on land where they feel most vulnerable, do not block their escape route to water.


No 6: The elephant


Despite their friendly and approachable image thanks to zoo feeding times, these herbivores kill an alarming amount of people every year. Elephants are unpredictable creatures, and have been known to kill zookeepers who have been with them for as long as 15 years. It is recorded that even the tamest of elephants can attack without warning, though it is thought that most elephants do not realise the harm they do with almost no effort.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 300-500 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Africa and India.

  • Method of dispatch: Considering their huge size – the average elephant weighs over 6 tons – they trample and gore using their fearsome tusks and are capable of causing untold amounts of devastation.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: General advice on avoiding an elephant attack seems to be: don’t startle the beast; he is more likely to charge if he feels intimidated. If the elephant seems intent on charging, make as much noise as you can and try to put it off – otherwise scale the nearest tree (large enough so that the elephant cannot knock it down, of course).


No 5: The crocodile


Crocodiles are dreaded prehistoric creatures capable of wreaking a terrible punishment on puny human flesh. North American, Estuarine and Nile crocodiles are the most dangerous and probably kill more people yearly than figures show due to the isolated areas where attacks are likely to take place and distance from help. One meal will keep a crocodile sated for a good while, so they like to wait in the water for the perfect time to strike.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 600-800 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Africa and Australia.

  • Method of dispatch: With terrifying speed, crocodiles can launch themselves out of the water like a missile and latch hold of their prey. They then go into a death roll, spinning the victim around and around to disorientate, thereby lessening its chance of escape.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: Straight from the society of stating the obvious: do not swim in areas where there are crocodiles. It may be hot, and you may want a swim, but the croc will see you coming and the rest doesn’t bear thinking about. If you’re unfortunate enough to be grabbed, shout, scream, claw… and pray.


No 4: Big cats


These big cats certainly mean business. With destruction of their natural habitat and a decline in prey species, particularly concerning the tiger and North American mountain lion or cougar, attacks on humans are increasing. The African lion is the biggest and most feared of big cats, but holidaymakers on safari are 100 per cent safe viewing from a vehicle, unless they decide to take a closer look and step down. Mountain lions are found in many national parks and are responsible for six attacks a year in the US and Canada.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 800 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Africa, North America and India.

  • Method of dispatch: Tigers generally attack from the back and look to bite the jugular or break the neck. Mountain lions stalk their prey and often attack from a vantage point. Presumably they then set about mauling the victim in a manner identical to that we’ve all seen in countless nature programs.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: To avoid a heinous attack by a big cat, stare them in the eye and don’t look away. To make yourself appear larger by opening your coat; they are unlikely to attack a larger animal, particularly in the case of a mountain lion. DO NOT turn and run – you may as well flash a neon sign asking to be attacked. They can outrun you in any case. Shout, scream and throw stones. If one has you, punch its nose and eyes.


No 3: The scorpion


Highly deadly and twice as ugly, the scorpion is a nasty critter that is probably responsible for more deaths per year than recorded, due to the isolated places they hang out and probable lack of access to antivenin. However, out of an estimated 1,500 species of scorpion worldwide, only around 25 are regarded dangerous.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 800-2,000 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Worldwide; particularly Africa, the Americas and Central Asia.

  • Method of dispatch: Scorpions paralyse their prey by pumping deadly venom through the obvious curved stinger at the end of their tails. As with all venom, humans are particularly susceptible if they are allergic – though the African spitting scorpion, who scuttles around Africa, is the most venomous, as it is able to spray venom up to a metre. Yuk.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: Scorpions become active at night and lie low during the day, so be sure to shake out any bedding, clothing or anything close to the ground before use. Be vigilant at night and wear thick socks.


No 2: The venomous snake


Though there are more than 2,000 species of snake, 450 of which are venomous, only 250 are capable of killing a man. That’s little consolation to the thousands who meet a nasty death due to snake bites each year – it’s usually members of local populations who bear the brunt as they live and work where snakes inhabit and usually wear no protective gear.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 50-125,000 fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Africa, Asia and North America.

  • Method of dispatch: Snakes are very fast and any part of the human body is a good place for a bite, seeing as the venom can flow into the bloodstream within minutes; although those near major veins and arteries will travel faster. Snakes use their venom to paralyse their prey. A fully grown king cobra can rear up so it looks a man in the eye; others can spit venom into the eye. Nasty.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: Unsurprisingly, most people come a cropper when they try to harass a snake or draw close to it. Snakes will usually only attack if they’re feeling threatened so the short answer is: stay away! Wear stout boots if hiking and check either side of paths. Don’t mess about looking under rocks or fallen vegetation as you’ll get more than you bargained for. If you come across a snake, back away very slowly, as it can strike to half its length and sudden movements are likely to alarm it.


No 1: The mosquito


Yes, the humble mosquito. What we Brits regard as an annoying pest is actually the most dangerous creature on the planet, thanks to its ability to spread disease with alarming efficiency. Best known for spreading deadly malaria, mossies also spread elephantiasis, yellow fever, dengue fever and West Nile virus, which was recently introduced to the US and is now prevalent in all states.

  • Responsible for: An estimated 2-3 million fatalities a year.

  • Hangs out in: Worldwide; harmful in Africa, Asia and North America.

  • Method of dispatch: Using serrated mouth parts, female mosquitoes pierce the skin and inject saliva containing a thinning agent to liquidise the blood. Most people won’t know that they have been bitten until the immune system reacts, resulting in red, itchy bumps that continue to itch for days after the initial bite.

  • Useful avoidance techniques: Mosquito nets treated with DDT are the most effective way to keep them at bay, as well as combative sprays and treatments that can be applied directly to the skin. Wear light-coloured, long clothes in the evening. If travelling to malaria zones, ensure that you take your full course of tablets before, during and after your stay.


Posted in Curiosity, Life | Tagged: , , , | 6 Comments »

Don’t Quite

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 22, 2009


When things go wrong, as they sometimes will,
When the road you’re trudging seems all up hill,
When the funds are low, and the debts are high,
And you want to smile, but you have to sigh,
When care is pressing you down a bit,
Rest if you must, but don’t you quit.

Life is queer with its twists and turns,
As everyone of us sometimes learns,
And many a failure turns about,
when he might have won had he stuck it out.
Don’t give up though the pace seems slow.
You may succeed with another blow

Success is failure turned inside out,
The silver tint of the clouds no doubt,
And you never can tell how close you are,
It may be near when it seems so far,
So stick to the fight when you’re hardest hit,
It’s when things seem worse,
that you must not quit.

Posted in Love | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Great Books On Ethiopia

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 14, 2009



Book of Enoch

This apocryphal Biblical text was found in Ethiopia in 1733. This is the actual Old Testament Book of Enoch which should properly be just before Job in the Bible. Part of the Ethiopian Orthodox Canon, it has been removed from Western Bibles. The only preserved version of Enoch is the Ethiopic. Mysteries come to light in this ancient and sacred text. 192pp.


Enoch The Ethiopian

By Indus Khamit Kush. Lost prophet of the Bible, Enoch, has been preserved only in Ethiopia. This new book is an excellent study of the Holy One. Chapters include The stolen legacy of the Bible, Enoch’s lineage, African Origins of Man, Ethiopian Church canonization of Enoch, Enoch’s New Testament legacy and the African origins of the Hebrew. Very interesting work. 302 pp.


The Book of Jubilees

Like the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees is another Ethiopic Biblical text removed from Western Bibles. These books were removed from the Bible by the Romans 1700 years ago. Only in Ethiopia were they held safe until this time. In the Ethiopian texts this work is also known as Kufale or the Book of Division. In English it is sometimes referred to as Little Genesis. 100pp.


Maccabees 1-4

This new book contains all four Maccabee books and Psalm 151. Macabees one and two are included in the Western apocrypha, but books three and four exist only in the Ethiopian canon. Psalm 151 was read by His majesty on Coronation day. Please note this book contains Macabbees 1-4 only and not the complete Bible. 238 pp.


Kebra Nagast; The Queen of Sheba and Her Only Son Meneylek

Translated By Sir E.A. Wallis Budge. The first English translation of the Glory of Kings is now available. Originally published in 1932, the Kebra nagast tells the Ethiopian scriptural story of how the Ark of the Covenant was taken from Jerusalem to Ethiopia by the son of King Solomon and Queen Makeda. The Budge version reads in a formal, Biblical style. 241 pp.


Kebra Nagast (Glory of Kings) -The True Ark of the Covenant

Translated and edited by Miguel Brooks. This is a majestic unveiling of ancient secrets. Originally recorded in Ethiopic languages, these pages were removed by royal decree from the authorized King James version. A startling revelation of long suppressed truths. 192 pp.


Ethiopia Reaches Her Hand Unto God:Imperial Ethiopia’s Unique Symbols, Structures and Role in the Modern World

By Gregory Copley. Forward by Prince Ermias Sahle-Selassie Haile Selassie. Details on modern Ethiopia’s unique Imperial symbols. Provides important information on the past, present and future of the Ethiopian Crown. Many of His Majesty’s symbols, orders and insignias are carefully explained in this book. 247 pp. 70 col. + b&w illustrations.


Ethiopia Speaks – The Italian Invasion 1935-1941

By Lance Suenarine. This new title covers the history of Ethiopia from the Italian invasion through His Majesty’s triumphal return in 1941. Good history and detail with interesting and rare documentation. 178 pp.


Ethiopian Women of Power

By Lance Seunarine. In this volume, Prof. Seunarine takes an overdue look at the powerful women in Ethiopia’s history. Includes short overviews of Makeda, Judith, Helen, Taytu, Zawditu, Empress Menen and more. 104pp.


The New Revised 6th and 7th Books of Moses.

Edited by Migene Gonzalez Wippler. Originally published in Germany in 1849 by Johann Scheibel. Scheibel cites the seals and invocations of this book came from ancient Hebrew texts. This book has long been hailed as a valuable tool in the study and practice of cabalistic magic. Includes the Magical Uses of the Psalms. 219 pp.


Mystery of the Long Lost 8th, 9th and 10th Books of Moses

By Henri Gamache. From the testimony of learned students of the Old Testament Gamache has concluded that Moses wrote ten Books rather than five. The book is in three parts: A biography of Moses, the five missing books and the Book of Miscellaney. 103 pp.


The Ethiopian Book of Life

Edited and translated by Sir E.A. Wallis Budge. Originally published in London in 1929, this is Budge’s translation of the Bandlet of Righteousness. This book includes Budge’s preface, the Lefafa Sedek described, a description of the manuscript, a 40 page appendix and plates of the original Ethiopic. The Bandlet listed below is the 32 page Bandlet without commentary. 140 pages in English plus the original plates.


Ethiopia: The Classic Case

By Ermias Kebede Wolde-Yesus, Nibure-Id. A book that thoroughly analyzes the true definitions of the Ethiopian and Ethiopianism from the perspective of the biblical assertion of the Divine Truth that, for instance, Jesus Christ is neither black nor white alone but an Ethiopian. Detailed explanation of the Seven Biblical Covenants which constitute Ethiopia or the Ethiopian are powerfully illustrated.


Ethiopic-An African Writing System

By Ayele Bekerie. A new book about the history and principles of Ge’ez. Looks at this ancient language as part of the African knowledge systems. Includes ideography, astronomy, numerology and a study of the the Ethiopic original Book of Enoch. 176 pp.


The Ethiopian Tewahedo Church

By Archbishop Yesehaq. The roots of the Ethiopian church are 3000 years old . This remarkable book discusses the customs, doctrine, practices and history of the church. Archbishop Yesehaq was appointed archbishop of the EOC in the Western Hemisphere in 1979. He gives history in detail and discusses, at length, the EOC in relation to the diaspora. A beautiful hardcover. 244pp.


The Sign and the Seal: The Quest for the Lost Ark of the Covenant

By Graham Hancock. After ten years of searching, this journalist has tracked down the true story of the Ark of the Covenant. The author reveals where the Ark is today (Ethiopia) and how it got there. 600pp.


Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire

By Drusilla Dunjee Houston. In this book, the author traces human civilization up the Nile to it’s source in Ethiopia. Houston, with many disciplines of science, shows how all life flowed from the Garden of Eden down the Nile to Egypt, Greece, India and eventually to the corners of the Earth. 272 pp.


The Secret Teachings of Jesus

Translated by Marvin Meyer. From the Nag Hammadi Egyptian texts. Includes Secret Book of James, Gospel of Thomas, Secret Book of John and Book of Thomas. Gnostic wisdom from Africa. 129pp.


The Bandlet of Righteousness

Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge. An Ethiopian prayer from the Mashafa Heywat (Book of Life). Ancient Ethiopic text. Pamphlet sized, staple-bound. 32pp.


The Oxford NRSV Bible with Apocrypha

This version of the Bible contains Maccabees 1-4, Eccles

iasticus, Tobit, Judith, Baruch, Wisdom of Solomon and Esdras. These are all in the Ethiopian version, but not the KJV. Paperback. 1542 pp.


The Metaphysical Bible Dictionary

This is the book which Prophet Gad recommended to the 12 Tribes years ago in order to help understand metaphysical meaning in apparent material historical stories. A good reference for chapter a day learning and independent overstanding. Large hardcover edition. 706pp.


Fetha Nagast – The Law of the Kings

At last, the only English translation of the Fetha Nagast is now available. Only translated once into English in 1968 this book has never been available to the English reader until now. Contains the complete introduction by HIM Haile Selassie I. From His Majesty’s introduction: ” This is the law of life, for nations and for individuals, the law of lasting happiness and welfare”.


The Making of Modern Ethiopia

By Teshale Tibebu. Covers the development of modern Ethiopia from 1896 to 1974. Elaborates on four concepts; geber system, Aksumite paradigm, tabot Christianity and Ge’ez civilization. 246pp.


The Apocrypha.

These are the books between the old and new testaments which were removed from the King James Version in 1611. There are 14 books including I and II Esdras, Tobit, Wisdom of Solomon,Baruch, Bel and the Dragon and I and II Maccabees. Double column type. 157pp. Hardcover.


Ethiopia and the Missing Link in African History

By Rev. Sterling Means. A concise and uplifting look at the important role of Ethiopia in African history. Chapters include Prehistoric Ethiopia, Ethiopian Empire, Black Egypt, Haile Selassie, and the Emperors address. 161pp.

Posted in Ethiopia, Infos | Tagged: , , , | 1 Comment »

Is Technology Evil?

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 14, 2009


“And he gives to all, small and great, the poor and those who have wealth,   the free and those who are not free, a mark on their right hand or on their brows; So that no man might be able to do trade but he who has the mark, even the name of the beast or the number of his name.” Revelation 13:16-17

A couple of days ago I read a story about, Catholic bishops and priests in Italy asking churchgoers to make the ultimate sacrifice – and give up text messages, TV, iPods and Facebook for Lent. What could be their motivation for issuing such a warning?

We should be certain that, anyone who watches a TV is capable of knowing that Satan can come in many forms. He can be disguised as a very tempting sexy woman, a snake, a superhuman who can do whatever he/she wants, a magician who can wield a pitchfork etc.

But who would have guessed that the devious lord of hell would be a Web site? So, could it be “Facebook.”? This “networking” site allegedly offers to help the typical lonely, needy college students find each other. A place online where we can connect and form key bonds and lasting friendships. Or may be not.

Technology is a wonderful thing if we know how to use it properly. But, over the last couple of weeks I’ve reached a profound conclusion, that Satan, as well, is using technology to destroy humanity. One of the fun things about watching technology march by like a parade — one where all the bands get smaller and rounder as time goes on — is seeing new interpretations of the Bible based on the latest advances.

Early last century, the Mark of the Beast was your Social Security card, which presumably was encoded into the Computer Punch Card of the Beast and fed into Satan’s Mainframe.

After that, the Mark of the Beast was your credit card, and in the ’70s the UPC symbol was the new Mark, presumably because of the passage in Revelations stating, “And the mark was placed upon the Wonder Bread, both white and the kind they call wheat, even though it’s basically a slightly more tan version of the white stuff.”

Now, of course, the Mark of the Beast is RFID chips. It’s not enough that they might get your purchases tracked or your identity stolen, they might also get you booked into the Hotel Inferno for all eternity. Soon we will have TV or Movies on our eyes through contact lenses.

I think Bible believers, followers and/or thumpers are really overlooking the other technological warnings inherent in Revelation. Here are some actual Bible verses, and the cutting-edge technology to which they clearly refer:

“And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.”

This is obviously a reference to file sharing. The “stars” in question are the hard-working entertainers of the world, “falling to earth” because of the “casting” of their works to and fro like figs (figs were the main form of entertainment in the ancient world) by a “mighty wind.” A mighty wind? Like a “torrent,” perhaps?

In Revelation 6:15 we read further, “And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains.

Clearly the “hiding” is the anonymity provided by “dens” of personal web spaces like Facebook and MySpace. The rocks are friends lists or something… Once the mighty men start joining Facebook, we’re screwed. So, please don’t do it, mighty men!

One that will no doubt rock the foundations of both social life and established religious thought could come through technology. Could the devil be lurking behind Facebook to suck the soul of unconscious and unaware folks?.

Of course, the weak are easy prey to Facebook’s temptations. We all show weakenss one way or the other. I used to check Facebook first. And there goes my afternoon. For many, it is difficult to wrap their mind around the mysterious allure of Facebook. Someone may add a new band to his “favorite music” category. Friends may reveal their likes of scary movies or some other weired things. Actually, if one tells you in person, you seriously won’t care. But when someone updates their profile, of course, we are there checking it out.

True, every once in a while people hook up or break up, and without Facebook we might have to wait a couple of hours to get the news. But who wants to hear this stuff in person when the message can be delivered by Facebook’s tactful “broken-heart” icon? Probably no one! Another thing everyone likes on Facebook is when people add photos, another enjoyable diversion. But, to me, I can’t help but feel a strictly Facebook-related kind of shame when I realize I’ve spent the last 15 or so minutes clicking through pictures full of people I don’t even know, discovering the test of exhaustion and depression.

If a photograph can steal your soul, what can an online profile do? Facebook keeps constant tabs on us all. It wants our current status and our vacation plans. It makes sure we are searchable at all times. You think Facebook is taking you places, connecting you with the world. But it’s really just putting you in your place, and your place is Facebook. This site is not your friend. It’s an insidious assault on your time and your brain cells. It doesn’t just want your soul, it already has it. Admit it: you are Facebook’s slave. You check in and report your doings, you read its messages, you receive its gifts. There is no escape. This is your world now. Sure, you can just take your butt offline. But the dark lord knows you can’t survive long without a news feed.

In the end, we ask ourselves, “what are we doing with our lives? I always used to think to much of TV was the devil, but I was wrong. Facebook and co. must be infinitely worse than reruns of “Friends”.

Posted in Faith | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

He Can Learn Any Human Language In A Week

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 13, 2009

If you’ve seen that classic great dramatic film, „Rainman“, with Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise, the following amazing story might sound familiar to you:

Daniel Tammet is an autistic savant. He can perform mind-boggling mathematical calculations at breakneck speeds. But unlike other savants, who can perform similar feats, Tammet can describe how he does it. He speaks seven languages and is even devising his own language. Now scientists are asking whether his exceptional abilities are the key to unlock the secrets of autism.

Daniel Tammet is talking. As he talks, he studies my shirt and counts the stitches. Ever since the age of three, when he suffered an epileptic fit, Tammet has been obsessed with counting. Now he is 26, and a mathematical genius who can figure out cube roots quicker than a calculator and recall pi to 22,514 decimal places. He also happens to be autistic, which is why he can’t drive a car, wire a plug, or tell right from left. He lives with extraordinary ability and disability.

Tammet is calculating 377 multiplied by 795. Actually, he isn’t “calculating”: there is nothing conscious about what he is doing. He arrives at the answer instantly. Since his epileptic fit, he has been able to see numbers as shapes, colours and textures. The number two, for instance, is a motion, and five is a clap of thunder. “When I multiply numbers together, I see two shapes. The image starts to change and evolve, and a third shape emerges. That’s the answer. It’s mental imagery. It’s like maths without having to think.”

Tammet is a “savant”, an individual with an astonishing, extraordinary mental ability. An estimated 10% of the autistic population – and an estimated 1% of the non-autistic population – have savant abilities, but no one knows exactly why. A number of scientists now hope that Tammet might help us to understand better. Professor Allan Snyder, from the Centre for the Mind at the Australian National University in Canberra, explains why Tammet is of particular, and international, scientific interest. “Savants can’t usually tell us how they do what they do,” says Snyder. “It just comes to them. Daniel can. He describes what he sees in his head. That’s why he’s exciting. He could be the Rosetta Stone.”

There are many theories about savants. Snyder, for instance, believes that we all possess the savant’s extraordinary abilities – it is just a question of us learning how to access them. “Savants have usually had some kind of brain damage. Whether it’s an onset of dementia later in life, a blow to the head or, in the case of Daniel, an epileptic fit. And it’s that brain damage which creates the savant. I think that it’s possible for a perfectly normal person to have access to these abilities, so working with Daniel could be very instructive.”

Scans of the brains of autistic savants suggest that the right hemisphere might be compensating for damage in the left hemisphere. While many savants struggle with language and comprehension (skills associated primarily with the left hemisphere), they often have amazing skills in mathematics and memory (primarily right hemisphere skills). Typically, savants have a limited vocabulary, but there is nothing limited about Tammet’s vocabulary.

Tammet is creating his own language, strongly influenced by the vowel and image-rich languages of northern Europe. (He already speaks French, German, Spanish, Lithuanian, Icelandic and Esperanto.) The vocabulary of his language – “Mänti”, meaning a type of tree – reflects the relationships between different things. The word “ema”, for instance, translates as “mother”, and “ela” is what a mother creates: “life”. “Päike” is “sun”, and “päive” is what the sun creates: “day”. Tammet hopes to launch Mänti in academic circles later this year, his own personal exploration of the power of words and their inter-relationship.

Professor Simon Baron-Cohen, director of the Autism Research Centre (ARC) at Cambridge University, is interested in what Mänti might teach us about savant ability. “I know of other savants who also speak a lot of languages,” says Baron-Cohen. “But it’s rare for them to be able to reflect on how they do it – let alone create a language of their own.” The ARC team has started scanning Tammet’s brain to find out if there are modules (for number, for example, or for colour, or for texture) that are connected in a way that is different from most of us. “It’s too early to tell, but we hope it might throw some light on why we don’t all have savant abilities.”

Last year Tammet broke the European record for recalling pi, the mathematical constant, to the furthest decimal point. He found it easy, he says, because he didn’t even have to “think”. To him, pi isn’t an abstract set of digits; it’s a visual story, a film projected in front of his eyes. He learnt the number forwards and backwards and, last year, spent five hours recalling it in front of an adjudicator. He wanted to prove a point. “I memorised pi to 22,514 decimal places, and I am technically disabled. I just wanted to show people that disability needn’t get in the way.”

Tammet is softly spoken, and shy about making eye contact, which makes him seem younger than he is. He lives on the Kent coast, but never goes near the beach – there are too many pebbles to count. The thought of a mathematical problem with no solution makes him feel uncomfortable. Trips to the supermarket are always a chore. “There’s too much mental stimulus. I have to look at every shape and texture. Every price, and every arrangement of fruit and vegetables. So instead of thinking,’What cheese do I want this week?’, I’m just really uncomfortable.”

Tammet has never been able to work 9 to 5. It would be too difficult to fit around his daily routine. For instance, he has to drink his cups of tea at exactly the same time every day. Things have to happen in the same order: he always brushes his teeth before he has his shower. “I have tried to be more flexible, but I always end up feeling more uncomfortable. Retaining a sense of control is really important. I like to do things in my own time, and in my own style, so an office with targets and bureaucracy just wouldn’t work.”

Instead, he has set up a business on his own, at home, writing email courses in language learning, numeracy and literacy for private clients. It has had the fringe benefit of keeping human interaction to a minimum. It also gives him time to work on the verb structures of Mänti.

Few people on the streets have recognised Tammet since his pi record attempt. But, when a documentary about his life is broadcast on Channel 5 later this year, all that will change. “The highlight of filming was to meet Kim Peek, the real-life character who inspired the film Rain Man. Before I watched Rain Man, I was frightened. As a nine-year-old schoolboy, you don’t want people to point at the screen and say, ‘That’s you.’ But I watched it, and felt a real connection. Getting to meet the real-life Rain Man was inspirational.”

Peek was shy and introspective, but he sat and held Tammet’s hand for hours. “We shared so much – our love of key dates from history, for instance. And our love of books. As a child, I regularly took over a room in the house and started my own lending library. I would separate out fiction and non-fiction, and then alphabetise them all. I even introduced a ticketing system. I love books so much. I’ve read more books than anyone else I know. So I was delighted when Kim wanted to meet in a library.” Peek can read two pages simultaneously, one with each eye. He can also recall, in exact detail, the 7,600 books he has read. When he is at home in Utah, he spends afternoons at the Salt Lake City public library, memorising phone books and address directories.”He is such a lovely man,” says Tammet. “Kim says, ‘You don’t have to be handicapped to be different – everybody’s different’. And he’s right.”

Like Peek, Tammet will read anything and everything, but his favourite book is a good dictionary, or the works of GK Chesterton. “With all those aphorisms,” he says, “Chesterton was the Groucho Marx of his day.” Tammet is also a Christian, and likes the fact that Chesterton addressed some complex religious ideas. “The other thing I like is that, judging by the descriptions of his home life, I reckon Chesterton was a savant. He couldn’t dress himself, and would always forget where he was going. His poor wife.”

Autistic savants have displayed a wide range of talents, from reciting all nine volumes of Grove’s Dictionary Of Music to measuring exact distances with the naked eye. The blind American savant Leslie Lemke played Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto No1, after he heard it for the first time, and he never had so much as a piano lesson. And the British savant Stephen Wiltshire was able to draw a highly accurate map of the London skyline from memory after a single helicopter trip over the city. Even so, Tammet could still turn out to be the more significant.

He was born on January 31 1979. He smiles as he points out that 31, 19, 79 and 1979 are all prime numbers – it’s a kind of sign. He was actually born with another surname, which he prefers to keep private, but decided to change it by deed poll. It didn’t fit with the way he saw himself. “I first saw ‘Tammet’ online. It means oak tree in Estonian, and I liked that association. Besides, I’ve always had a love of Estonian. Such a vowel rich language.”

As a baby, he banged his head against the wall and cried constantly. Nobody knew what was wrong. His mother was anxious, and would swing him to sleep in a blanket. She breastfed him for two years. The only thing the doctors could say was that perhaps he was understimulated. Then, one afternoon when he was playing with his brother in the living room, he had an epileptic fit.

“I was given medication – round blue tablets – to control my seizures, and told not to go out in direct sunlight. I had to visit the hospital every month for regular blood tests. I hated those tests, but I knew they were necessary. To make up for it, my father would always buy me a cup of squash to drink while we sat in the waiting room. It was a worrying time because my Dad’s father had epilepsy, and actually died of it, in the end. They were thinking, ‘This is the end of Daniel’s life’.”

Tammet’s mother was a secretarial assistant, and his father a steelplate worker. “They both left school without qualifications, but they made us feel special – all nine of us. As the oldest of nine, I suppose it’s fair to say I’ve always felt special.” Even if his younger brothers and sisters could throw and catch better than him, swim better, kick a ball better, Daniel was always the oldest. “They loved me because I was their big brother and I could read them stories.”

He remembers being given a Ladybird book called Counting when he was four. “When I looked at the numbers I ‘saw’ images. It felt like a place I could go where I really belonged. That was great. I went to this other country whenever I could. I would sit on the floor in my bedroom and just count. I didn’t notice that time was passing. It was only when my Mum shouted up for dinner, or someone knocked at my door, that I would snap out of it.”

One day his brother asked him a sum. “He asked me to multiply something in my head – like ‘What is 82 x 82 x 82 x 82?’ I just looked at the floor and closed my eyes. My back went very straight and I made my hands into fists. But after five or 10 seconds, the answer just flowed out of my mouth. He asked me several others, and I got every one right. My parents didn’t seem surprised. And they never put pressure on me to perform for the neighbours. They knew I was different, but wanted me to have a normal life as far as possible.”

Tammet could see the car park of his infant school from his bedroom window, which made him feel safe. “I loved assembly because we got to sing hymns. The notes formed a pattern in my head, just like the numbers did.” The other children didn’t know what to make of him, and would tease him. The minute the bell went for playtime he would rush off. “I went to the playground, but not to play. The place was surrounded by trees. While the other children were playing football, I would just stand and count the leaves.”

As Tammet grew older, he developed an obsessive need to collect – everything from conkers to newspapers. “I remember seeing a ladybird for the first time,” he says. “I loved it so much, I went round searching every hedge and every leaf for more. I collected hundreds, and took them to show the teacher. He was amazed, and asked me to get on with some assignment. While I was busy he instructed a classmate to take the tub outside and let the ladybirds go. I was so upset that I cried when I found out. He didn’t understand my world.”

Tammet may have been teased at school, but his teachers were always protective. “I think my parents must have had a word with them, so I was pretty much left alone.” He found it hard to socialise with anyone outside the family, and, with the advent of adolesence, his shyness got worse.

After leaving school with three A-levels (History, French and German, all grade Bs), he decided he wanted to teach – only not the predictable, learn-by-rote type of teaching. For a start, he went to teach in Lithuania, and he worked as a volunteer. “Because I was there of my own free will, I was given a lot of leeway. The times of the classes weren’t set in stone, and the structures were all of my own making. It was also the first time I was introduced as ‘Daniel’ rather than ‘the guy who can do weird stuff in his head’. It was such a pleasant relief.” Later, he returned home to live with his parents, and found work as a maths tutor.

He met the great love of his life, a software engineer called Neil, online. It began, as these things do, with emailed pictures, but ended up with a face-to-face meeting. “Because I can’t drive, Neil offered to pick me up at my parents’ house, and drive me back to his house in Kent. He was silent all the way back. I thought, ‘Oh dear, this isn’t going well’. Just before we got to his house, he stopped the car. He reached over and pulled out a bouquet of flowers. I only found out later that he was quiet because he likes to concentrate when he’s driving.”

Neil is shy, like Tammet. They live, happily, on a quiet cul-de-sac. The only aspect of Tammet’s autism that causes them problems is his lack of empathy. “There’s a saying in Judaism, if somebody has a relative who has hanged themselves, don’t ask them where you should hang your coat. I need to remember that. Like the time I kept quizzing a friend of Neil’s who had just lost her mother. I was asking her all these questions about faith and death. But that’s down to my condition – no taboos.”

When he isn’t working, Tammet likes to hang out with his friends on the church quiz team. His knowledge of popular culture lets him down, but he’s a shoo-in when it comes to the maths questions. “I do love numbers,” he says. “It isn’t only an intellectual or aloof thing that I do. I really feel that there is an emotional attachment, a caring for numbers. I think this is a human thing – in the same way that a poet humanises a river or a tree through metaphor, my world gives me a sense of numbers as personal. It sounds silly, but numbers are my friends.”

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Koba/False Banana – History Of The Enset Culture

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 8, 2009


Cultural and linguistic evidences concerning the origin and distribution of Enset culture seem to point generally in the same direction.
Enset was part of a widespread and ancient system of cultivation of vegetative crops formerly distributed much more widely through the Ethiopian highlands. The main cultivators of enset were Omotic-speakers, though it was probably adopted early by some groups of Cushitic-speakerts.
However, Ethio-Semites brought seed agriculture and the plough, Enset and other root crops such as Yams (Dioscorea spp.) and the Labiates (Coleus spp.) were pushed into residual cultivation, except where the terrain was so highly dissected that ploughing was effectively impossible.
In this situation, notably in the southwest, the Gurage Semitic-speakers adopted Enset and it became central to their production system, to their way of eating (Qocho & Bulla are processed from Enset, and are typical cuisines of the Gurage people) permitting the expansion of population to levels such that no other crop would support comparable densities in similar terrain.
Continue reading…

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Prophet Moses In Ethiopia

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 1, 2009


And it was in those days that there was a great war between the children of Ethiopia and the children of the east and Aram, and they rebelled against the king of Ethiopia in whose hands they were.
So Kikianus king of Ethiopia went forth with all the children of Ethiopia, a people numerous as the sand, and he went to fight against Aram and the children of the east, to bring them under subjection.
And when Kikianus went out, he left Balaam the magician, with his two sons, to guard the city, and the lowest sort of the people of the land. So Kikianus went forth to Aram and the children of the east, and he fought against them and smote them, and they all fell down wounded before Kikianus and his people. And he took many of them captives and he brought them under subjection as at first, and he encamped upon their land to take tribute from them as usual.
And Balaam the son of Beor, when the king of Ethiopia had left him to guard the city and the poor of the city, he rose up and advised with the people of the land to rebel against king Kikianus, not to let him enter the city when he should come home.
And the people of the land hearkened to him, and they swore to him and made him king over them, and his two sons for captains of the army. So they rose up and raised the walls of the city at the two corners, and they built an exceeding strong building.
And at the third corner they dug ditches without number, between the city and the river which surrounded the whole land of Ethiopia, and they made the waters of the river burst forth there. At the fourth corner they collected numerous serpents by their incantations and enchantments, and they fortified the city and dwelt therein, and no one went out or in before them.
And Kikianus fought against Aram and the children of the east and he subdued them as before, and they gave him their usual tribute, and he went and returned to his land. And when Kikianus the king of Ethiopia approached his city and all the captains of the forces with him, they lifted up their eyes and saw that the walls of the city were built up and greatly elevated, so the men were astonished at this.
And they said one to the other, It is because they saw that we were delayed, in battle, and were greatly afraid of us, therefore have they done this thing and raised the city walls and fortified them so that the kings of Canaan might not come in battle against them. So the king and the troops approached the city door and they looked up and behold, all the gates of the city were closed, and they called out to the sentinels, saying, Open unto us, that we may enter the city.
But the sentinels refused to open to them by the order of Balaam the magician, their king, they suffered them not to enter their city. So they raised a battle with them opposite the city gate, and one hundred and thirty men of the army at Kikianus fell on that day.
And on the next day they continued to fight and they fought at the side of the river; they endeavored to pass but were not able, so some of them sank in the pits and died. So the king ordered them to cut down trees to make rafts, upon which they might pass to them, and they did so.
And when they came to the place of the ditches, the waters revolved by mills, and two hundred men upon ten rafts were drowned. And on the third day they came to fight at the side where the serpents were, but they could not approach there, for the serpents slew of them one hundred and seventy men, and they ceased fighting against Ethiopia, and they besieged Ethiopia for nine years, no person came out or in.
At that time that the war and the siege were against Ethiopia, Moses fled from Egypt from Pharaoh who sought to kill him for having slain the Egyptian. And Moses was eighteen years old when he fled from Egypt from the presence of Pharaoh, and he fled and escaped to the camp of Kikianus, which at that time was besieging Ethiopia.
And Moses was nine years in the camp of Kikianus king of Ethiopia, all the time that they were besieging Ethiopia, and Moses went out and came in with them. And the king and princes and all the fighting men loved Moses, for he was great and worthy, his stature was like a noble lion, his face was like the sun, and his strength was like that of a lion, and he was counsellor to the king.
And at the end of nine years, Kikianus was seized with a mortal disease, and his illness prevailed over him, and he died on the seventh day. So his servants embalmed him and carried him and buried him opposite the city gate to the north of the land of Egypt.
And they built over him an elegant strong and high building, and they placed great stones below. And the king’s scribes engraved upon those stones all the might of their king Kikianus, and all his battles which he had fought, behold they are written there at this day. Now after the death of Kikianus king of Ethiopia it grieved his men and troops greatly on account of the war.
So they said one to the other, Give us counsel what we are to do at this time, as we have resided in the wilderness nine years away from our homes. If we say we will fight against the city many of us will fall wounded or killed, and if we remain here in the siege we shall also die.
For now all the kings of Aram and of the children of the east will hear that our king is dead, and they will attack us suddenly in a hostile manner, and they will fight against us and leave no remnant of us. Now therefore let us go and make a king over us, and let us remain in the siege until the city is delivered up to us.
And they wished to choose on that day a man for king from the army of Kikianus, and they found no object of their choice like Moses to reign over them. And they hastened and stripped off each man his garments and cast them upon the ground, and they made a great heap and placed Moses thereon. And they rose up and blew with trumpets and called out before him, and said, May the king live, may the king live!
And all the people and nobles swore unto him to give him for a wife Adoniah the queen, the Ethiopian, wife of Kikianus, and they made Moses king over them on that day. And all the people of Ethiopia issued a proclamation on that day, saying, Every man must give something to Moses of what is in his possession. And they spread out a sheet upon the heap, and every man cast into it something of what he had, one a gold earring and the other a coin. Also of onyx stones, bdellium, pearls and marble did the children of Ethiopia cast unto Moses upon the heap, also silver and gold in great abundance.
And Moses took all the silver and gold, all the vessels, and the bdellium and onyx stones, which all the children of Ethiopia had given to him, and he placed them amongst his treasures. And Moses reigned over the children of Ethiopia on that day, in the place of Kikianus king of Ethiopia.
In the fifty-fifth year of the reign of Pharaoh king of Egypt, that is in the hundred and fiftyseventh year of the Israelites going down into Egypt, reigned Moses in Ethiopia. Moses was twenty-seven years old when he began to reign over Ethiopia, and forty years did he reign.
And the Lord granted Moses favor and grace in the eyes of all the children of Ethiopia, and the children of Ethiopia loved him exceedingly, so Moses was favored by the Lord and by men. And in the seventh day of his reign, all the children of Ethiopia assembled and came before Moses and bowed down to him to the ground.
And all the children spoke together in the presence of the king, saying, Give us counsel that we may see what is to be done to this city. For it is now nine years that we have been besieging round about the city, and have not seen our children and our wives.
So the king answered them, saying, If you will hearken to my voice in all that I shall command you, then will the Lord give the city into our hands and we shall subdue it. For if we fight with them as in the former battle which we had with them before the death of Kikianus, many of us will fall down wounded as before.
Now therefore behold here is counsel for you in this matter; if you will hearken to my voice, then will the city be delivered into our hands. So all the forces answered the king, saying, All that our lord shall command that will we do. And Moses said unto them, Pass through and proclaim a voice in the whole camp unto all the people, saying,
Thus says the king, Go into the forest and bring with you of the young ones of the stork, each man a young one in his hand. And any person transgressing the word of the king, who shall not bring his young one, he shall die, and the king will take all belonging to him.
And when you shall bring them they shall be in your keeping, you shall rear them until they grow up, and you shall teach them to dart upon, as is the way of the young ones of the hawk. So all the children of Ethiopia heard the words of Moses, and they rose up and caused a proclamation to be issued throughout the camp, saying,
Unto you, all the children of Ethiopia, the king’s order is, that you go all together to the forest, and catch there the young storks each man his young one in his hand, and you shall bring them home. And any person violating the order of the king shall die, and the king will take all that belongs to him. And all the people did so, and they went out to the wood and they climbed the fir trees and caught, each man a young one in his hand, all the young of the storks, and they brought them into the desert and reared them by order of the king, and they taught them to dart upon, similar to the young hawks.
And after the young storks were reared, the king ordered them to be hungered for three days, and all the people did so. And on the third day, the king said unto them, strengthen yourselves and become valiant men, and put on each man his armor and gird on his sword upon him, and ride each man his horse and take each his young stork in his hand.
And we will rise up and fight against the city at the place where the serpents are; and all the people did as the king had ordered. And they took each man his young one in his hand, and they went away, and when they came to the place of the serpents the king said to them, Send forth each man his young stork upon the serpents.
And they sent forth each man his young stork at the king’s order, and the young storks ran upon the serpents and they devoured them all and destroyed them out of that place. And when the king and people had seen that all the serpents were destroyed in that place, all the people set up a great shout. And they approached and fought against the city and took it and subdued it, and they entered the city.
And there died on that day one thousand and one hundred men of the people of the city, all that inhabited the city, but of the people besieging not one died. So all the children of Ethiopia went each to his home, to his wife and children and to all belonging to him.
And Balaam the magician, when he saw that the city was taken, he opened the gate and he and his two sons and eight brothers fled and returned to Egypt to Pharaoh king of Egypt. They are the sorcerers and magicians who are mentioned in the book of the law, standing against Moses when the Lord brought the plagues upon Egypt.
So Moses took the city by his wisdom, and the children of Ethiopia placed him on the throne instead of Kikianus king of Ethiopia. And they placed the royal crown upon his head, and they gave him for a wife Adoniah the Ethiopian queen, wife of Kikianus. And Moses feared the Lord God of his fathers, so that he came not to her, nor did he turn his eyes to her.
For Moses remembered how Abraham had made his servant Eliezer swear, saying unto him, Thou shalt not take a woman from the daughters of Canaan for my son Isaac. Also what Isaac did when Jacob had fled from his brother, when he commanded him, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan, nor make alliance with any of the children of Ham.
For the Lord our God gave Ham the son of Noah, and his children and all his seed, as slaves to the children of Shem and to the children of Japheth, and unto their seed after them for slaves, forever. Therefore Moses turned not his heart nor his eyes to the wife of Kikianus all the days that he reigned over Ethiopia.
And Moses feared the Lord his God all his life, and Moses walked before the Lord in truth, with all his heart and soul, he turned not from the right way all the days of his life; he declined not from the way either to the right or to the left, in which Abraham, Isaac and Jacob had walked. And Moses strengthened himself in the kingdom of the children of Ethiopia, and he guided the children of Ethiopia with his usual wisdom, and Moses prospered in his kingdom. And at that time Aram and the children of the east heard that Kikianus king of Ethiopia had died, so Aram and the children of the east rebelled against Ethiopia in those days.
And Moses gathered all the children of Ethiopia, a people very mighty, about thirty thousand men, and he went forth to fight with Aram and the children of the east. And they went at first to the children of the east, and when the children of the east heard their report, they went to meet them, and engaged in battle with them.
And the war was severe against the children of the east, so the Lord gave all the children of the east into the hand of Moses, and about three hundred men fell down slain. And all the children of the east turned back and retreated, so Moses and the children of Ethiopia followed them and subdued them, and put a tax upon them, as was their custom.
So Moses and all the people with him passed from there to the land of Aram for battle. And the people of Aram also went to meet them, and they fought against them, and the Lord delivered them into the hand of Moses, and many of the men of Aram fell down wounded. And Aram also were subdued by Moses and the people of Ethiopia, and also gave their usual tax. And Moses brought Aram and the children of the east under subjection to the children of Ethiopia, and Moses and all the people who were with him, turned to the land of Ethiopia.
And Moses the son of Amram was still king in the land of Ethiopia in those days, and he prospered in his kingdom, and he conducted the government of the children of Ethiopia in justice, in righteousness, and integrity. And all the children of Ethiopia loved Moses all the days that he reigned over them, and all the inhabitants of the land of Ethiopia were greatly afraid of him. And in the fortieth year of the reign of Moses over Ethiopia, Moses was sitting on the royal throne whilst Adoniah the queen was before him, and all the nobles were sitting around him. And Adoniah the queen said before the king and the princes, What is this thing which you, the children of Ethiopia, have done for this long time?
Surely you know that for forty years that this man has reigned over Ethiopia he has not approached me, nor has he served the gods of the children of Ethiopia. Now therefore hear, O ye children of Ethiopia, and let this man no more reign over you as he is not of our flesh. Behold Menacrus my son is grown up, let him reign over you, for it is better for you to serve the son of your lord, than to serve a stranger, slave of the king of Egypt. And all the people and nobles of the children of Ethiopia heard the words which Adoniah the queen had spoken in their ears.
And all the people were preparing until the evening, and in the morning they rose up early and made Menacrus, son of Kikianus, king over them. And all the children of Ethiopia were afraid to stretch forth their hand against Moses, for the Lord was with Moses, and the children of Ethiopia remembered the oath which they swore unto Moses, therefore they did no harm to him.
But the children of Ethiopia gave many presents to Moses, and sent him from them with great honor. So Moses went forth from the land of Ethiopia, and went home and ceased to reign over Ethiopia, and Moses was sixty-six years old when he went out of the land of Ethiopia, for the thing was from the Lord, for the period had arrived which he had appointed in the days of old, to bring forth Is rael from the affliction of the children of Ham.
So Moses went to Midian (former Ethiopian province), for he was afraid to return to Egypt on account of Pharaoh, and he went and sat at a well of water in Midian. And the seven daughters of Reuel (Jethro) the Midianite went out to feed their father’s flock. And they came to the well and drew water to water their father’s flock.
So the shepherds of Midian came and drove them away, and Moses rose up and helped them and watered the flock. And they came home to their father Reuel, and told him what Moses did for them. And they said, An Egyptian man has delivered us from the hands of the shepherds, he drew up water for us and watered the flock.
And Reuel said to his daughters, And where is he? wherefore have you left the man? And Reuel sent for him and fetched him and brought him home, and he ate bread with him. And Moses related to Reuel that he had fled from Egypt and that he reigned forty years over Ethiopia, and that they afterward had taken the government from him, and had sent him away in peace with honor and with presents.
And when Reuel had heard the words of Moses, Reuel said within himself, I will put this man into the prison house, whereby I shall conciliate the children of Ethiopia, for he has fled from them. And they took and put him into the prison house, and Moses was in prison ten years, and whilst Moses was in the prison house, Zipporah the daughter of Reuel took pity over him, and supported him with bread and water all the time.
Kikianus – what a  cool name!
  • The Book of Jasher (Book of The Just/The Upright) belongs to one of the so-called, “Lost books of The Old Testament”, and it is cited in the Bible, in Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18

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Where Are Peace & Love?

Posted by addisethiopia / አዲስ ኢትዮጵያ on March 1, 2009


Lately, everyone is talking  emotionally about Peace, Human Rights, Justice and Democracy, yet, everyone does seem to work against these principles. We have ‘Human Rights’ in a world where humans have less and less rights. We have ‘peace’ in a world that is not peaceful. We have justice in a world that is not just. We even do have anti-racism conferences where the participants are racists.

Everyone can see that the devil is the one who runs the government in so many countries. That’s why so much hatred and wars are present everywhere. How can there be any peace, while The Individual’s inwardness ain’t peaceful?! We see nations at war who also see themselves, ultimately, as part of a “peace process.” They depict war as a temporary interlude to the peace that they feel they are working toward in the only way available to them. Yet, since peace is usually followed by more war, “peace dialogs or processes” inevitably become “war processes. First we build houses, roads and cities, and then we fight against each other and destroy everything we have built – and then we call a cease-fire and bring together a huge amount of money to rebuild what we’ve just destroyed. This obviously looks a child’s game. I really don’t know, whether war is an interlude during peace or peace is an interlude during war.

It has been said that all nations are either preparing for war, at war or recovering from war. This is partly because men often think they must go to war in search of peace. The outcome of war usually involves a temporary truce, but always fails to yield permanent peace. This is because men cannot, and will never, find the way to peace on their own. They have no chance to solve the problem of achieving world peace. Governments will continue promoting war and genocide over and over again, till The Kingdom of God come.

We humans need to care for each other if we would like to minimize the damages that we inflict on the well-being of our own societies. If we care for each other, unite and do things like God intended us to be, living in love, and peace, and it did please God, there will be no more sufferings and diseases — everyone will be healed. Without God man will destroy everything. We can see this happening now, unless we choose to keep our eyes closed.

The most powerful weapon to conquer the evil Devil is humility. For as he does not know at all how to employ it, neither does he know how to defend himself from it.

Our justest fathers, our warm-hearted mothers always suggest a posture of humility, self-sacrifice , love and tolerance.

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